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  • 1. ATTRIB displays or changes file attributesCHDIR or CD displays the name of the current directory or changes the current directoryCHKDSK checks the status of a disk and displays a status report; it can also fix disk errorsCLS clears the screenCOPY copies one or more files to a destination you specifyDEL deletes the files you specifyDELTREIE deletes a directory and all the files and subdirectories that are in itDIR displays the files and subdirectories that are in the directory you specify copies the entire contents of one floppy disk to another floppy disk. It writesDISKCOPY over the existing contents of the destination disk as it copies the new information on it.ECHO displays or hides the text in batch programs when the program is running. starts MS-DOS Editor, a text editor you can use to create and edit ASCII textEDIT files.DEL or deletes the files you specifyERASE quits the MS-DOS command interpreter and returns to the program that startedEXIT it, if one exists. displays a list of all MS-DOS 6 commands and gives a short explanation ofFASTHELP each.FIND searches for a specific string of text in a file or filesFORMAT formats a disk for use with MS-DOSHELP starts MS-DOS HelpMKDIR or creates a directoryMDMEM displays the amount of used and free memory on your computerMORE displays one screen of output at a timeMOVE moves one or more files to the location you specifyMSBACKUP backs up or restores one or more files from one disk onto anotherMSD Provides technical information about your computerPRINT prints a text file while you are using other MS-DOS commandsQBASIC starts MS-DOS QbasicRD or deletes a directory
  • 2. RMDIRREN changes the name of the file or files you specifyRMDIR or deletes a directoryRD starts a disk analysis and repair tool that checks a drive for errors and correctsSCANDISK any problems that it finds.TREIE graphicaly displays the structure of a directoryUNDELETE restores files that were deleted previously by using the DEL commandVER displays the MS-DOS version numberXCOPY copies directories , their subdirectories, and files except hidden and system files.For the syntax and more details type at the MS-DOS prompt : DOS Command Index Information about all current DOS commands From the book DOS the Easy Way by Everett Murdock Ph.D. CLICK HERE for information about downloading the book DOS the Easy Way.Click on a command name for complete information about that command and examples of itsuse.ATTRIB(External)ATTRIB [d:][path]filename [/S]ATTRIB [+R|-R] [+A|-A] [+S|-S] [+H|-H] [d:][path]filename [/S]Sets or displays the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of a file or directory.
  • 3. BREAK(Internal)About breakBreak can be used to enable or disable the breaking capability of the computer. For example, if auser wanted to cancel a batch file or another MS-DOS processes, that user could simply pressCTRL + C (break), which would then prompt the user if they wish to cancel the current process.Turning break off will cancel CTRL + C; however, the user will still be able to press CTRL +PAUSE/BREAK and have the capability of getting out of a batch file / current running process.Note: Newer versions of Windows (Windows ME, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and higher)only include this command for backwards compatibility and turning the break off has no effect.The break command is an an internal command and is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.Used from the DOS prompt or in a batch file or in the CONFIG.SYS file to set (or display) whether or notAvailabilityAll Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxSets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.BREAK [ON | OFF]Type BREAK without a parameter to display the current BREAK setting.Examples
  • 4. break onTurns on the break, which allows the Ctrl + C function.break offTurns off the break, not allowing Ctrl + C to cancel a process.CHDIR(Internal)About chdirChdir (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS.Displays working (current) directory and/or changes to a different directory.AvailabilityThe chdir command is an internal command and is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxCHDIR [drive:][path]CHDIR[..]
  • 5. CD [drive:][path]CD[..]ExampleschdirGoes to the highest level, the root of the drive.chdir..Goes back one directory. For example, if you are within the C:WindowsCOMMAND>directory, this would take you to C:Windows>Windows 95, Windows 98 and later versions of windows allow you to go back more than onedirectory by using three or more dots. For example, typing chdir... with three dots after the cdwould take you back two directories.cdhdir windowsIf present, would take you into the Windows directory. Windows can be substituted with anyother name.CHKDSK(External)About chkdskChkdsk is a utility that checks the computers hard disk drives status for any cross-linked or anyadditional errors with the hard disk drive.MS-DOS versions 2.x - 4.x used chkdsk.com,MS-DOS versions 5.x and beyond used chkdsk.exe.AvailabilityThe chkdsk command is an external command and is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.
  • 6. All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxChecks a disk and provides a file and memory status report.CHKDSK [volume[[path]filename]]] [/F] [/V] [/R] [/X] [/I] [/C] [/L[:size]]volume Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume name.filename FAT only: Specifies the files to check for fragmentation./F Fixes errors on the disk./V On FAT/FAT32: Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk./R Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information (implies /F). NTFS only: Changes the log file size to the specified number of kilobytes. If size is not/L:size specified, displays current size. Forces the volume to dismount first if necessary. All opened handles to the volume would/X then be invalid (implies /F)./I NTFS only: Performs a less vigorous check of index entries./C NTFS only: Skips checking of cycles within the folder structure.
  • 7. The /I or /C switch reduces the amount of time required to run Chkdsk by skipping certainchecks of the volume.Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows XP users who have NTFS should also consider using theCHKNTFS command.chkdsk [drive:] [/p] | [/r][drive:] Specifies the drive to check./p Check even if the drive is not flagged dirty, bad./r Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information (implies /p).Chkdsk may be used without any parameters, in which case the current drive is checked with noswitches. You can specify the listed switches.ExampleschkdskWill display all information described above and also report any crossed linked files.chkdsk /fWill fix any crossed linked files; however, do not run this command while you are inWindows95 or Windows 3.xCLS (Clear Screen)(Internal)CLSClears (erases) the screen.
  • 8. COPY(Internal)About copyAllows the user to copy one or more files to an alternate location.Copies and appends files.AvailabilityThe copy command is an internal command and is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxCopies one or more files to another location.COPY [/A | /B] source [/A | /B] [+ source [/A | /B] [+ ...]] [destination] [/A | /B]] [/V] [/Y | /-Y]source Specifies the file or files to be copied./A Indicates an ASCII text file./B Indicates a binary file.
  • 9. destination Specifies the directory and/or filename for the new file(s)./V Verifies that new files are written correctly./Y Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file./-Y Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file.The switch /Y may be preset in the COPYCMD environment variable. This may be overriddenwith /-Y on the command line.To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files for source (usingwildcards or file1+file2+file3 format).Examplescopy *.* a:Copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk drive.copy autoexec.bat c:windowsCopy the autoexec.bat, usually found at root, and copy it into the windows directory; theautoexec.bat can be substituted for any file(s).copy win.ini c:windows /yCopy the win.ini file in the current directory to the windows directory. Because this file alreadyexists in the windows directory it normally would prompt if you wish to overwrite the file.However, with the /y switch you will not receive any prompt.copy myfile1.txt+myfile2.txtCopy the contents in myfile2.txt and combines it with the contents in myfile1.txt.copy con test.txtFinally, a user can create a file using the copy con command as shown above, which creates thetest.txt file. Once the above command has been typed in, a user could type in whatever he or she
  • 10. wishes. When you have completed creating the file, you can save and exit the file by pressingCTRL+Z, which would create ^Z, and then press enter. An easier way to view and edit files inMS-DOS would be to use the edit command.DATE(Internal)About dateThe date command can be used to look at the current date of the computer as well as change thedate to an alternate date.AvailabilityThe date command is an internal command and is available inMS-DOS 5.0 and aboveWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxDisplays or sets the date.DATE [date]Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting anda prompt for a new one. Press ENTER to keep the same date.Examplesdate
  • 11. Display the current date and prompt for a new one. If no date is entered, the current date will bekept.DEL (ERASE)(Internal)About delDel is a command used to delete files from the computer.Deletes (erases) files from disk.AvailabilityThe del command is an internal command and is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.All versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxDEL [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] namesERASE [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] namesnames Specifies a list of one or more files or directories. Wildcards may be used to delete multiple files. If a directory is specified, all files within the directory will be deleted./P Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file./F Force deleting of read-only files.
  • 12. /S Delete specified files from all subdirectories./Q Quiet mode, do not ask if ok to delete on global wildcard/A Selects files to delete based on attributesattributes R Read-only files S System files H Hidden files A Files ready for archiving - Prefix meaning notExamplesNotice: Users who are running Microsoft Windows 95 and are used to deleted items going to therecycle bin need to keep in mind that deleting files from MS-DOS does not send files to therecycle bin.del test.tmp = Deletes the test.tmp in the directory that you currently are in, if the file exists.del c:windowstest.tmp = Delete the c:windowstest.tmp in the windows directory if it exists.del c:windowstemp*.* = (* is for wild character(s)) *.* indicates that you would like to deleteall files in the c:windowstemp directory.del c:windowstemp?est.tmp = (? is a single wild character for one letter) This commandwould delete any file ending with est.tmp such as pest.tmp or zest.tmp...DIR(Internal)About dirThe dir command allows you to see the available files in the current and/or parent directories.AvailabilityThe dir command is an internal command and is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.All versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NT
  • 13. Windows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxDIR [drive:][path][filename] [/A[[:]attributes]] [/B] [/C] [/D] [/L] [/N] [/O[[:]sortorder]] [/P] [/Q][/S] [/T[[:]timefield]] [/W] [/X] [/4][drive:][path][filename] Specifies drive, directory, and/or files to list.attributes D Directories R Read-only files H Hidden files A Files ready for archiving S System files - Prefix meaning not/B Uses bare format (no heading information or summary)./C Display the thousand separator in file sizes. This is the default. Use /-C to disable display of separator./D Same as wide but files are list sorted by column./L Uses lowercase./N New long list format where filenames are on the far right./O List by files in sorted order.sortorder N By name (alphabetic) S By size (smallest first) E By extension (alphabetic) D By date/time (oldest first) G Group directories first - Prefix to reverse order/P Pauses after each screenful of information./Q Display the owner of the file./S Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories.
  • 14. /T Controls which time field displayed or used for sortingtimefield C Creation A Last Access W Last Written/W Uses wide list format./X This displays the short names generated for non-8dot3 file names. The format is that of /N with the short name inserted before the long name. If no short name is present, blanks are displayed in its place./4 Displays four-digit yearsExamplesdirLists all files and directories in the directory that you are currently in.dir *.exeThe above command lists any executable file or any file that ends with .exe. See our wildcarddefinition for other wildcard (e.g. *) examples.dir /adList only the directories in the current directory. If you need to move into one of the directorieslisted use the cd command.dir /sLists the files in the directory that you are in and all sub directories after that directory, if you areat root "C:>" and type this command this will list to you every file and directory on the C: driveof the computer.dir /p
  • 15. If the directory has a lot of files and you cannot read all the files as they scroll by, you can usethis command and it will display all files one page at a time.dir /wIf you dont need the info on the date / time and other information on the files, you can use thiscommand to list just the files and directories going horizontally, taking as little as space needed.dir /s /w /pThis would list all the files and directories in the current directory and the sub directories afterthat, in wide format and one page at a time.dir /onList the files in alphabetical order by the names of the files.dir /o-nList the files in reverse alphabetical order by the names of the files.dir /s |find "i" |moreA nice command to list all directories on the hard drive, one screen page at a time, and see thenumber of files in each directory and the amount of space each occupies.dir > myfile.txtTakes the output of dir and re-routes it to the file myfile.txt instead of outputting it to the screen.DISKCOMP(External)About diskcompCompares the contents of a floppy disk in the source drive to the contents of a floppy disk in thetarget drive.
  • 16. This command was not included with Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows ME.However, if you upgraded Windows 95 from Windows 3.x, this file would still be available.AvailabilityThe diskcomp.com command is an external command and is available in the below Microsoftoperating systems.MS-DOS 1.0 to 6.22Windows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxDISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]]ExamplesDISKCOMP A: B: /1Compares the first side of A: with B:DISKCOPY(External)About diskcopyThe diskcopy utility allows a user to copy the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette.It is not recommended that the diskcopy command be used for anything but a floppy diskette.AvailabilityThe diskcopy.com is an external command that is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.
  • 17. All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxCopies the contents of one floppy disk to another.DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M]/1 Copies only the first side of the disk./V Verifies that the information is copied correctly./M Force multi-pass copy using memory only.The two floppy disks must be the same type.You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2.Examplesdiskcopy a:This would make a copy of the disk that is currently in your drive.Makes an exact copy of a diskette.
  • 18. DOSKEY(External)About doskeyDoskey is a MS-DOS utility that allows a user to keep a history of commands used on thecomputer. This allows frequently used commands to be used without having to type thecommands in each time you need to use it.AvailabilityThe doskey.exe command is an external command and is available in the below Microsoftoperating systems.MS-DOS 5.0 and aboveWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxEdits command lines, recalls command lines, and creates macrosDOSKEY [/switch ...] [macroname=[text]]/BUFSIZE:size Sets size of macro and command buffer (default:512)/ECHO:on|off nables/disables echo of macro expansions (default:on)/FILE:file Specifies file containing a list of macros
  • 19. /HISTORY Displays all commands stored in memory/INSERT Inserts new characters into line when typing/KEYSIZE:size Sets size of keyboard type-ahead buffer (default:15)/LINE:size Sets maximum size of line edit buffer (default:128)/MACROS Displays all DOSKey macros/OVERSTRIKE Overwrites new characters onto line when typing (default)/REINSTALL Installs a new copy of DOSKeymacroname Specifies a name for a macro you createtext Specifies commands you want to assign to the macroUP,DOWN arrows recall commandsEsc clears current commandF7 displays command historyAlt+F7 clears command history[chars]F8 searches for command beginning with [chars]F9 selects a command by numberAlt+F10 clears macro definitionsBelow are special codes you can use in DOSKey macro definitions.
  • 20. $T Command separator: allows multiple commands in a macro$1-$9 Batch parameters: equivalent to %1-%9 in batch programs$* Symbol replaced by everything following macro name on the command lineExamplesdoskeyStarts doskey and allows you to press the up or down command to see history, or right or left toretype previous command.Loads the Doskey program into memory which can be used to recall DOS commands so that you can editthem.ECHO(Internal)About echoEcho is used to repeat the text typed in back to the screen and/or can be used to echo to aperipheral on the computer, such as a COM port.AvailabilityThe echo command is an internal command that is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XP
  • 21. Windows VistaWindows 7SyntaxDisplays messages, or turns command-echoing on or off.ECHO [ON | OFF]ECHO [message]Type ECHO without parameters to display the current echo setting.ExamplesEcho ata > com1Depending if your modem was on com1, this would make the modem try responding and youshould hear some squealing from the modem. To stop the squealing, just typ echo atz > com1.Echo echo this is a test > test.batThis would put in the file test.bat echo this is a test, then when ever you would type in test, itwould type in echo this is a test.Echo testing the echo stringThis would type on your screen, testing the echo string, and then take you back to the prompt.EXIT(Internal)About exitThe exit command is used to withdrawal from the currently running application and/or the MS-DOS session.AvailabilityThe exit command is an internal command and is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.
  • 22. All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxQuits the COMMAND.COM program (command interpreter).EXITExamplesExit When in another command interpreter, would exit you out of the new command interpreter into the original. When entering DOS from Windows, would return you to Windows. If in the recovery console, would exit the recovery console and reboot the computer.FC(External)About fcFC, or file compare, is used to compare two files against each other. Once completed, fc willreturn lines that differ between the two files. If no lines differ, you will receive a messageindicating no differences encountered.Displays the differences between two files or sets of files.
  • 23. AvailabilityThe fc.exe is an external command that is available in the below Microsoft operating systems.MS-DOS 3.3x and aboveWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxCompares two files or sets of files and displays the differences between them.FC [/A] [/C] [/L] [/LBn] [/N] [/T] [/W] [/nnnn] [drive1:][path1]filename1[drive2:][path2]filename2FC /B [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2/A Displays only first and last lines for each set of differences./B Performs a binary comparison./C Disregards the case of letters./L Compares files as ASCII text./LBn Sets the maximum consecutive mismatches to the specified number of lines./N Displays the line numbers on an ASCII comparison./T Does not expand tabs to spaces./W Compresses white space (tabs and spaces) for comparison.
  • 24. /nnnn Specifies the number of consecutive lines that must match after a mismatch.[drive1:][path1]filename1 Specifies the first file or set of files to compare.[drive2:][path2]filename2 Specifies the second file or set of files to compare.Examplesfc c:autoexec.bat c:config.sysGive a file comparison between the the config.sys and the autoexec.bat in the current directory.fc c:autoexec.bat c:config.sys /bGive a file comparison between the the config.sys and the autoexec.bat in the current directory inbinary format.FIND(External)About findAllows you to search for text within a file. Although MS-DOS itself is not case sensitive, whentyping in the string that you are looking for with the find command, it is case sensitive.Additionally, this command is used to find text within a file, not the actual file itself. If you arewanting to search or find a file with a particular name, use the dir command.Users who are running Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP should also consider using theimproved findstr command.Availability
  • 25. The find command is an external command that is available in the below Microsoft operatingsystems.All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7SyntaxSearches for a text string in a file or files.FIND [/V] [/C] [/N] [/I] "string" [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]]/V Displays all lines NOT containing the specified string./C Displays only the count of lines containing the string./N Displays line numbers with the displayed lines./I Ignores the case of characters when searching for the string."string" Specifies the text string to find.[drive:][path]filename Specifies a file or files to search.If a pathname is not specified, FIND searches the text typed at the prompt or piped from anothercommand.Examplesfind /c "REM" c:autoexec.bat
  • 26. The above example would find any "REM" statement in the autoexec.bat.find /v /c "&*fake&*" programs.txtList each line not containing "&*fake&*", because its very unlikely any file would contain thisstring of text this would give you an accurate line count of the file.find "hope" *.txtNext this example searches for any text file (.txt) that contains the text hope in the currentdirectory. Below is an example of the output you may see. As can be seen from the belowexample the only file that contains hope is the CH.TXT file.---------- ACTIVE SETUP LOG.TXT---------- CH.TXTcomputer hope---------- MODEMDET.TXT---------- OEWABLOG.TXT---------- SCHEDLGU.TXT---------- SETUPLOG.TXTFinds and reports the location of a specific string of text characters in one or more files.FORMAT(External)About formatFormat is used to erase all of the information off of a computer diskette or fixed drive.Formats a disk to accept DOS files.
  • 27. AvailabilityThe format.com command is an external command that is available in the below Microsoftoperating systems.All Versions of MS-DOSWindows 95Windows 98Windows MEWindows NTWindows 2000Windows XPWindows VistaWindows 7Syntaxformat [drive:] [/q] [/fs:file-system]drive: Specifies the drive to format./q Performs a quick format./fs:file-system Specifies the file system to use (FAT, FAT32, or NTFS)ExamplesWhen using the format command, remember all information on the drive you wish to format willbe completely erased.format a:Would erase all the contents off a disk. Commonly used on a diskette that has not been formattedor on a diskette you wish to erase.format a: /qQuickly erases all the contents of a floppy diskette. Commonly used to quickly erase allinformation on the diskette.
  • 28. format c:This would erase all the contents of your C: hard disk drive. In other words, unless you wish toerase all your computers information, this command should not be done unless youre planningto start over.Additional informationGRAFTABL(External)GRAFTABL [(code page)]GRAFTABL [status]Loads a table of character data into memory (for use with a color/graphics adapter).GRAPHICS(External)GRAPHICS [printer type][profile] [/B][/R][/LCD][/PB:(id)] [/C][/F][/P(port)]Provides a way to print contents of a graphics screen display.HELP(External)HELP [command] [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI]Displays information about a DOS command.IF(Internal)IF [NOT] EXIST filename (command) [parameters]IF [NOT] (string1)==(string2) (command) [parameters]IF [NOT] ERRORLEVEL (number) (command) [parameters]
  • 29. Allows for conditional operations in batch processing.INCLUDE(Internal)INCLUDE= blocknameUsed in the CONFIG.SYS file to allow you to use the commands from one CONFIG.SYS block withinanother.INSTALL(Internal)INSTALL=[d: ][path]filename [parameters]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to load memory-resident programs into conventional memory.INTERLINK(External)INTERLINK [client[:]=[server][:]]Connects two computers via parallel or serial ports so that the computers can share disks and printerports.INTERSVR(External)INTERSVR [d:][...][/X=d:][...] [/LPT:[n|address]] [/COM:[n|address]][/baud:rate] [/B][/V]INTERSVR /RCOPYStarts the Interlink server.JOIN(External)JOIN d: [d:path]JOIN d: [/D]
  • 30. Allows access to the directory structure and files of a drive through a directory on a different drive.KEYB(External)KEYB [xx][,][yyy][,][d:][path]filename [/E][/ID:(number)]Loads a program that replaces the support program for U. S. keyboards.LABEL(External)LABEL [d:][volume label]Creates or changes or deletes a volume label for a disk.LASTDRIVE(Internal)LASTDRIVE=(drive letter)Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the maximum number of drives that can be accessed.LOADFIX(Internal)LOADFIX [d:][path]filename [parameters]Ensures that a program is loaded above the first 64K of conventional memory, and runs the program.LOADHIGH(Internal)LOADHIGH (LH) [d:][path]filename [parameters]Loads memory resident application into reserved area of memory (between 640K-1M).
  • 31. MEM(External)MEM [/program|/debug|/classify|/free|/module(name)] [/page]Displays amount of installed and available memory, including extended, expanded, and upper memory.MEMMAKER(External)MEMMAKER [/B][/batch][/session][/swap:d] [/T][/undo][/W:size1,size2]Starts the MemMaker program, a program that lets you optimize your computers memory.MENUCOLOR(Internal)MENUCOLOR=textcolor,[background]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the colors that will be used by DOS to display text on the screen.MENUDEFAULT(Internal)MENUDEFAULT=blockname, [timeout]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the startup configuration that will be used by DOS if no key is pressedwithin the specified timeout period.MENUITEM(Internal)MENUITEM=blockname, [menutext]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to create a start-up menu from which you can select a group of CONFIG.SYScommands to be processed upon reboot.
  • 32. MIRROR(External)MIRROR [d:]path [d:] path [...]MIRROR [d1:][d2:][...] [/T(drive)(files)] [/partn][/U][/1]Saves disk storage information that can be used to recover accidentally erased files.MKDIR(MD) (Internal)MKDIR (MD) [d:]pathCreates a new subdirectory.MODE(External)MODE nMODE LPT#[:][n][,][m][,][P][retry]MODE [n],m[,T]MODE (displaytype,linetotal)MODE COMn[:]baud[,][parity][,][databits][,][stopbits][,][retry]MODE LPT#[:]=COMn [retry]MODE CON[RATE=(number)][DELAY=(number)]MODE (device) CODEPAGE PREPARE=(codepage) [d:][path]filenameMODE (device) CODEPAGE PREPARE=(codepage list) [d:][path]filenameMODE (device) CODEPAGE SELECT=(codepage)MODE (device) CODEPAGE [/STATUS]MODE (device) CODEPAGE REFRESHSets mode of operation for devices or communications.MORE(External)MORE < (filename or command)(name)|MORE
  • 33. Sends output to console, one screen at a time.MOVE(Internal)MOVE [/Y|/-Y] [d:][path]filename[,[d:][path]filename[...]] destinationMoves one or more files to the location you specify. Can also be used to rename directories.MSAV(External)MSAV [d:] [/S|/C][/R][/A][/L][/N][/P][/F][/video][/mouse]MSAV /videoScans your computer for known viruses.MSBACKUP(External)MSBACKUP [setupfile] [/BW|/LCD|/MDA]Used to backup or restore one or more files from one disk to another.MSCDEX(External)MSCDEX /D:driver [/D:driver2. . .] [/E][/K][/S][/V][/L:letter] [/M:number]Used to gain access to CD-ROM drives (new with DOS Version 6).
  • 34. MSD(External)MSD [/B][/I]MSD [/I] [/F[d:][path]filename [/P[d:][path]filename [/S[d:][path]filenameProvides detailed technical information about your computer.NLSFUNC(External)NLSFUNC [d:][path]filenameUsed to load a file with country-specific information.NUMLOCK(Internal)NUMLOCK=on|offUsed in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the state of the NumLock key.PATH(Internal)PATH;PATH [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]Sets or displays directories that will be searched for programs not in the current directory.PAUSE(Internal)PAUSE [comment]
  • 35. Suspends execution of a batch file until a key is pressed.POWER(External)POWER [adv:max|reg|min]|std|off]Used to turn power management on and off, report the status of power management, and set levels ofpower conservation.PRINT(External)PRINT [/B:(buffersize)] [/D:(device)] [/M:(maxtick)] [/Q:(value] [/S:(timeslice)][/U:(busytick)] [/C][/P][/T][d:][path][filename] [...]Queues and prints data files.PROMPT(Internal)PROMPT [prompt text] [options]Changes the DOS command prompt.RECOVER(External)RECOVER [d:][path]filenameRECOVER d:Resolves sector problems on a file or a disk. (Beginning with DOS Version 6, RECOVER is no longeravailable ).
  • 36. REM(Internal)REM [comment]Used in batch files and in the CONFIG.SYS file to insert remarks (that will not be acted on).RENAME (REN)(Internal)RENAME (REN) [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filenameChanges the filename under which a file is stored.REPLACE(External)REPLACE [d:][path]filename [d:][path] [/A][/P][/R][/S][/U][/W]Replaces stored files with files of the same name from a different storage location.RESTORE(External)RESTORE d: [d:][path]filename [/P][/S][/B:mm-dd-yy] [/A:mm-dd-yy][/E:hh:mm:ss] [/L:hh:mm:ss][/M][/N][/D]Restores to standard disk storage format files previously stored using the BACKUP command.RMDIR (RD)(Internal)RMDIR (RD) [d:]path
  • 37. Removes a subdirectory.SCANDISK(External)SCANDISK [d: [d: . . .]|/all][/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/surface][/mono][/nosummay]SCANDISK volume-name[/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/mono][/nosummary]SCANDISK /fragment [d:][path]filenameSCANDISK /undo [undo-d:][/mono]Starts the Microsoft ScanDisk program which is a disk analysis and repair tool used to check a drive forerrors and correct any problems that it finds.SELECT(External)SELECT [d:] [d:][path] [country code][keyboard code]Formats a disk and installs country-specific information and keyboard codes (starting with DOS Version6, this command is no longer available).SET(Internal)SET (string1)=(string2)Inserts strings into the command environment. The set values can be used later by programs.SETVER(External)SETVER [d:]:path][filename (number)][/delete][/quiet]Displays the version table and sets the version of DOS that is reported to programs.
  • 38. SHARE(External)SHARE [/F:space] [/L:locks]Installs support for file sharing and file locking.SHELL(Internal)SHELL=[d:][path]filename [parameters]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the command interpreter that DOS should use.SHIFT(Internal)SHIFTIncreases number of replaceable parameters to more than the standard ten for use in batch files.SORT(External)SORT [/R][/+n] < (filename)SORT [/R][/+n] > (filename2)Sorts input and sends it to the screen or to a file.STACKS(Internal)STACKS=(number),(size)
  • 39. Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the number of stack frames and the size of each stack frame.SUBMENU(Internal)SUBMENU=blockname, [menutext]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to create a multilevel menu from which you can select start-up options.SUBST(External)SUBST d: d:pathSUBST d: /DSubstitutes a virtual drive letter for a path designation.SWITCHES(Internal)SWITCHES= [/K][/F][/N][/W]Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to configure DOS in a special way; for example, to tell DOS to emulatedifferent hardware configurations.SYS(External)SYS [source] d:Transfers the operating system files to another disk.
  • 40. TIME(Internal)TIME hh:mm[:ss][.cc][A|P]Displays current time setting of system clock and provides a way for you to reset the time.TREE(External)TREE [d:][path] [/A][/F]Displays directory paths and (optionally) files in each subdirectory.TYPE(Internal)TYPE [d:][path]filenameDisplays the contents of a file.UNDELETE(External)UNDELETE [d:][path][filename] [/DT|/DS|/DOS]UNDELETE [/list|/all|/purge[d:]|/status|/load|/U|/S[d:]|/Td:[-entries]]Restores files deleted with the DELETE command.UNFORMAT(External)UNFORMAT d: [/J][/L][/test][/partn][/P][/U]
  • 41. Used to undo the effects of formatting a disk.VER(Internal)VERDisplays the DOS version number.VERIFY(Internal)VERIFY on|offTurns on the verify mode; the program checks all copying operations to assure that files are copiedcorrectly.VOL(Internal)VOL [d:]Displays a disks volume label.VSAFE(External)VSAFE [/option[+|-]...] [/NE][/NX][Ax|/Cx] [/N][/D][/U]VSAFE is a memory-resident program that continuously monitors your computer for viruses and displaysa warning when it finds one.
  • 42. XCOPY(External)XCOPY [d:][path]filename [d:][path][filename] [/A][/D:(date)] [/E][/M][/P][/S][/V][/W][Y-Y]Copies directories, subdirectories, and files.List of DOS commandsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Guide to Windows CommandsContents[hide] 1 Resident and transient commands 2 Command line arguments 3 Windows command prompt o 3.1 Command line help 4 Commands o 4.1 append o 4.2 assign o 4.3 attrib o 4.4 backup and restore o 4.5 BASIC and BASICA o 4.6 Call o 4.7 cd or chdir o 4.8 chcp o 4.9 chkdsk o 4.10 choice o 4.11 cls o 4.12 copy o 4.13 ctty
  • 43. o 4.14 defrago 4.15 del or eraseo 4.16 deltreeo 4.17 diro 4.18 echoo 4.19 edito 4.20 edlino 4.21 exe2bino 4.22 exito 4.23 fastopeno 4.24 fc or compo 4.25 fdisko 4.26 findo 4.27 formato 4.28 helpo 4.29 intersvr & interlnko 4.30 joino 4.31 labelo 4.32 loadfixo 4.33 loadhigh, lho 4.34 md or mkdiro 4.35 memo 4.36 memmakero 4.37 modeo 4.38 moreo 4.39 moveo 4.40 msdo 4.41 patho 4.42 pauseo 4.43 pcparko 4.44 printo 4.45 rd or rmdiro 4.46 remo 4.47 reno 4.48 scandisko 4.49 seto 4.50 setvero 4.51 shareo 4.52 smartdriveo 4.53 sorto 4.54 subst
  • 44. o 4.55 sys o 4.56 time and date o 4.57 tree o 4.58 truename o 4.59 type o 4.60 undelete o 4.61 Ver o 4.62 verify o 4.63 xcopy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksIn the personal computer operating systems MS-DOS and PC-DOS, a number of standard systemcommands were provided for common tasks such as listing files on a disk or moving files. Somecommands were built-in to the command interpreter, others existed as transient commandsloaded into memory when required. Over the several generations of MS DOS, commands wereadded for the additional functions of the operating system. In the current Microsoft Windowsoperating system a text-mode command prompt window can still be used. Some DOS commandscarry out functions equivalent to those in a UNIX system but always with differences in detailsof the function.[edit] Resident and transient commandsThe command interpreter for MS DOS runs when no application programs are running; after anapplication exits, if the memory used for the command interpreter was overwritten, MS DOS willre-load the command interpreter from disk storage. The command interpreter is usually stored ina file called "COMMAND.COM". Some commands are built-into COMMAND.COM. When theuser types a line of text at the operating system command prompt, COMMAND.COM will parsethe line, and attempt to match a command name to a built-in command or to the name of anexcecutable program file or batch file on disk. If no match is found, an error message is printedand the command prompt is refreshed.Resident commands varied slightly between revisions of MS DOS. Typically, the functions DIR(list directory), ERASE or DEL (erase a file or directory), COPY (copy files), DATE (display orset date), TIME (display or set time), CD (change working directory), MD (make a directory onthe current disk), REN (rename a file or directory) and some others were resident inCOMMAND.COM.
  • 45. Other programs were too large to keep in the command processor, or were less frequently used.Such utility programs would be stored on disk and loaded just like regular application programs,but were distributed with the operating system. Copies of these utility command programs had tobe on an accessible disk, either on the current logged-in floppy drive or on the command path setin the command interpreter.[edit] Command line argumentsMain article: Command-line interfaceParts of an MS DOS command line, showing a system prompt, command and command linearguments, drive letters, file spec with wildcard character and command line switches.In the list below, when a command can accept more than one filename, or a filename includingwildcards (* and ?), it is said to accept a filespec parameter. Commands that can accept only asingle filename are said to accept a filename parameter. Additionally, zero or more commandline switches, or other parameter strings, can be supplied on the command line. Spaces, andsymbols such as a "/" or a "-" may be used to allow the command processor to parse thecommand line into file names, file specifications, and other options.In DOS commands, unlike Unix, lower-case and capital letters are equivalent for file namespecifiers; DOS commands preserve case, but do not require file specifiers to match case. Oftenparameters or arguments are also independent of case, especially in those programs developedonly for DOS. Utility programs that also have versions running under UNIX-like operatingsystems often use upper and lower case arguments to mean different things. Sometimes a hyphen("-") may be used instead of a slash ("/"); very early versions of DOS made the setting of thedelimiter character a user-controlled option.Commands which are not built into the command interpreter may follow the same conventions.For some commands, a UNIX command with similar functions is given. Comparisons areapproximate. While many commands are the same across many DOS systems (MS-DOS, PC-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, etc.) some differ in command syntax or name.[edit] Windows command promptMicrosoft Windows supports a number of commands which may be invoked by typing them in acommand window; they are usually similar to their MS-DOS equivalents. Typing help followed
  • 46. by a carriage return at a command prompt will list the commands. File and path names used asarguments may be long, unlike MS-DOS 8.3 names, and may contain embedded spaces; nameswith spaces must be enclosed between a pair of double-quote characters (").Two command-line interfaces can be used in current versions of Microsoft Windows, providingaccess to the functions of the MS-DOS commands. The old DOS command.com interpreter issimilar to that used by the original DOS systems. Since this 16-bit executable is based on theDOS command.com, it does not support all the extended file name syntax of Windows.Windows applications and other Windows executables can be started. The Windows ConsoleCommand Interpreter, cmd.exe, is a native Windows Process that provides the functionality builtin the old DOS command.com and a much extended syntax to run, invoke commands and othertasks.[edit] Command line helpIn versions 5 of DOS and later, the user can get help by typing help at the shell prompt. To gethelp on a DOS command, the command-line switch /? can be used. For example, to get help forthe xcopy command, type the following at the DOS prompt:xcopy /?The operating system will execute the command and the /? parameter instructs the command todisplay a help page about itself, in this case xcopy. To view this help page, see the xcopy entryon this page.[edit] CommandsA partial list of the most common commands for DOS follows.[edit] appendDisplay or sets the search path for data files. DOS will search the specified path(s) if the file isnot found in the current path. This had some creative uses, such as allowing non-CD basedgames to be run from the CD, with configuration/save files stored on the HD.append;append [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]append [/X:on|off][/E][edit] assignThe command redirects requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive.
  • 47. assign [x[:]=y[:][...]]assign /STATUSOptions: x The drive letter to reassign. y The drive letter that x: will be assigned to. /STATUS Displays the current drive assignments. If typed without parameters then all drive letters are reset to original assignments. The command is available in MS-DOS 5.00.[edit] attrib Change or view the attributes of one or more files. It defaults to displaying the attributes of all files in the current directory.ATTRIB [+R|-R] [+A|-A] [+S|-S] [+H|-H][drive:][path][filename] [/S [/D]]Options: To add an attribute attach a + in front of it. To remove an attribute attach a - in front of it Attributes include o R - Read-only o A - Archive o S - System o H - Hidden o /D - Process folders as well. o /S - Process matching files in the current folder and all subfolders.Note: Everything inside a brace [option] is an optional item. Roughly equivalent to the Unixcommands chattr and lsattr.[edit] backup and restore Programs to back up and restore files from an external disk. These appeared in version 2, and continued to PC-DOS 5 and MS-DOS 6 (PC-DOS 7 had a deversioned check). In DOS 6, these were replaced by commercial programs (CPBACKUP, MSBACKUP), which allowed files to be restored to different locations.
  • 48. [edit] BASIC and BASICA An implementation of the BASIC programming language for PCs. IBM computers had BASIC 1.1 in ROM, and IBMs versions of BASIC used code in this ROM-BASIC, which allowed for extra memory in the code area. BASICA last appeared in IBMDOS 5.02, and in OS/2 (2.0 and later), the version had ROMBASIC moved into the program code. Microsoft released GW-BASIC for machines with no ROM-BASIC. Some OEM releases had basic.com and basica.com as loaders for GW-BASIC.EXE.[edit] Call Calls one batch program from another. A new batch file context is created with the specified arguments and control is passed to the statement after the label specified.Syntax:call [filespec][batch file parameters] filespec: name and if necessary path of the new batch file parameters: switches[edit] cd or chdir Change current working directory. Displays the current working directory when used without a path parameter.cddisplays the current working directory on the current drive.cd directorychanges the working directory on the current drive to directory.chdir e:directorychanges the working directory on E: to directory.cd ..changes the working directory to the parent directory (up one directory level).
  • 49. cd changes the working directory to the root (top level) directory of the current drive. Equivalent to the Unix command cd (with a path parameter), or pwd (without a parameter). cd .. changes to the parent directory.[edit] chcp Changes the code page used to display character glyphs in a console window.chcp [codepage]With a numeric parameter, this command changes the codepage setting to codepage. Without aparameter, the command displays the currently active codepage.[edit] chkdsk Verifies a storage volume (hard disk, partition, floppy disk, flash drive, etc) for file system integrity.Options: /F : Fixes errors on the volume (without /F , chkdsk only detects errors) /P : Forces a full verification /R : Searches for defective sectors and recovers legible information (applies /F) /X : Unmounts the volume before processing if needed. (Note: Unmounting temporarily invalidates all pointers/handlers to the volume until process is completed)chkdsk volume letter: [[path]filename] [/F] [/P] [/R] [/X] Equivalent to the Unix command fsck[edit] choice Allows for batch files to prompt the user to select one item from a set of single-character choices. Introduced in MS-DOS 6;[1] DR-DOS 7.03.[2] Earlier versions of DR-DOS supported this function with the switch command (for numeric choices) or by beginning a command with a question mark.[2][edit] cls Clears the screen.
  • 50. cls Equivalent to the Unix clear.[edit] copy Copies files from one location to another. The destination defaults to the current directory. If multiple source files are indicated, the destination must be a directory, or an error will result. Syntax:copy from [sourcefilename] to [destinationfolder] Files may be copied to devices. For example, copy file lpt1 sends the file to the printer on LPT1. copy file con outputs file to the screen ("console"), which can also be done using type file. Devices themselves may be copied: copy con file takes the text typed into the console and puts it into file, stopping when EOF (Ctrl+Z) is typed. Files may be concatenated using +. For example, copy file1+file2 file_cat will concatenate the files and output them as file_cat. There are two switches to modify the commands behaviour, /a (text mode, the default) and /b (binary mode). In text mode, copy will stop when it reaches the EOF character; in binary mode, the files will be concatenated in their entirety, ignoring EOF characters. Examples of usage:copy /a alpha.txt + beta.txt gamma.txtcopy /b alpha.mpg + beta.mpg gamma.mpg Equivalent Unix commands are cp (for copying) and cat (for concatenation). Device files may be copied in Unix as well, e.g. cp file /dev/tty will display a file on the screen (but cat file is more commonly used here). Equivalent RT-11/RSX-11/OpenVMS command is copy. Examples of usage:copy con filename.extensionEverything typed at the console is sent to the file, until a control Z character is typed.[edit] ctty Defines the device to use for input and output. Syntax:ctty device device: The terminal device to be used. Example of usage:ctty COM1hello
  • 51. [edit] defrag(in MS/PC-DOS; diskopt in DR-DOS) Defragments a disk drive. Options: -A – Analyses the fragmentation of a disk drive -F – Force defragmentation even if disk space is low -V – Verbose output mode -H – Defrag hidden files Example of usage:defrag driveletter: -a -v No Unix equivalent.[edit] del or erase Deletes one or more files.This command is used to delete a particular or more files.Syntax:del filenameerase filenameOptions*.* All files in current folder*.* /s all files in current folder and sub folders, Equivalent to the Unix command rm. Equivalent in RT-11/RSX-11/OpenVMS operating systems line is delete command which can be contracted to del.[edit] deltree Deletes a directory along with all of the files and subdirectories that it contains. Normally, it will ask for confirmation of such a drastic action.deltree [/y] directory
  • 52. The /y parameter, if present, tells the deltree command to carry out without first prompting forconfirmation.The deltree command is not included in recent Microsoft Windows operating systems.Deleting a non-empty directory in those versions of Windows where the command is notincluded, can be achieved by using the rmdir command as in the following example:rmdir /s [/q] directoryIn Unix, the functionality of deltree is provided by the rm command with the parameter -r (or-rf for the /y switch).[edit] dir Lists the contents of a directory.The dir command typed by itself, displays the disks volume label and serial number; onedirectory or filename per line, including the filename extension, the file size in bytes, and thedate and time the file was last modified; and the total number of files listed, their cumulativesize, and the free space (in bytes) remaining on the disk. The command is one of the fewcommands that exist from the first versions of DOS.dir [drive:][path][filename] [parameters]Most commonly used parameters of dir include: /W : Displays the listing in wide format, with as many as five filenames or directory names on each line. /P : Pause at every page /S : Also look in subdirectories /Axx: Display files with the specified attributes only /Oxx: Modifies sort order /B : Uses bare format (no heading information or summary) > [drive:][path][filename] : To Store Result in a text file;(c:dir > c:fileList.txt) (this is not a parameter, it is output redirection)Possible attributes for the A parameter are D (directories), R (read-only files), H (hidden files), A(files/directories with the archive bit on), and S (system files). The prefix - negates an attribute;attributes can be combined (e.g. /A:DA means directories with the archive bit on).Possible sort orders are N (name), S (size), E (extension), D (date and time), A (last access date),and G (group directories first). The prefix - reverses the order.
  • 53. Other less commonly used parameters of dir include: /D : Display wide format but sorted by column /L : Display forced into lowercase /N : Display forced into long file name format instead of 8.3 /Q : Displays the owner of each file /X : Display shows 8.3 names next to long file namesThe default parameters of dir can be set using the DIRCMD environment variable.Equivalent to the Unix command ls (the option -l is "long" list format, it works the oppositeway from /w.)Equivalent in RT-11/RSX-11/OpenVMS operating systems line is directory command whichcan be contracted to dir.[edit] echo Prints its own arguments back out to the DOS equivalent of the standard output stream. Usually, this means directly to the screen, but the output of echo can be redirected like any other command. Often used in batch files to print text out to the user.echo this is text Outputs this is textecho. Outputs a blank line Another important use of the echo command is to toggle echoing of commands on and off in batch files.echo on turns on echoing of commandsecho off turns off echoing of commands Traditionally batch files begin with the @echo off statement. This says to the interpreter that echoing of commands should be off during the whole execution of the batch file thus resulting in a "tidier" output. The @ symbol declares that this particular command (echo off) should also be executed without echo. For example the following 2 batch files are equivalent: Batch1.bat:@echo offecho The files in your root directory:dir /b /a-d c: Batch2.bat:@echo The files in your root directory:@dir /b /a-d c: Echo can be used to write to files directly from the console, by redirecting the output stream:echo text > filename Echo can also be used to append to files directly from the console, again by redirecting the output stream:
  • 54. echo text >> filename To type more than one line from the console into a file, use copy con (above). Equivalent to the Unix command echo.[edit] edit Full-screen text editor, included with MS-DOS 5 and 6, OS/2 and Windows NT to 4.0 Windows 95 and later, and W2k and later use Edit v 2.0 PC-DOS 6 and later use the DOS E Editor. DR-DOS used editor up to version 7.[edit] edlin DOS line-editor. It can be used with a script file, like debug, this makes it of some use even today. The absence of a console editor in MS/PC-DOS 1-4 created an after-market for third-party editors. In DOS 5, an extra command "?" was added to give the user much needed help. DOS 6 was the last version to contain EDLIN, for MS-DOS 6, its on the supplemental disks, PC-DOS 6 had it in the base install. Windows NT 32-bit, and OS/2 have Edlin.[edit] exe2bin Converts an executable (.exe) file into a binary file with the extension .com, which is a memory image of the program. The size of the resident code and data sections combined in the input .exe file must be less than 64KB. The file must also have no stack segment.[edit] exit Exits the current command processor. If the exit is used at the primary command, it has no effect unless in a DOS window under Microsoft Windows, in which case the window is closed and the user returns to the desktop.exit [/B] /B When used within a batch script, exits the script without closing thecalling DOS window Exit also exists in Unix-shells. If an exit command is used in the primary command shell under Unix, however, it will logoff the user, similar to the control-D keystroke.[edit] fastopenMain article: FASTOPEN
  • 55. [edit] fc or comp Compares two files or sets of files and displays the differences between them.FC [/A] [/C] [/L] [/LBn] [/N] [/T] [/W] [/nnnn] [drive1:][path1]filename1[drive2:][path2]filename2FC /B [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2 /A Displays only first and last lines for each set of differences. /B Performs a binary comparison. /C Disregards the case of letters. /L Compares files as ASCII text. /LBn Sets the maximum consecutive mismatches to the specified number oflines. /N Displays the line numbers on an ASCII comparison. /T Does not expand tabs to spaces. /W Compresses white space (tabs and spaces) for comparison. /nnnn Specifies the number of consecutive lines that must match after amismatch. [drive1:][path1]filename1 Specifies the first file or set of files tocompare. [drive2:][path2]filename2 Specifies the second file or set of files tocompare.[citation needed] Equivalent to the Unix commands comm, cmp and diff.[edit] fdisk Manipulates hard disk partition tables. The name derives from IBMs habit of calling hard drives fixed disks. When run from the command line, it displays a menu of various partitioning operations: 1. Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drive 2. Set active partition 3. Delete partition or Logical DOS Drive 4. Display partition information 5. Change current fixed disk drive (only available if the computer has morethan one hard drive) FDISK /MBR installs a standard master boot record on the hard drive. FDISK /MBR #: where # is other partition on system. Completes above command on indicated partition. e.g.: "C:FDISK /MBR D:" would install boot record on D:partition. Fdisk exists under Unix with the same name, but it is an entirely different program. However they share purposes.[edit] find A filter to find lines in the input data stream that contain or dont contain a specified string and send these to the output data stream.
  • 56. Find may also be used as a pipe.find "keyword" < inputfilename > outputfilenameSearches for a text string in a file or files.FIND [/V] [/C] [/N] [/I] "string" [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]] /V Displays all lines NOT containing the specified string. /C Displays only the count of lines containing the string. /N Displays line numbers with the displayed lines. /I Ignores the case of characters when searching for the string. "string" Specifies the text string to find. [drive:][path]filename Specifies a file or files to search.If a pathname is not specified, FIND searches the text typed at the promptor piped from another command. Equivalent to the Unix command grep. The Unix command find performs an entirely different function analogous to dir /s.[edit] format Delete all the files on the disk and reformat it for MS-DOS In most cases, this should only be used on floppy drives or other removable media. This command can potentially erase everything on a computers hard disk. /autotest and /backup are undocumented features. Both will format the drive without a confirmation prompt.format [options] driveFORMAT drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/F:size] [/B | /S] [/C]FORMAT drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/T:tracks /N:sectors] [/B | /S] [/C]FORMAT drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/1] [/4] [/B | /S] [/C]FORMAT drive: [/Q] [/1] [/4] [/8] [/B | /S] [/C] /V[:label] Specifies the volume label. /Q Performs a quick format. /F:size Specifies the size of the floppy disk to format (such as 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88). /B Allocates space on the formatted disk for system files. /S Copies system files to the formatted disk. /T:tracks Specifies the number of tracks per disk side. /N:sectors Specifies the number of sectors per track. /1 Formats a single side of a floppy disk. /4 Formats a 5.25-inch 360K floppy disk in a high-density drive. /8 Formats eight sectors per track. /C Tests clusters that are currently marked "bad." There is also an undocumented /u parameter for "unconditional" that will write strings of zeros on every sector. This is now an official switch in Windows Vista and 7 but with the parameter /p instead. Equivalent to the Unix command mkfs.
  • 57. Equivalent in RT-11/RSX-11/OpenVMS operating systems line is format command which can not create filesystem. After formatting one should use initialize (contracted to init) command to create filesystem (Equivalent to MS-DOS command format /q or "quick format").[edit] help Gives help about DOS. MS-DOS help command would give help on a specific command. By itself, it lists the contents of DOSHELP.HLP. Help for a specific command invokes the command with the /? option. In MS-DOS 6.x this command exists as FASTHELP. MS-DOS 6.xx help command uses QBASIC to view a quickhelp HELP.HLP file, which contains more extensive information on the commands, with some hyperlinking etc. The MS-DOS 6.22 help system is included on Windows 9x cdrom versions as well. PC-DOS PC-DOS 7.xx help uses view.exe to open OS/2 style .INF files (cmdref.inf, dosrexx.inf and doserror.inf), opening these to the appropriate pages. DR-DOS In DR-DOS, help is a batch file that launches DR-DOS online reference, dosbook. Microsoft Windows Windows NT, all versions, uses DOS 5 style help, but versions before VISTA have also a Windows help file (NTCMDS.HLP or NTCMDS.INF) in a similar style to MS-DOS 6. FreeDOS FreeDOS uses an HTML help system, which views HTML help files on a specified path. The path is stored in HELPPATH environment variable, if not specified, default path is HELP on the drive which HELP is placed. Partially equivalent to the Unix command man.[edit] intersvr & interlnk(in MS-DOS; filelink in DR-DOS) Network PCs using a null modem cable or LapLink cable. The server-side version of InterLnk, it also immobilizes the machine its running on as it is an active app (As opposed to a TSR) which must be running for any transfer to take place. DR-DOS filelink is executed on both the client and server. New in PC-DOS 5.02, MS-DOS 6.0[3] No direct Unix equivalent, though some Unices offer the ability to network computers with TCP/IP through null modem or Laplink cables using PLIP or SLIP.[edit] join
  • 58. Attaches a drive letter to a specified directory on another drive.[3]JOIN d: [d:path]JOIN [/D] (removes drive assignment) If JOIN a: c:floppy were executed, c:floppy would display the contents of the a: drive. The opposite can be achieved via the subst command.[edit] label Changes the label on a logical drive, such as a hard disk partition or a floppy disk. In Unix and Unix-like systems, this differs from filesystem to filesystem. e2label can be used for ext2 partitions.[edit] loadfix Loads a program above the first 64K of memory, and runs the program.loadfix [drive:][path]filename Included only in MS/PC-DOS. DR-DOS used memmax, which opened or closed lower, upper, and video memory access, to block the lower 64K of memory.[4][edit] loadhigh, lhMain article: loadhigh hiload in DR-DOS.[edit] md or mkdir Makes a new directory. The parent of the directory specified will be created if it does not already exist.md directory Equivalent to the Unix command mkdir.[edit] mem Displays memory usage.memOptions: /CLASSIFY or /C - Lists the size of programs, provides a summary of memory in use and lists largest memory block available. /DEBUG or /D - Displays status of programs, internal drivers, and other information. /PROGRAM or /P Displays status of programs currently loaded in memory.
  • 59. Equivalent to the Unix command free.[edit] memmaker Starting from version 6, MS-DOS included the external program MemMaker which was used to free system memory (especially Conventional memory) by automatically reconfiguring the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files. This was usually done by moving TSR Programs to the Upper memory. The whole process required three system restarts. Before the first restart the user was asked whether he/she wanted to enable EMS Memory or not. The use of MemMaker was popular among gamers who wanted to enable or disable Expanded memory in order to run a game which required EMS or not. Better results could be achieved by an experienced user manually configuring the startup files to achieve greater free memory yield.Options: /BATCH Runs MemMaker in batch (unattended) mode. In batch mode, MemMaker takes the default action at all prompts. /UNDO Instructs MemMaker to undo its most recent changes. PC-DOS uses another program RamBoost to optimize memory, either the HIMEM/EMM386 or a third-party memory manager.[edit] mode Configures system devices. Changes graphics modes, adjusts keyboard settings, prepares code pages, and sets up port redirection.[5][edit] more Pages through the output so that you can view more than one screen of text.command | more Equivalent to the Unix commands more and less. More may also be used as a filter.more < inputfilename[edit] move Moves files or renames directories.move filename newnamemove driveletter:olddir driveletter:newdir
  • 60. Example of usage:move c:old c:new Equivalent to the Unix command mv. DR-DOS used a separate command for renaming directories, rendir.[edit] msdMain article: Microsoft Diagnostics Provides detailed technical information about the computers hardware and software.msd New in MS-DOS 6;[6] the PC-DOS version of this command is QCONFIG.[citation needed] No Unix equivalent, however in GNU/Linux similar type of information may be obtained from various text files in /proc directory.[edit] path Displays or sets a search path for executable files.[edit] pause Suspends processing of a batch program and displays the message Press any key to continue. . ..[edit] pcpark Parks the hard disk heads in order to enable safe shutdown; only used on early versions.pcpark No Unix equivalent. MS-DOS 3.2 (and possibly others) used the command HHSET[edit] print Adds a file in the print queue.Options: /D device : Specifies the name of the print devices. Default value is LPT1 /P filename : Add files in the print queue /T : Removes all files from the print queue /C filename : Removes a file from the print queue
  • 61. This command was introduced in MS-DOS version 2. Before that there was no built-in supportfor background printing files. The user would usually use the copy command to copy files toLPT1.Equivalent to the Unix commands lp and lpr.[edit] rd or rmdir Remove a directory, which by default must be empty of files for the command to succeed (the /s flag removes this restriction).rd directory Equivalent to the Unix command rmdir.[edit] rem Remark statement, normally used within a batch file. An alternative way not to run a specific statement in a batch file is creating a label that will never be used, ::.rem > newfilename In Unix, the # sign can be used to start a comment.[edit] ren Renames a file. Unlike the move command, this command cannot be used to rename subdirectories, or rename files across drives.ren filename newname You can rename files in another directory by using the PATH parameter:ren [path]|[filename] [newfilename] An example could be:ren c:Windows filex.txt filey.txt On DOS with long filename support, care must be taken when directories have spaces in their names like "Documents and Settings". In these cases double-quotes are used to enclose them:ren c:"Documents and Settings""All Users"Desktop filex.txt filey.txt Mass renames can be accomplished by the use of wildcards. For example, the following command will change the extension of all files in the current directory which currently have the extension htm to html:ren *.htm *.html In Unix, this functionality of a simple move is provided by the mv command, while batch renames can be done using the rename command.[edit] scandisk
  • 62. Disk diagnostic utility. Scandisk was a replacement for the chkdsk utility, starting with later versions of MS-DOS. Its primary advantages over chkdsk is that it is more reliable and has the ability to run a surface scan which finds and marks bad clusters on the disk. It also provided mouse point-and-click TUI, allowing for interactive session to complement command-line batch run.chkdskhad surface scan and bad cluster detection functionality included, and was used again onWindows NT based operating systems. Equivalent to the Unix command fsck.[edit] set Sets environmental variables. See Environment variable. Since Windows 2000, it can even be used for command line inputs by using Parameter /Pset /p choice=Type your text.echo You typed: "%choice%"[edit] setver TSR designed to return a different value to the version of DOS that is running. This allows programs that look for a specific version of DOS to run under a different DOS. Setver appeared in version 4, and has been in every version of DOS, OS/2 and Windows NT since.[edit] share Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities.share [/F:space] [/L:locks] /F:space Allocates file space (in bytes) for file-sharing information. /L:locks Sets the number of files that can be locked at one time.[edit] smartdriveMain article: SmartDrive[edit] sort A filter to sort lines in the input data stream and send them to the output data stream.sort < inputfilename > outputfilename Similar to the Unix command sort. Handles files up to 64k. This sort is always case [7] insensitive.
  • 63. [edit] subst A utility to map a subdirectory to a drive letter.[3]subst <d:> <path>subst <d:> /D (Deletes the substitute drive) If SUBST e: c:edrive were executed, a new drive letter e: would be created, showing the contents of c:edrive. The opposite can be achieved via the join command.[edit] sys A utility to make a volume bootable. Sys rewrites the Volume Boot Code (the first sector of the partition that Sys is acting on) so that the code, when executed, will look for Io.sys. Sys also copies the core DOS system files, Io.sys, Msdos.sys, and Command.com, to the volume. Sys does NOT rewrite the Master Boot Record, contrary to widely-held belief.[edit] time and date Display and set the time and datetimedate When these commands are called from the command line or a batch file, they will display the time or date and wait for the user to type a new time or date and press RETURN. The command time /t will bypass asking the user to reset the time. The Unix command date displays both the time and date, but does not allow the normal users to change either. Users with superuser privileges may use date -s <new-date- time> to change the time and date. The Unix command time performs a different function.[edit] tree Shows the directory tree of the current directory Syntax:tree [options] [directory] Options: /F (Displays the names of the files in each folder.) /A (Use ASCII instead of the extended characters.) /? (Shows the help)[edit] truenametruename or
  • 64. truename drivename ortruename filename ortruename directory If typed without a parameter then the current active drive pathname is displayed. MS-DOS can find files and directories given their names, without full path information, if the search object is on a path specified by the environment variable PATH. For example, if PATH includes C:PROGRAMS, and file MYPROG.EXE is on this directory, then if MYPROG is typed at the command prompt, the command processor will execute C:PROGRAMSMYPROG.EXE the TRUENAME command will expand a name in an abbreviated form which the command processor can recognise into its full form, and display the result. It can see through SUBST and JOIN to find the actual directory. In the above example, TRUENAME MYPROG would display C:PROGRAMSMYPROG.EXE and for a substituted drive set up by subst d: c:utiltest the command truename d:test.exe will display c:utiltesttest.exe This command also displays the UNC pathnames of mapped network or local CD drives. This command is an undocumented DOS command. The help switch "/?" defines it as a "Reserved command name". It is available in MS-DOS 5.00. This command is similar to the Unix which command, which, given an executable found in $PATH, would give a full path and name. The C library function realpath performs this function.The Microsoft Windows command processors do not support this command.[edit] type Display a file. The more command is frequently used in conjunction with this command, e.g. type long-text-file | more.type filename Equivalent to the Unix command cat.[edit] undelete Restores file previously deleted with del. By default all recoverable files in the working directory are restored. The options are used to change this behavior. if the MS-DOS
  • 65. mirror TSR program is used, then deletion tracking files are created and can be used by undelete. Syntax:undelete [filespec] [/list|/all][/dos|/dt]Options: /list : lists the files that can be undeleted. /all : Recovers all deleted files without prompting. Uses a number sign for missing first character. /dos : Recover only MS-DOS aware files, ignore deletion tracking file. /dt : Recover only deletion tracking file aware files. In Unix and Unix-like systems this differs from filesystem to filesystem. People who use the ext2 filesystem can try the command e2undel.[edit] Ver An internal DOS command, that reports the DOS version presently running, and since MS-DOS 5, whether DOS is loaded high. The corresponding command to report the Windows version is winver.Options: DOS 5 and later /r : revision level, also shows whether DOS is loaded high /? : shows command line help.Value returned: MS-DOS up to 6.22, typically derive the DOS version from the DOS kernel. This may be different from the string it prints when it starts. PC-DOS typically derive the version from an internal string in command.com (so PC- DOS 6.1 command.com reports the version as 6.10, although the kernel version is 6.00.) DR-DOS reports whatever value the environment variable OSVER reports. OS/2 command.com reports an internal string, with the OS/2 version. The underlying kernel here is 5.00, but modified to report x0.xx (where x.xx is the OS/2 version). Windows 9x command.com report a string from inside command.com. The build version (e.g. 2222), is also derived from there. Windows NT command.com reports either the 32-bit processor string (4nt, cmd), or under some loads, MS-DOS 5.00.500, (for all builds). The underlying kernel reports 5.00 or 5.50 depending on the interrupt. MS-DOS 5.00 commands run unmodified on NT.
  • 66. The Winver command usually displays a Windows dialog showing the version, with some information derived from the shell. In windows before Windows for workgroups 3.11, running winver from DOS reported an embedded string in winver.exe.[edit] verify Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been correctly written to disk. If no parameter is provided, the command will display the current setting.[8]verify [on|off][edit] xcopy Copy entire directory trees.Xcopy is a version of the copy command that can move files and directories from one location toanother.xcopy directory [destination-directory] Equivalent to the Unix command cp when used with -r parameter.

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