How To Study Organic Chem


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  • Organic Chemistry
  • How To Study Organic Chem

    1. 1. Techniques in studying more effectively <ul><li>Nordin Bin Mohamed </li></ul><ul><li>School of Chemical Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.M., Penang </li></ul>ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    2. 3. Examination Format <ul><li>Paper 1 (MCQ) 1 hour (30%) </li></ul><ul><li>30 questions (5 easy + 20 std. + 5 difficult) </li></ul><ul><li>Paper 2 (Structured & Essay) 2 ½ hrs (70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Part A : 4 structured (@10 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Part B : 6 essays (@ 15 markah) </li></ul><ul><li>Answer 4 + 4 questions only </li></ul>
    3. 4. Syllabus for SK027 <ul><li>PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (10 + 30 M) </li></ul><ul><li>Thermochemistry (5 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Electro chemistry (8 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Kinetics (8 hrs) </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (30 + 60 M) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction To Organic Chemistry (9 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons (11 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatic compounds (6 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Haloalkanes (Alkyl Halides) (5 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroxy compounds (5 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonyl Compounds (6 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Carboxylic Acids & Its Derivatives (7 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Amines (6 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids and Proteins (2 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers (2 hrs) </li></ul>
    5. 6. Why is Organic Chemistry Important? C compounds are the main components in all living things Dyes Chemical Warfare Pollutants Pesticides Medicine Rubber Plastics Petrol Carbohy-drates Proteins Enzymes DNA
    6. 7. <ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Food Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Polymer Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetology </li></ul><ul><li>& many other fields </li></ul>Where is Organic Chemistry needed?
    7. 8. Types of Examination Questions <ul><li>Naming of cpds (IUPAC and Common name) </li></ul><ul><li>Definations </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Order Arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Completion of Rxns (1- 2 steps) </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Rxns (given molecular formula or structural formula) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Change from one structural formation to a different one. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical tests </li></ul>
    8. 9. Types of questions for Physical Chemistry <ul><li>1. Definations </li></ul><ul><li>2. Calculations, using standard equations; application type problems. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Explains, drawing of E diagrams, & Born Haber cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Writing of redox equations. for electrochemical cells & determination of electrode potentials. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Drawing of graphs & application. </li></ul>
    9. 10. What you need to learn from this Organic Chemistry course. <ul><li>Draw Molecular Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Naming Cpds (IUPAC & Trivial) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristic trends </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of Cpds </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical tests </li></ul><ul><li>Basic concepts </li></ul>
    10. 11. Why you feel Organic Chemistry is a difficult subject to master? <ul><li>Weak basics </li></ul><ul><li>Too much to memorise </li></ul><ul><li>Module difficult to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t understand what had been taught </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient reference </li></ul><ul><li>Initial negative perception </li></ul><ul><li>Too many difficult concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Contents too packed </li></ul><ul><li>No interest in Chemistry </li></ul>
    11. 12. Tips for answering questions <ul><li>Right mind setting – organic chemistry is easy because </li></ul><ul><li>You need to know only a few alphabets, i.e. C, H, N, O…… </li></ul><ul><li>Need to count only from 1-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Able to read & write </li></ul><ul><li>Answers already in the questions </li></ul>
    12. 13. Tips for answering questions <ul><li>All topics have same sub-titles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Systematic Naming </li></ul><ul><li>2. Physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chemical properties/ chemical rxns. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Chemical tests </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>Addition </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrangement </li></ul><ul><li>others: Oxidation & reduction </li></ul>4 main types of rxns in Organic Chemistry
    14. 16. Is it true that Organic Chemistry is very difficult? Organic Chemistry can be understood easily & successfully without a photographic memory But….. You may not be successful if you do not have good study habits .
    15. 17. 5 secrets to be successful in Organic Chemistry 1. Don’t lag behind in your class 3. Do lots of exercise 4. Always ask why & how when rxns occur. 5. Use all available sources 2. Study proactively
    16. 18. What you need to do to prepare yourself for an examination. <ul><li>Obtain a suitable text book </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare short simplified notes </li></ul><ul><li>Have pencils & paper readily available during every revision </li></ul><ul><li>Study in a calm atmosphere with a healthy body </li></ul>
    17. 19. Good study skills Read Under stand Memorise Apply Analyse Synthesize
    18. 21. Basic knowledge that you have to know Molecular Structure Systematic names & “ If you don’t know how to name a simple compound, you will fail every test. Guaranteed .”
    19. 22. How to make summarized notes <ul><li>Read text books /notes </li></ul><ul><li>Close books </li></ul><ul><li>Make summary from memory </li></ul><ul><li>Double check </li></ul><ul><li>Try out questions </li></ul>DO NOT borrow or copy from anyone .
    20. 23. Effective Summarized Notes Short & compact Colourful Use your own methods Organise facts
    21. 24. ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS 1. From Alkenes Gen. Formula: ……… Example: …………. Footnotes: …………… 2. From Aldehydes Gen. Formula : ………… Example: ……………. Footnotes: ………….. 3 Forms of summarized notes A. Short list
    22. 25. -C=C- -C--C- -C--C- -C--C- H X H OH X X -C--C- -C--C- -C--C- H H X X H X -C--C- >C=O + O=C< H OH B. Draw a mind map >C=C<
    23. 26. (Behind) 1. -CH-CH- 2. -CX-CX- 3. -CH-CX- 4. -CH-C(OH)- 5. >C=O + O=C< C. Flash cards <ul><li>RXNS. >C==C< </li></ul><ul><li>1. + H 2  </li></ul><ul><li>2. + X 2  </li></ul><ul><li>3. + HX  </li></ul><ul><li>+ H 2 O/H +  </li></ul><ul><li>+ O 3  + Zn,H 2 O </li></ul>
    24. 27. <ul><li>Understand rxn mechanisms. </li></ul>How to minimize memory work? <ul><li>2. Familiarise yourself with all the diff. types of functional gps. & the diff. types of rxns. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity of functional gps depend on their polarity . </li></ul>3. Get familiar with the functions all types of reagents 4. DO LOTS OF EXERCISE
    25. 28.  +  - C = O Example Reacts with acids, oxidising agents or electrophiles Reacts with base, Reducing agents or nucleophiles
    26. 29. Types & functions of reagents <ul><li> -  + </li></ul><ul><li>Example : RMgX = R - Mg X </li></ul><ul><li>R:MgX + H:OH  R:H + OH - + Mg 2+ + X - </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>KOH/alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>K 2 Cr 2 O 7 /H + </li></ul><ul><li>LiAlH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>HBr/H 2 O 2 </li></ul>
    27. 30. <ul><li>Look at the characteristics of starting materials. (saturated/unsaturated/ electrophilic, nucleophilic, functional groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the structure of the product (saturated/unsaturated/oxidised </li></ul><ul><li>/reduced..?) </li></ul><ul><li>Look at type of reagent (acid/ base /oxidising or reducing agents /electrophiles /nucleophiles) </li></ul>Predicting Rxns
    28. 31. <ul><li>All Chemical Rxns are due to </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTROSTATIC FORCES </li></ul><ul><li>+ - </li></ul><ul><li> +  - </li></ul>TIPS
    29. 32. Help sources <ul><li>Text books/modules & study guide </li></ul><ul><li>Your lecturer </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Fellow students </li></ul><ul><li>Past year exam. Questions. </li></ul>
    30. 33. <ul><li>DO NOT study ‘last minute’ </li></ul><ul><li>Study proactively – draw structures, write eqns. Do NOT just ‘highlight’) </li></ul><ul><li>Do exercises intensively </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange / summarise all facts </li></ul><ul><li>Have good rapport with all your lecturers </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen your mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Always hold discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Give your full attention during lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on details </li></ul>CONCLUSION
    34. 37. <ul><li>Thank you…. </li></ul><ul><li>May you have success in </li></ul><ul><li>everything you do. </li></ul>
    35. 38. <ul><li>All Chemical Rxns are due to </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTROSTATIC FORCES </li></ul><ul><li>+ - </li></ul><ul><li> +  - </li></ul>TIPS
    36. 39. Help sources <ul><li>Text books/modules & study guide </li></ul><ul><li>Your lecturer </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Fellow students </li></ul><ul><li>Past year exam. questions </li></ul>