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NURSHEHA BINTI MOHD HADZRI Research Proposal NURSHEHA BINTI MOHD HADZRI Research Proposal Document Transcript

  • “CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STYLES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN SHAH ALAM” NURSHEHA BINTI MOHD HADZRI MASTER OF EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP FACULTY OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA MARCH 2014
  • Contents Chapter 1 ....................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 3 1.2 Background of the study ................................................................................................... 4 1.3 Statement of Research problem........................................................................................ 5 1.4 Research objectives............................................................................................................ 5 1.5 Research questions............................................................................................................. 6 1.6 Operational definition ....................................................................................................... 6 1.8 Significance of the Study ................................................................................................... 8 Chapter 2 ..................................................................................................................................... 10 Literature Review ....................................................................................................................... 10 2.2 Importance of classroom management .......................................................................... 10 2.2 Classroom management styles........................................................................................ 11 2.2.1 Student attention in the positive classroom environment ........................................ 13 2.5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 14 Chapter 3 ..................................................................................................................................... 15 3.1 Research Design ............................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Population and Sampling ................................................................................................ 16 3.3 Instrumentation................................................................................................................ 16 3.3.1 Questionnaires.............................................................................................................. 16 3.4 Data Collection................................................................................................................. 17 3.5 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................... 18 References.................................................................................................................................... 20
  • Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Classroom management is the crucial of teaching skill. As teachers, they cannot continue their lesson if the classroom full with troubles and disruptions. How good teachers keep control their classrooms is the main point of this study. Successful classroom management is based on shaping the classroom in a positive physical and emotional situation. Brilliant teachers will start routines, lessons, and disciplinary tactics to get student attention. Teachers need to encourage students to take more responsibility for their learning and behavior. So that, teachers will use less time to correct student‟s misbehavior. If the teachers know how to control the classroom for sure the time pro0vided will be more for teaching and learning. There are four group classroom management styles which are authoritarian, authoritative, laissez-faire and indifferent. Good classroom management is measured by making proactive teaching and learning environment. Teacher skills are one of the important key of classroom management styles. Other than that, teachers skills maybe will be based from theirs educational background, perceptions in different fields, professional values and perspectives about education, and teaching experiences. In one of the article, the researcher proves that classroom management styles are related with the pupils control in classroom by teacher (Dumlupinar, 2009). Firstly, authoritarian classroom management is based on teacher restriction and classroom is fully controls by the teachers. In this category, students must pay attention and must be participate in class activities. To be more understand this category teachers have authority to their students (Dunbar C. , 2004); (Ekici, 2004); (Hepburn, 1983); (Kris, 1997b);
  • (Moore, 1989). Secondly, in authoritative classroom management is built on teachers control student behavior but with reasonable reasons. Even this category still using some restriction style but the students are encouraged to be more independently and not depend on teachers at all time (Kris, 1997b); (Ekici, 2004) . They will have mutual communication. Thirdly, laissez-faire classroom management is teachers shown less control behavior to students. The teachers not scold the misbehavior but they are friendly to the students. This category will have a problem in classroom management and classes will be out of control ( (Dunbar C. , 2004); (Ekici, 2004); (Kris, 1997b); (Moore, 1989). (Woolfolk, 1984).The last but not least, indifferent classroom management style is based on free style teaching. The teachers are unwilling to force students to participate in the class. Besides that, teachers also are not ready or prepared the lesson of the subject. They just come to class and continue teach whatever they want to teach. Most of the lesson time, teachers let the student to do whatever they willing to do. This category faced big discipline problems and effected students‟ performance. It possibly make student not respect to that teacher. (Dunbar C. , 2004) (Ekici, 2004); (Kris, 1997b). 1.2 Background of the study Consequently, as teacher our main concern is to produce good students and to make them ready face many world challenges after they finish their school time. Apart from parents, the teachers are the next key factors, who patiently to teach and care to their students. Some teachers will teach the same student in many years (Mansor, Zailina Hashim, Saidi Moin, & Haslinda Abdullah, 2012). Proactive teachers do not avoid problems in learning or problems with behavior. These teachers accept responsibility for their students‟ successes and their students‟ failures (Brophy,
  • 1983). According to the researchers, they found that teachers who are lacked classroom management skills will lead to the student problem behavior (Aronson, 1998). Formally, poor classroom management result teacher‟s loss the instructional time because most of the times are focus on student‟s disruptions and students problem. One of the studies found that more than half of primary school class time was busy with non-learning activities, for instance waiting, general management activities and other non-instructional activities. By one estimate, 70 percent of teachers need to improve their classroom management skills (Aronson, 1998). 1.3 Statement of Research problem Nowadays teachers are facing a problem in how to control the student in classroom. The challenges in controlling student behavior in 10 years ago are different with student behavior today. Teacher need to improve and modify their control skills that will help them to switch negative situation in a positive approach, hence to keep good classroom management, but in the same time allowing students to receive best learning understandings within the chosen time for give an instruction to them. So, in the objective of this study will help teacher to find the best way to control student behavior in the classroom and at that time encourages them to create positive classroom environment. 1.4 Research objectives The research objectives of this study are:
  • i) To discover the best classroom management styles ii) To find the major important of positive classroom management iii) To get more than 80% student‟s attention in the classroom 1.5 Research questions The research questions of this study are: i) What is the best classroom management style? ii) What are the major important of positive classroom management? iii) How to get more than 80% student‟s attention in the classroom? 1.6 Operational definition 1.6.1 Classroom management style Classroom management style is also known as classroom management approach. Teachers have to form classroom rules and procedure, and also they have to guide the students in how to follow their instruction. Teachers need to explain very clear to students the disadvantages of naughtiness. At that moment, teachers have to remind classroom rules to the students in the first day of the school. It is because the first day or the first week of the school is playing an important rule to implement classroom rules and procedures to the students. Other than that, teachers also have to monitor classroom activities and observe students behavior. At that point, teachers need to form more opportunities especially for students who have behavioral problem and make them to get achievement in their learning and social behavior. 1.6.2 Teacher management styles
  • There are four types of classroom management styles which are authoritarian, authoritative, indifferent, and laissez-faire. The authoritarian teacher will show restrictions and controls on the student‟s behavior. Students will often have assigned seats for the entire term. There are no deviations on the arrangements of desks and usually the desks are in straight rows. During lesson, students have to remain in their seats at the beginning of class until the end of the lesson period (Dunbar C. , 2004). The authoritative teacher also shows restrictions to the students but at the same time encourages the students to be independence (Dunbar C. , 2004) .This teacher repeatedly describes the reasons behind each of the rules and decisions provided in the classroom. Teachers and students will have mutual communication. The indifferent teachers are not always involved in the classroom. This teacher likes to use free styles teaching and they are not depending on the lesson plan provided. The indifferent teachers feel that class preparation is not important (Dunbar C. , 2004). This teacher simply won‟t use the preparation time and may practice the same resources, year after year. By using this style, the teacher will face problematic discipline student and effected student‟s academic performances. The laissez-faire teacher will let the students to make their own decision. The words “Do your own thing” describes this classroom (Dunbar C. , 2004). This teacher accepts the students‟ opinions and actions and not always monitors student‟s behavior. This teacher is friendly to their students. Most of the students will be more close their teachers. Then, the teacher will face problem to control the noisiest of the classroom.
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study Several limitations were detected in this study. Firstly, limitation of this study is depends only on teachers‟ and student reported data on the questionnaire form. Only questionnaires tool will use in this study. Actually the reported data can be supported by using other tools which are interviewing participants and direct observation but this in study focus only on questionnaires. Secondly, limitation is linked to the population of the study. The population of this study is limited to the primary school teachers and student just in Shah Alam. So the results of the study cannot be global or assume to all primary school teachers in Selangor. The effects can only show us a general opinion and action from this particular sample. 1.8 Significance of the Study This study is design to investigate the classroom management styles of primary school teachers in Shah Alam. This study also plans to discover the best classroom management styles; to find the major important of positive classroom management; to get more than 80% student‟s attention in the classroom. The need of this study is to find better solution on problem of classroom control. There is an issue in education that has better reasons that concerns for all teachers, parents and students than classroom management as the lacking of effective classroom management skills is the major gab for a successful career in teaching (Long, 1987). For that reason classroom management is play an important role of the school system. The success classroom management will create positive environment in whole of the school. So,
  • successiveness of classroom management depending on the way of principal and teachers guide their students. There should be an improvement in the teacher‟s classroom management systems. Even though some studies shows on classroom management that be familiar with the classroom management theories and practices of teachers in Malaysia perception, they were lead before the implementation of new curriculum. 1.9 Conclusion This chapter has highlighted on the background of study, the research problem, the research objectives, the research questions, the important of the research, the definition of main term used in this study and the limitation of this study. The literature review related to this study will be discussed in chapter 2.
  • Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Literature review of this study is related with three objectives of the study which are to discover the best classroom management styles; to find the major important of positive classroom management and to get more than 80% student‟s attention in the classroom. This chapter will be discussed about important of classroom management, categories of classroom management styles and student attention in positive classroom environment. 2.2 Importance of classroom management Proactive classroom management is very important to avoid problem in learning and student behavior. Teacher needs to concern more in managing student‟s behavior especially with misbehavior‟s student that interfered with positive learning environment. (Shin & Koh M. S., 2007). The foundations of teaching experiences commonly take serious in controlling students and form a disciplined environment to get better teaching and learning situation. Maintaining order in a classroom is a basic task of teaching as management activities lead to the established and maintenance of those conditions in which instruction can take place effectively and efficiently (Doyle, 1986). There is variable that encouragements school learning and teaching and classroom management has been recognized as variable that had greatest influences on school learning (Freiberg, 1999). There should be clarity about what the classroom management is so its influence on learning environment could be understood. Since classroom management is a complicated
  • concept to understand, it is defined contrarily by different writers. Conceptions of classroom management are influenced by changes in research perspectives at various points since the late 1960s (Evertson & Harris, A. H., 1999). 2.2 Classroom management styles There are four group classroom management styles which are authoritarian, authoritative, laissez-faire and indifferent. First, the authoritarian teacher put gap and limit on the students. The seating of the students will be assigned for the entire term. The arrangement of the desk in the classroom usually in straight row and organized well by the teachers (Dunbar C. , 2004). During lesson, students have to stay on their seat until the end of the lesson. This kind of teacher will focus on the student discipline. Students know they should not interrupt the teacher. Since verbal exchange and discussion are discouraged, the authoritarian‟s students do not have the opportunity to practice communication skills. This teacher prefers strong discipline and their expectation is very high on obedience. If the students not follow instruction, they will send to the principal‟s office. In this classroom, students need to follow directions and no need to ask any question. Students have to be a good listener at all the time. Second, authoritative based on limits and controls on the student‟s behavior but concurrently encourage the student to be more independence (Dunbar C. , 2004). Every rules, decisions and punishment happen in the class are explaining first the reason to the student. If a student is not listening, the teacher offers a polite but firm always reminding student not to repeat the same thing. These teachers sometimes not take seriously on the discipline but only after careful consideration of the circumstances. The authoritative teacher is open to considerable verbal interaction, including critical debates. The students know that they can
  • interrupt the teacher if they have a relevant question or comment. This environment gives students the opportunity to learn and practice communication skills. Thirdly, indifferent teacher is not really participating in the classroom. The indifferent teacher just doesn‟t want to impose on the students and often feels that class preparation is not worth the effort. Things like field trips and special projects are out of the question (Dunbar C. , 2004). This teacher will not take any necessary preparation time to gain new knowledge of information for the students. They will recycle the lesson plan, the resources and material year after a year. This teacher not stress on the student discipline and behavior. This category faced big discipline problems and effected students‟ performance. It possibly make student not respect to that teacher. (Dunbar C. , 2004) (Ekici, 2004); (Kris, 1997b). The last but not least laissez-faire teacher places few demand or controls on the students. “Do your own thing” describes this classroom (Dunbar C. , 2004). This teacher accepts the students‟ actions and not monitors the student‟s behavior properly. The teacher tries not to hurt the students‟ feelings and has difficulty saying no or enforcing rules. If a student disrupts the class, the teacher may assume that the student is not getting enough attention. When a student interrupts a lecture, the teacher accepts the interruption with the belief that the student must surely have something valuable to add. When discipline is offered, it is likely to be inconsistent. This category faced big discipline problems and effected students‟ performance. It also possibly make student not respect to that teacher. (Dunbar C. , 2004) (Ekici, 2004); (Kris, 1997b).
  • 2.2.1 Student attention in the positive classroom environment A good classroom management system recognizes the close relationship between positive behavior and effective instruction. In the process of teaching and learning, teachers often face various problems related to students. All the approaches from teachers are plays an important role in maintaining students' interest in learning. According to Burns (2005), as well as teachers focus on methods of l classroom control , lesson planning and maintaining attention students in the classroom, how teachers assess student performance also very important. Teachers should also provide the space or environment that makes students feel comfortable without a doubt to ask assistance (Froster, 1995). According to Bernard (1995), atmosphere contains elements of caring, support, hope and opportunities for students to engage in all learning activities can help the healthy development of personality of students. As a student of course they expect attention of teachers, in or outside the classroom. According Marzita (2002) students get frustrated when teachers are too busy teaching but do not give attention to the needs of students while learning. Student frustrated and marginalized they were not like the lesson considered being a difficult and intimidating subject. Gina and Shuki (2009) list a variety of ways teachers and students can interact, including: 1. Encourage discussion in the classroom and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the assignment together. 2. Showing an example of a good assignment. 3. Small group discussions, so that detailed information should be directed to parties involved with discussion.
  • 4. Provide individual interventions to students do not feel embarrassed when discussion with friends. 2.5 Conclusion Researchers from previous study proved most of primary school teacher preferred to use authoritarian classroom management styles to control the classroom. From the four-category classroom management styles, the author said that primary school teachers shown authoritarian classroom management style as their common style. The decision is followed by authoritative, laissez-faire and indifferent classroom management styles. Regarding to that study, the findings show that primary school teachers are nearer to custodial control ideology such as strict control, one way communication and mistrust towards pupils, cruel punishments and taking undisciplined behavior as personal faults. According to custodial ideology, teachers are easier to control pupil and maintain the classroom rules by scolding based on restrictions.
  • Chapter 3 Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction This chapter contains of 7 sections and describes methodological procedures of the study. It is also included research design; population and sampling of the study, instrumentation, questionnaires, data collection and data analysis. The conclusion part is the part to summary all the methodology involve. 3.1 Research Design This study will be using a quantitative research methodology. Survey Research is under quantitative research methodology. There are two major types of survey research which are a cross-sectional survey and a longitudinal survey. In this study cross-sectional survey method was chosen. The cross-sectional survey gathers information from a sample that has been drawn from fixed population. In cross-sectional survey the information is collected at just one point in time, although the time it takes to collect all the data may take anywhere from day to a few weeks or more (Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun, 2012). The participants will be given a questionnaire in which they were asked to answer questions that related to their opinions, experiences and actions about classroom management. Items used in the questionnaire were prepared according to the four group of the classroom management styles.
  • 3.2 Population and Sampling Population of this study included all the teachers and students in the primary schools in Shah Alam, Selangor in 2014. All of the teachers and students will be given the questionnaire separately. The participants were chosen 100 teachers and 300 students randomly from the school in Shah Alam. The sample of the study will be selected using simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected (Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun, 2012) . The main point of this study was choosing simple random sampling because to make sure that each of the group teachers of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected as a participant. By using simple random sampling this study has to use table of random numbers to select the participant in large population. 3.3 Instrumentation 3.3.1 Questionnaires In this study the function of questionnaire is to collect data on the classroom management styles of primary school teachers and also to know how to get more than 80% student attention in classroom. For the purpose of developing the questionnaire, this study has to look on the significant of this study. The questionnaires will answer all the objective of this study. The purposes of this study are to discover the best classroom management styles, to find the major important of positive classroom management and to get more than 80% student‟s attention in the classroom. The questionnaires are created by using Google drive. The questionnaires for the teachers are divided into two part which are part A and part B. Part A is for personal profile and part B is for key to get the best of classroom management style. Part A is very simple question that related
  • to participant profile. Part B will have 12 statements that already fixed with the different classroom management styles which are authoritarian, authoritative, laissez-faire and indifferent. The term of the styles is not mentioning in the questionnaires but the characteristics of the classroom management styles are provided in the statement given. Statements number 1, 3, and 9 refer authoritarian style. Statements number 4, 8 and 11 refer to the authoritative style. Statements number 6, 10, and 12 refer to the laissez-faire style. Statements number 2, 5, and 7 refer to the indifferent style. From the statements, the participants have to answer according to the scale given below: Table 1: Scale of the Statements The questionnaires for the students are divided into two part which are part A and part B. Part A is for student personal profile and to find important of positive classroom management. Part B is show how to get student‟s attention in classroom. In part B will have 10 statements about various learning activities that they like and dislike. 3.4 Data Collection After the questionnaires have been checked and get final confirmation, it will be distributed to the participant involved. In this study have 2 types of participants which are teachers and students from primary school in Shah Alam. Before the actual data collection is carried out in this study, the questionnaires will be uploaded using Google drive in the social site such as Facebook and Gmail account to get extra feedback from other side. So the feedback from that Scale Answer 5 Strongly agree 4 Agree 3 Not sure 2 Disagree 1 Strongly disagree
  • side will be using as references to actual questionnaires. So, this may involve testing feasibility in practice or improving the methodological quality of parts of this study. A cover letter that certified by Dean will be attached together with the questionnaires. In the actual data, the participants chosen will be given 30 minutes to answer all the questions given. The questionnaires will be conducted in the computer laboratory. For the teachers, they will be given link to click on that address in the computer. They have to answer all the questions within 30 minutes and press button submit to the researcher at the same time. But for the student, they will be given extra time if they cannot finish in the time given. The page of questionnaires will be open earlier for students. Questionnaires for the students need to explain clearly and the researchers have to guide them thru all the questions and statement. The researchers have to make sure the students press button submit on the bottom of the page. 3.5 Data Analysis After getting all the completed questionnaires, the data will be analyses by using Google drive. Google drive will make questionnaires more simplifies to the researcher to analyses the data. Press the button responses and accept all the responses .After accepting the responses, press the summary of the responses. From the summary of the responses the data will explain everything. The data will show a percentage, number of responses and detail each of the statement and questionnaires provided. To show all data information detail, press public analytics. The data will appear on the questionnaires page and all the respondent will be able to see the summary.
  • Research questions Instruments Data Analysis 1. What is the best classroom management style? Survey Questionnaires: Teacher Form Part B – 12 statements  Google drive  Summary of the responses  Look at the percentage if the data  Result will be appear in „view all responses‟ 2. What are the major important of positive classroom management? Survey Questionnaires: Student Form Part A – Q2-Q5  Google drive  Summary of the responses  Look at the percentage if the data  Result will be appear in „view all responses‟ 3. How to get more than 80% student‟s attention in the classroom? Survey Questionnaires: Student Form Part B – 10 statements  Google drive  Summary of the responses  Look at the percentage if the data  Result will be appear in „view all responses‟ Table 2: Method of data analysis 3.6 Conclusion This chapter covers on the research design, population and sampling of the study, instrumentation, questionnaires, data collection and data analysis. The next chapter will be discussing on the finding of the study.
  • References Allen, K. (2010). Classroom Management, Bullying, and Teacher Practices. Professional Educator. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database, 1-15. Aronson, J. Z. (1998). Improving student achievement by extending school: Is it just a matter of. San Francisco, CA: WestE: Retrieved from http://www.wested.org/cs/we/print/docs/we/timeandlearning/introduction.html. Brophy, j. (1983). Conceptualizing student motivation. Educational Psycholog, 200-215. Doyle, W. (1986). Classroom organization and management. New York: Macmillan.: Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.). Dumlupinar, A. P. (2009). Primary school teachers‟ views about pupil control ideologies and. Cypriot Journal of Educational, 157-167. Dunbar, C. (2004). Best practice in classroom management. College of Education Michigan State University. Dunbar, C. (2004). Best practices in classroom management. Michigan State University. Ekici. (2004). Assessment of teachers‟ classroom management profiles in the first-level. TED Journal of Education and Science. Ekici, G. (2006). Assessment of relationship between the teachers’ classroom management profiles and teachers self-efficacy. Evertson, C. M., & Harris, A. H. (1999). Support for managing learning-centered classrooms: The Classroom Organization and Management Program. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. Singapore: Mc Graw Hill. Freiberg, H. (1999). Beyond behaviorism: changing the classroom. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Hepburn, M. A. (1983). Democratic education in schools and classrooms. Washington NCSS Buletin. Kris, B. (1997b). Authoritarian. Teacher Talk-A Publication for Secondary Education Teachers. Retrieved January 10, 2009 from http://www.drugstats.org/tt/v1i2/authoritarian.html. Long, C. K. (1987). Classroom management today: Finding answers to a complex questions. The Clearing House, 216-217. Mansor, A. N., Zailina Hashim, Saidi Moin, & Haslinda Abdullah. (2012). Effective Classroom Management. Canadian Center of Science and Education. McCaslin, M. &. (1992). Compliant cognition: The misalliance of management and instructional goals in current school reform. Educational Research, 4-17.
  • Moore, K. D. (1989). Classroom teaching skills. Maya Academy Publishing. Romano, M., & Gibson, P. (2006). Beginning Teacher Successes and Struggles:Elementary Teacher's Reflections on the First Year of Teaching. Retrieved from EBSCOhost, 1-16. Shin, S., & Koh M. S. (2007). A cross-cultural study of teachers‟ beliefs and strategies on classroom behavior management in urban American and Korean school systems. Education and Urban Society, 286-309. Willover, D. J. (1967). The school and pupil control ideology. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. Woolfolk, A. E. (1984). Educational psychology for teachers. Englewood Cliffs
  • Questionnaires for Students Student’s Questionnaires Part A
  • Student’s Questionnaires Part B
  • Questionnaires for Teachers Teacher’s Questionnaires Part A
  • Teacher’s Questionnaires Part B