Transport system ..


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Transport system ..

  1. 1. TRANSPORT SYSTEM Presented by, Sheethal MBA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  TRANSPORT : Transport is a system in which passengers & goods are carried from one place to another.  Well known and coordinated transportation plays an important role in the sustained economic growth of a country.  When different regions of a country start specializing in certain selected products, the need for exchange automatically arises.  Exchange of product or sending products to other places involves transportation.
  3. 3. Transport ,in fact , provides a vital link between production centers , distribution areas and the ultimate customers.  In India, it has attained a magnificent growth over the years both in expansion of network as well as output. 
  4. 4. Importance of Transportation      solve problem unemployment supplying machineries Protect people from difficulties of war Establish relationship large scale production
  5. 5. IMPORTANT MEANS OF TRANSPORT Railways  Road transport  Water transport  Air transport 
  6. 6. RAILWAY TRANSPORT Development and expansion of railways lays revolutionized transport system world over.  It is convenient mode of transport for long distance and suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.  It has played a crucial role in industrialization and development of nations. 
  7. 7. Indian railways began their operation in april-1853 when the first railway steamed off from Bombay to Thane , a stretch of 34 km.  Over the years the Indian railway system has grown to be the largest in Asia and 2nd largest in world.  As far as of route lengths is concerned, Indian railway system is 4th largest in the world after US, Russia and China. 
  8. 8. For freight traffic point of view it is 4th but substantially behind these 3 railway system.  On the eve of independence, our railway system was under severe strain but gradually modernized and rehabilitated.  During the 6th plan government kept an outlay of Rs. 5100 cr for railways – out of which Rs.2100 cr was for rolling stock and Rs.500 cr for track renewals. 
  9. 9.  Finally Rs.6573 cr was spent according to 11th five year plan document main objective of government of India was 1. Capacity enhancement Technology upgradation Safety and passenger amenities Attaining higher maintaince standards. 2. 3. 4.
  10. 10. Importance Indian railways carry most of long distances passenger traffic and 80% of total freight. (ii) Indian railways provide employment to a huge number of people in the country. (iii) Provide mail services. (iv) They carry big chunks of goods from place of production to ports. (v) Iron and steel industries based upon railways as they transport raw materials and finished products from one place to another. (i)
  11. 11. Railways Network in India        1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Route Length Railway stations Railway Engines Coaches Wagons Running Track Electrified Track : : : : : : : 63028 km 6867km 7517 km 36510 km 2, 44,519 km 1, 07,969 km 15127 km
  12. 12. Finances of Indian Railways (in core) YEAR TOTAL EARNINGS TOTAL NET DIVIDEND EXPENSES EARNING TO GENERAL REVENUE SURPLUS (+) DEFICIT (-) 1950-51 260 210 50 30 +20 1980-81 2,620 2,500 120 320 -200 1996-97 24,625 21,000 3,625 1,507 +2,118 2006-07 64,780 50,330 14,450 4,250 +10,200 2010-11 97,151 88,129 9,021 4,917 4,104 2011-12 1,06,647 99,502 7,144 5,652 1,492 2012-13 1,35,694 1,13,461 22,233 6,676 15,557
  13. 13. Progress made by Indian Railways 1. Priority has been assigned to conversion of meter gauge lines into broad gouge. Railways tracks are electrified. 2. Steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electrical engines. 3. Railways have specialized themselves in carrying over long distances heavy and bulky goods including containers. 4. Fast moving trains and public amenities at railway station is introduced. Railway made a significant problem in the area of track replacement. Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains are introduced. 5. At present, the railways comprise three gauges-broad (1.675m), meter (1.000m) and narrow (0.762m). Efforts are being made to convert meter gouge track to broad gauge track.
  14. 14. ROAD TRANSPORT Road transport is most suitable for short and medium distance where other means are unable to reach.  It provides door-to-door service , which is not possible with other means.  It is the most promising means of agricultural and industrial advancement of a country.  Today , it occupies a predominant position in the transport network in the country. 
  15. 15. ROAD TRANSPORT Roads are classified into following 4 categories 1. National highways - These roads links large cities and big industrial centers. 2. State Highways - These roads connects all important centres of industry, trade as well as commerce of the state and also national highways. 3. District Roads - These roads connect different parts of district , important industrial centres, important railway station. 4. Rural Roads- These are found in villages both pucca or Metalled and kutch or Non-Metalled. 
  16. 16. MAJOR NATIONAL HIGHWAYS IN INDIA S.NO. Name of Highways Cities Connected by Them 1 Grand Truck Road Calcutta, Delhi, Patna & Amritsar 2 Calcutta-Mumbai Road Calcutta, Nagpur & Mumbai 3 Agra-Mumbai Road Agra, Gwalior, Indore & Mumbai 4 Calcutta-Chennai Road Calcutta, Cuttack & Chennai 5 Pathankot-Dalhousie Road Pathankot, Dalhousie 6 Great Kadan Road Mirzapur, Nagpur & Banglore
  17. 17. Advantages of road transport      Door-to-door service flexibility Reliability Reach to remote places Speed
  18. 18. Road development in India India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 33.14 lakh km at present.  However, this network is not adequate for speedy and efficient transportation. 
  19. 19. Important initiatives in the road sector. 1. The National Highway Development project (NHDP) Deals with building high quality highways.  The NHDP is largest highway project ever undertaken by the country and is being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI). 2. Pradhan Mantri Bharat Jado pariyojana (PMBJP )Deals with linking up major cities to the NHDP highways. 3. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY )It addresses the rural roads.
  20. 20. WATER TRANSPORT Water transport are cheapest method of shipping heavy , low value , non – perishable goods . Water transport can be divided into 2 categories. 1. Inland water transport It includes natural modes such as navigable rivers and artificial modes.  India has about 14,500 kms of navigable waterways.  Development of IWT commenced from second five year plan –total outlay was around rs.34cr.  Further rs.903cr was alloted for IWT in one tenth plan.  Again, in 11th plan period three more waterways are proposed to be added to include coverage of additional 4,500km.
  21. 21. 2. Shipping – it is divided into 2 categories. (a)Coastal shipping (b) Overseas shipping (a)Coastal shipping –  India has a longest coastline of 7,517 km, number of ports,  12 major and 200 non-major ports besides a vast hinterland  It is the most energy efficient and cheapest mode of transport for carriage of bulky goods like iron and steel, coal , iron ore , timber , etc over long distance.
  22. 22. (b) Overseas shipping In this case, due to international trade considerable attention has been paid to raise shipping tonnage during planning era.  As a result, the share of Indian shipping in the transportation of India’s overseas trade has slowly and consistently increased in the planning period.  Presently, almost 90 percent of the country’s trade volume is moved by sea.
  23. 23. PORTS In India, there are 12 major ports and 200 non-major ports along the coastline.  Major ports direct responsibility of central government while non-major ports are managed and administrated by the respective state government.  Further a major port project of Nhava sheva was sanctioned of an estimated cost of rs. 592 cr . 
  24. 24. AIR TRANSPORT Air transport is most modern ,quickest as well as latest edition to the mode of transport.  Airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI). Efforts are on to provide with the latest scientific technology to ensure passengers safety and quick handling of passengers and freight traffic.   1. 2.   In India, government first decided to air routes in 1920 between Mumbai and kolkata Kolkata and Rangoon Subsequently, during 10th plan period an expenditure of rs. 12,928 cr was provided to the ministry of civil Aviation out of which rs.7,792cr was spent. Further ,in 11th plan rs.43,560 cr was kept aside as total projected outlay.
  25. 25. PROBLEMS OF AIR TRANSPORT IN INDIA 1. There are a small number of industrial and business centers as compared to the size of the country.  2. Heavy goods can’t be transported from one place to another by aero planes.  3. The cost of aviation petrol is very high resulting in the high cost of operation and making air travel beyond the reach of middle classes.  4. The components and spare parts of the aero planes are imported from other countries. This has impeded the growth of civil aviation of the country. 