TRANSPORT : Transport is a system in which
passengers & goods are carried from one place to
Well known and coordinated transportation plays an
important role in the sustained economic growth of a
When different regions of a country start specializing
in certain selected products, the need for exchange
Exchange of product or sending products to other
places involves transportation.
Transport ,in fact , provides a vital link
between production centers , distribution
areas and the ultimate customers.
In India, it has attained a magnificent
growth over the years both in expansion
of network as well as output.
Importance of Transportation
solve problem unemployment
Protect people from difficulties of war
large scale production
IMPORTANT MEANS OF TRANSPORT
Development and expansion of railways
lays revolutionized transport system
It is convenient mode of transport for
long distance and suitable for carrying
heavy and bulky goods.
It has played a crucial role in
industrialization and development of
Indian railways began their operation in
april-1853 when the first railway steamed
off from Bombay to Thane , a stretch of
Over the years the Indian railway system
has grown to be the largest in Asia and 2nd
largest in world.
As far as of route lengths is concerned,
Indian railway system is 4th largest in the
world after US, Russia and China.
For freight traffic point of view it is 4th but
substantially behind these 3 railway system.
On the eve of independence, our railway
system was under severe strain but
gradually modernized and rehabilitated.
During the 6th plan government kept an
outlay of Rs. 5100 cr for railways – out of
which Rs.2100 cr was for rolling stock and
Rs.500 cr for track renewals.
Finally Rs.6573 cr was spent according to
11th five year plan document main
objective of government of India was
Safety and passenger amenities
Attaining higher maintaince standards.
Indian railways carry most of long distances
passenger traffic and 80% of total freight.
(ii) Indian railways provide employment to a
huge number of people in the country.
(iii) Provide mail services.
(iv) They carry big chunks of goods from place
of production to ports.
(v) Iron and steel industries based upon railways
as they transport raw materials and finished
products from one place to another.
Railways Network in India
2, 44,519 km
1, 07,969 km
Finances of Indian Railways (in core)
EXPENSES EARNING TO
Progress made by Indian Railways
1. Priority has been assigned to conversion of meter gauge
lines into broad gouge. Railways tracks are electrified.
2. Steam engines have been replaced by diesel and electrical
3. Railways have specialized themselves in carrying over long
distances heavy and bulky goods including containers.
4. Fast moving trains and public amenities at railway station is
introduced. Railway made a significant problem in the area of
track replacement. Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains are
5. At present, the railways comprise three gauges-broad
(1.675m), meter (1.000m) and narrow (0.762m). Efforts are
being made to convert meter gouge track to broad gauge
Road transport is most suitable for short
and medium distance where other means
are unable to reach.
It provides door-to-door service , which is
not possible with other means.
It is the most promising means of
agricultural and industrial advancement of a
Today , it occupies a predominant position
in the transport network in the country.
Roads are classified into following 4 categories
1. National highways - These roads links large
cities and big industrial centers.
2. State Highways
- These roads connects all
important centres of industry, trade as well as
commerce of the state and also national
3. District Roads - These roads connect different
parts of district , important industrial centres,
important railway station.
4. Rural Roads- These are found in villages both
pucca or Metalled and kutch or Non-Metalled.
MAJOR NATIONAL HIGHWAYS IN INDIA
Name of Highways
Cities Connected by Them
Grand Truck Road
Calcutta, Delhi, Patna & Amritsar
Calcutta, Nagpur & Mumbai
Agra, Gwalior, Indore & Mumbai
Calcutta, Cuttack & Chennai
Great Kadan Road
Mirzapur, Nagpur & Banglore
Advantages of road transport
Reach to remote places
Road development in India
India has one of the largest road networks in the
world, aggregating to about 33.14 lakh km at present.
However, this network is not adequate for speedy
and efficient transportation.
Important initiatives in the road
1. The National Highway Development project
Deals with building high quality highways.
The NHDP is largest highway project
undertaken by the country and is being
implemented by the National Highway Authority of
2. Pradhan Mantri Bharat Jado pariyojana (PMBJP )Deals with linking up major cities to the NHDP
3. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY )It addresses the rural roads.
Water transport are cheapest method of shipping heavy ,
low value , non – perishable goods .
Water transport can be divided into 2 categories.
Inland water transport
It includes natural modes such as navigable rivers and
India has about 14,500 kms of navigable waterways.
Development of IWT commenced from second five
year plan –total outlay was around rs.34cr.
Further rs.903cr was alloted for IWT in one tenth
Again, in 11th plan period three more waterways are
proposed to be added to include coverage of
2. Shipping – it is divided into 2 categories.
(a)Coastal shipping (b) Overseas shipping
(a)Coastal shipping –
India has a longest coastline of 7,517 km,
number of ports,
12 major and 200 non-major ports besides a
It is the most energy efficient and cheapest
mode of transport for carriage of bulky goods
like iron and steel, coal , iron ore , timber , etc
over long distance.
(b) Overseas shipping In this case, due to international trade
considerable attention has been paid to
raise shipping tonnage during planning
As a result, the share of Indian shipping in
the transportation of India’s overseas
trade has slowly and consistently
increased in the planning period.
Presently, almost 90 percent of the
country’s trade volume is moved by sea.
In India, there are 12 major ports and
200 non-major ports along the coastline.
Major ports direct responsibility of
central government while non-major
ports are managed and administrated by
the respective state government.
Further a major port project of Nhava
sheva was sanctioned of an estimated
cost of rs. 592 cr .
Air transport is most modern ,quickest as well as latest edition
to the mode of transport.
Airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI).
Efforts are on to provide with the latest scientific technology
to ensure passengers safety and quick handling of passengers
and freight traffic.
In India, government first decided to air routes in 1920
Mumbai and kolkata
Kolkata and Rangoon
Subsequently, during 10th plan period an expenditure of rs.
12,928 cr was provided to the ministry of civil Aviation out
of which rs.7,792cr was spent.
Further ,in 11th plan rs.43,560 cr was kept aside as total
PROBLEMS OF AIR TRANSPORT IN INDIA
1. There are a small number of industrial and
business centers as compared to the size of the
Heavy goods can’t be transported from one
place to another by aero planes.
The cost of aviation petrol is very high
resulting in the high cost of operation and making
air travel beyond the reach of middle classes.
The components and spare parts of the
aero planes are imported from other countries.
This has impeded the growth of civil aviation of