Role of private and public educational institutions in enhancing quality education 2007


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  • Education is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty and inequality. Education is equally key to enhance ’s competitiveness in the global economy. Therefore, ensuring access to quality education for all, in particular for the poor and rural population, is central to the economic and social development of India.
  • Monastic orders of education under the supervision of a guru was a favored form of education for the nobility in ancient India.[9] The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform.[10] The priest class, the Brahmins, were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare.[10] The business class, the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the lowered class of the Shudras was generally deprived of educational advantages.Apart from the monastic orders, institutions of higher learning and universities flourished in India well before the common era, and continued to deliver education into the common era
  • Education in India is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsorysome responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled.
  • Education in India is mainly provided by the public sector. Public schools are part of a larger school system, which functions as a part of the government and must follow the rules and regulations set by politicians. Control and funding of public schools come from three levels: federal, state, and local.Child education is compulsory.
  • (majority of the female characters being depicted as weak and helpless).
  • . The programme is managed with an ultra modern centralized kitchen that is run through a public/private partnership.The programme contains one of the best menus in school meal programmes in India with tasty sambar, rice, vegetables and some curd on most days.
  • making the government the major provider of education. However, because of poor quality of public education,
  • (AFTER 2 PARAGRAPH) * It also enables teachers to instantly assess and evaluate the learning achieved by their students in class with innovative use of technology.* Learning Hour tutors assign relevant Smart Class modules to students to view either before or after a tutoring session to prepare them or concretize the learning in the session. The well-designed modules allow a student to visualise the concepts much better than static images or oral instruction and hence improve learning greatly 
  • Emphasis is laid on passing exams with high percentage.Few institutes give importance to developing personality and creativity among students.which is in many cases not all they have to pay: the cost for the school uniform, school buses, books, miscellaneous materials supplied to students (notes, other paper), school picnic, etc. are not included in the fees. Also, items supplied by the school such as textbooks are sometimes given at a price that is higher than the retail price, even though such items are ordered in bulk.A large number of SSC (State board) students complain that their ICSE and CBSE counterparts are given higher percentages, which gives them an unfair advantage during college admissions. Most colleges though account for these differences during admissions. Generally, ICSE and CBSE certificates are more sought after than SSC certificates, as they are nation wide boards. The syllabi prescribed by the various boards are accused of being archaic and some textbooks (mostly ones written for the SSC) contain many errors
  • (or even plagiarized). This is attributed to pressure from parents who are eager to see high scores more than overall development.Many allege that only creamy layer of the weaker castes get the benefit of reservations and that forged caste certificates abound. Educational institutions also can seek religious minority (non-Hindu) or linguistic minority status. In such institutions, 50% of the seats are reserved for students belonging to a particular religion or having particular mother-tongue(s). For example, many colleges run by the Jesuits and Salesians have 50% seats reserved for Roman Catholics. In case of languages, an institution can declare itself linguistic minority only in states in which the language is not official language. For example, an engineering college can declare itself as linguistic-minority (Hindi) institution in the state of Maharashtra (where official state language is Marathi), but not in Madhya Pradesh or Uttar Pradesh (where the official state language is Hindi). These reservations have been a cause of heartburn among many. Many students with poor marks manage to get creamy admissions, while meritorious students are left out. Critics say that such reservations may eventually create rifts in the society.Engineering, medical and other lucrative seats are sometimes sold for high prices and ridden with nepotism and power-play.but tough rules and regulations have curbed it. Some state governments have made ragging a criminal offence.
  • To some of them, their education may have given the technical know-how (though it is hardly conceivable), but not the dream or the inspiration needed. It is the education which should inspire one to become something one really wants to. Education should make you free, should make you experiment and it should make you ask questions. Ultimately, it should make you realize what you are.Youngsters in India, do not have the freedom of selecting there career, it is said. They are forced to become engineers, doctors, MBA’s and IAS officers, it is said. Yes, agree. But that is not the problem. The problem is, youngsters in India do not have the vision to think beyond. Neither their parents, nor their grandparents had that vision. This is where the root of the problem is. Generations have gone through a system which sucks. Now the beauty is even the law-makers and educators of today’s India are products of that age old system. That is why no less than a revolution is needed in the education system in India.
  • Japan has 110 teachers for 1000 students for engineering, medical and other management courses. Germany has 76 teachers for 1000 students, America has 65, South Korea has 46 and China has 30. But in India there are only 3 teachers for the batch of 1000 students. That is why we are way behind to provide professional education to out students.
  • Several children do not even get a basic elementary education. Teacher absenteeismand lack of Teacher Accountabilityare the major impediments in providing quality education to the students in public schools.Achievement levels of students are indicators of the quality of teaching – learning in schools. Performance of students continues to remain at low levels both at primary and upper primary levels.Both the private and government schools in smaller towns and villages are uniformly pathetic. “An entire generation of children; free from the burden of poverty; born, educated and employed gainfully is maximizing equal opportunities and reducing the Gender Gap at all levels of education.
  • Role of private and public educational institutions in enhancing quality education 2007

    1. 1. Role ofPrivate and PublicEducational Institutions inEnhancing QualityEducation
    2. 2. We consider it a privilege to place our deepest sense ofgratitude and sincere thanks to our beloved principal, Prof.N.VRamakrishna Murali for his sincere co-operation, guidance andsupervision during the course of this project work under takenby us.We are extremely thankful and wish to express our sinceregratitude to our respected co-coordinator and our projectguide, Naveen Sir for his kind co-operation and for providingvaluable suggestions and constant encouragement for theimprovement and successful completion of this project.Finally we thank all our friends, Faculty members & ourbeloved sister Kusuma Shree.K for spending their valuable timewith us in designing this project••
    3. 3. 1. Kavya Shree.K2. Sheethal.K.N3. Rajeshwari.B.S4. Jayashree.G.S5. Gunasheela.H.S6. Chaitra Adiga7. Shamya.K
    4. 4.  Introduction History Public Education Private Education Facts Criticisms On Education System Review Of Literature Findings Recommendations Bibliography
    5. 5. The greatest progress will occur in those countries whereeducation is widespread and where it encourages experimentaloutlook. Educational development is a pre-condition of technologicalchange. The investments made in education accelerate economicgrowth. The effective utilization of manpower depends oneducation, training and industrial experience of the people. Educationis a basic infrastructure and it is important as defence of a country.“Education Builds The Man So It Builds The Nation.”
    6. 6. With the gradual rise ofmore complex civilizations in theriver valleys of Egypt andBabylonia, knowledge became toocomplicated to transmit directlyfrom person to person and fromgeneration to generation.To be able to function in complex societies, man needed some way of• accumulating,• recording, and• preserving his cultural heritage, so came the invention of WRITING
    7. 7. Because firsthandexperience aplace devotedexclusively tolearningTHE SCHOOLappeared.And with theschool appeareda group of adultsspeciallydesignated asTEACHERSThe method of learning was memorization, and themotivation was the fear of harsh physical discipline. On anancient Egyptian clay tablet discovered by archaeologists, achild had written:"Thou didst beat me and knowledge entered myhead."
    8. 8. The History Of Education is the history of teaching andlearning. The earliest known universities, or places of highereducation, started teaching a millennium or more years ago.The Gurukul System ofeducation supported traditionalHindu residential schools oflearning. At the Gurukuls, theteacher impartedknowledge of:•Warfare,•Statecraft,•Medicine•Astrology•Religion•Scriptures•philosophy•Literature
    9. 9. The Nalanda University was theoldest university-system ofeducation in the world. Some of theother universities includeTakshashila University, Ujjain, &Vikramshila Universities.Western education becameingrained into Indian society withthe establishment of the British.Education in India falls under thecontrol of both the UnionGovernment and the states.
    10. 10. Education in India is mainly provided by the public sector.Public educational institutions are part of a largereducational system, which functions as a part of thegovernment and must follow the rules and regulations setby politicians.Control and funding of public educational institutionscome from three levels: federal, state, and local.
    11. 11. By law, public schools must accept all children. In manycases, enrolling your child involves little more than filling out afew forms and providing proof of your address to the local schooldistrict office. In practice, however, getting your child into thepublic school of his or her choice can be much morecomplicated.Finally, at the high school level, many districts in largermetropolitan areas offer special schools with competitiveenrollment based on students GPAs or artistic portfolios.
    12. 12. Its important to note that all teachers in a publicschool are usually state certified or, at a minimum, workingtoward certification. Certification ensures that a teacher hasgone through the training required by the state, whichincludes student teaching and course work.
    13. 13. Women have much lower literacy rate than men. Far fewer girls are enrolledin the schools, and many of them drop out. According to a 1998 report byU.S. Department of Commerce, the chief barrier to female education inIndia are inadequate school facilities and shortage of female teachers.Conservative cultural attitudes, especially among Muslims, prevents somegirls from attending school Recently the Indian government has launchedSaakshar Bharat Mission for Female Literacy, this mission aims to bringdown female illiteracy by half of its present level.
    14. 14. Less thanprimary28%Highersecondaryand above9%10-yearsecondary11%Middle21%Primary31%FemaleLess thanprimary24%Highersecondaryand above13%10-yearsecondary14%Middle21%Primary28%Maleprimary is 5 yrs of completed schooling middle is 8 yrs,10 - year secondary is 10years and higher secondary and above is 12 yrs or more
    15. 15. A large proportion of women in India are illiterates and ignorant.The female literacy rate is just 54.16% as against male literacy rateof 75.85%. Similarly combined gross enrolment ratio of femalewas 48% percent as against 62% of males in1999.Year Age Persons Males Females1951196119711981199120015 years and above5 years and above5 years and above7 years and above7 years and above7 years and above18.3328.3034.4543.5752.2165.3827.1640.4045.9556.3763.8675.858.8615.3421.9729.7539.4554.16Literacy rates in INDIA 1951-2001(%)
    16. 16. The Mid-day Meal Scheme is the popular name for school mealprogramme in India. The State of Karnataka introduced the provision of cookedmeals in June 2002. It involves provision of lunch free of cost to school-childrenon all working days. The key objectives of the programme are:• protecting children from hunger• increasing school enrolment• attendance• improved socialization• addressing malnutrition.12 crore (120 million) children are so far covered under the Mid-dayMeal Scheme. It has successfully involved private sector participation in theprogramme. One such successful venture is Akshaya Patra, which started withleadership from ISKCON in the Bangalore community. Food is delivered toschools in sealed and heat retaining containers just before the lunch break everyday.
    17. 17. Education in India is also provided by the privatesector.private educational institutions must generatetheir own funding, which typically comes from avariety of sources: tuition; private grants; andfundraising from parents, alumni, and othercommunity members.
    18. 18. • According to current estimates, 80% of alleducational institutions are public educationalinstitutions and 27% of Indian children are privatelyeducated.• Private educational institutions fail to provideeducation to the poorest families.• Private educational institutions do not receive taxrevenues, so they do not have to follow the samesorts of regulations that govern public schools.
    19. 19. • Private educational institutions cover the entirecurriculum and offer extra-curricular activities such asscience fairs, general knowledge, sports, music anddrama.• Private educational institutions must generate theirown funding, which typically comes from a variety ofsources: tuition; private grants; and fundraising fromparents, alumni, and other community members.•Private educational institutions often provide superiorresults than public educational institutions.
    20. 20. Private schools, by their very definition, are selective.They are not obligated to accept every child, so gettingadmitted may involve in-depth applications with multipleinterviews, essays, and testing. Because private schoolsdefine the identity of their communities, they often pick andchoose between candidates based not only on their scholasticachievement but also their ethnicity and religious backgroundas well as the special attributes (or assets) of their parents.
    21. 21. People assume that teachersat private schools are as qualified asthose at public ones, its important tonote that all teachers in a publicschool are usually state certified or, ata minimum, working towardcertification but Teachers in privateschools may not be required to havecertification. Instead, they often havesubject-area expertise and anundergraduate or graduate degree in the subject they teach.
    22. 22. Smart Class is a comprehensive solution designed to assist teachersin meeting with their day to day classroom challenges and enhancingstudents academic performance with simple, practical and meaningful use oftechnology.Smart Class provides teachers with instant access to multimediacontent and instruction materials mapped exactly to the specific curriculumguidelines for use in class.Smart Class is highly efficient in maintaining students interest andengagement in learning inside the classroom. Smart Class simplifies theproblems of teaching concepts that are difficult for students to visualize. Ithas interactive multi-media modules.
    23. 23. •There are 268 million illiterate people in India, unable to read, writeor make a reasoned decision and almost a third of the world’s totalnumber.•India spends only 3.3 percent of its GDP on education, compared toan average 5.8 percent in developed countries.•In many states of India, 95 percent of all education budgets payteachers salaries, with less than 1 percent in some cases for schoolsand materials.•A girl’s education is an abruptly ended hope for millions of girls asonly 1 in 4 remain in school long enough to complete Class 10.•Women receive on average only 1.8 years of schooling in India.
    24. 24. •Of the 32 million children that began school in 2004,less than half will complete a compulsory 8 years ofeducation.•Across India, there are 13 million working children,many of whose lives were scripted the moment theywere born.•Disorder, lack of discipline and poor conditions meanthat 1 in 4 teachers never turn up to class.•Average class sizes are up to 40 students nationwideand up to 83 in the Indian state of Bihar (North India).•In 75 percent of schools there is only one teacher forseveral classes.
    25. 25. • Modern education in India is oftencriticized for being based on rotelearning.•The expenditure spent on schools isgenerally very less as compared theadmission fees of the students.•The presence of a number of education boards(SSC, ICSE, CBSE, IB) leads to non-uniformity.
    26. 26. •The boards are recently trying to improve quality ofeducation by increasing percentage of practical andproject marks. However, critics say even this ismemorized by students.• Recently, the country has seen arise in instances of student suicidesdue to low marks and failures,especially in metropolitan cities.•Ragging used to be amajor problem in colleges
    27. 27. •The general corruption prevalentin India is also an issue in theEducation system.•Student politics is also a majorissue, as many institutions are runby politicians.•Many people also criticize the reversediscrimination inherent in caste, language andreligion-based reservations in education system.
    28. 28. Education builds the man so it builds the nation.Today we claim to be the biggest human resourcessupplier for the world, but are we concerned whatquality of human capital we are building and for whoseneeds? We supply bureaucrats to the government,software engineers to the IT companies around theworld, highly paid managers to the multinationals, wesupply engineers and science graduates as researchersto the foreign universities. What capital are we buildingfor ourselves?
    29. 29. India needs artists who could make its culture themost popular in the world. A culture which is not onlysaleable itself but also helps in selling India’s productsacross the world. In a nutshell, India needs Henry Fords,Bill Gateses, Thomas Alva Edisons and Michael Jacksonsborn and educated in India.India aspires to be powerful, it wants to play a rolein the international community, for that to happen, itseconomy has to grow multifold and for that to happen, itrequires a huge force of entrepreneurs who couldtransform it into a nation which produces, from the onewhich only consumes. India needs a huge force ofinnovators who could make it self reliant in all kinds ofsciences and technologies.
    30. 30. One may say we had few. Yes, we had. M. S.Swaminathan who made India self reliant in foodgrains, Dhiru Bhai Ambani who proved a common mancan become a billionaire, Dr. Varghese Kurien who isthe father of Amul milk movement, Dr. A. P. J. AbdulKalam who dared to build missiles for India, PunditRavishankar who is the ambassador of the Indian musicto the world. Such people though in small numbers, werealways there. But they are not the products of this educationsystem. This system did not teach them how to becomeinnovators or entrepreneurs or artists. Had it done so, theywould have been millions in numbers. These people wereinspired themselves.
    31. 31. 1. Best talents of the country working in the education sector.2. A world class infrastructure.3. Greater investments into education, public as well as private.4. Education which encourages innovation and creativity.5. Education which encourages entrepreneurship.6. An education which makes a child sad when the last bell isrung at the end of the day in the school.A revolution means big changes. We expect the revolution ineducation to bring lots of changes. These changes will resultinto:
    32. 32. Education system in India is not good. most of thestudents are not satisfied with this system thats whythey have to move foreign for their higher education. Wehave a few college very less school. we have 550 millionpopulation who are 1-21[age]. around 300 millionstudents are not studying. after passing twelfth class 46/student prefer to go to college. We can say ten out onestudent goes for higher study nine student hang aroundhere and there. after getting freedom we are failed toprovide good education for Indian youth. more then 2.50lakh student go to abroad year and they pay 50,00 crorerupee for higher education. we need more IITs , IIMsfor stopping brain drain. India has 17000 colleges whichare affiliated to around 500 universities.By: Santosh Chaudhary
    33. 33. Suggestions to improve education system.1. Change the syllabus and teaching methods.2. Select more and more attractive courses. which can bebeneficial for needy person. provide quality education toyour youth.3. Infrastructure must be comfortable for students. ifsomeone is paying high fee then he will require goodquality and technology with study.4. Provide them good course after metric education. andtrained teachers properly.5. Fill the vacancy of teachers .
    34. 34. 02040608010012011076 6545303TeachersJapan has 110 teachers for 1000 students forengineering, medical and other management courses.Germany has 76 teachers for 1000 students, Americahas 65, South Korea has 46 and China has 30. But inIndia there are only 3 teachers for the batch of 1000students. That is why we are way behind to provideprofessional education to our students.Article Source:
    35. 35. These are some bad effected points which are road-blocksalso. government will open 1500 new universities forIndias population of 130 crore. And central governmenthas shown some seriousness to this recommendation andhas issued ten thousand crores to provide highereducation. 100 IITs and IIMs can be opened every yearwith the money that is transferred to other counties everyyear when Indian students go to those countries.Professionals play an important role in their countryseconomic progress. But it is out misfortune that outschool system is in a dilapidated and devastatedsituation. For the 95 per cent students, technical and workoriented education is just a dream. Professional educationinstitutes are the base of every countrys economicprogress. But the gap between progressing andprogressed countries can not be filled in short term as foras the professional and technical education is concerned.
    36. 36. • Several children do not even get a basic elementaryeducation.• Private school students typically score higher than publicschool students on standardized tests.• Teacher absenteeism and lack of Teacher Accountabilityare the major impediments in providing quality education tothe students in public schools.• Achievement levels of students are indicators of the qualityof teaching – learning in schools. Performance of studentscontinues to remain at low levels both at primary and upperprimary levels.• Both the private and government schools in smaller townsand villages are uniformly pathetic.
    37. 37. • Even if one graduates from college, the graduates are mostlyunemployable, because of poor quality course material and teaching in thecolleges.• Even if a student graduates from a higher secondary school, there are notenough colleges. The only hope left to most high school graduates iscorrespondence education. It is not clear to me whether one can be motivatedenough to study through the correspondence course material sitting at home.• Just one out of nine children finishing school joins a college. India has one ofthe lowest higher education enrollment ratio of 11 per cent. In the US it is 83 percent.• A study by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council showedthat 90 per cent of the colleges and 70 per cent of the universities that thecouncil graded were of middling or poor quality• On an average most Indian universities revise their curricula only once in fiveto 10 years but even then they get defeated in both letter and spirit
    38. 38. • In 50 years, only 44 private institutions were granted deemeduniversity status by the University Grants Commission. In the last 5years, it has granted that status to 49 more, leading to charges ofimpropriety• The quality of school education hasn’t improved. A recent study foundthat in rural north India on an average day, there is no teaching activity inabout half” of the primary schools• Almost half of the country’s population is below 25 years. Almost 10 percent of them or 12 crore are between the ages of 18 and 23. If they areequipped with both knowledge and skills, they could drive India’sentrepreneurial and Competitive spirit and make it into global power.• Implementation of time bound projects and flagship programme likeDPEP, SSA and Mid Day Meal programme by the inspectorate with noadministrative support has affected the supervision of the schools.
    39. 39. • Compulsory free education should be made available till Class XII.• Quality of teaching in public schools should be increased.• Make the schools child friendly learning hubs.• While providing adequate number of schools to match thedemand for enrolment, “Quality” was inadequately addressed and“Equity” remained almost unattended.• Build the capacities of the meritorious but poor children tocompete with others in common Admission Tests for HigherEducation courses and also in the competitive exams for highprofile jobs.
    40. 40. • Survey of schools for drafting a suitable plan of action tobridge the gaps in academic and infrastructural aspects.• Extend the benefit of career and academic guidance bybuilding up the capacities of the local teachers and lecturersin High Schools and Junior colleges.• Govt. schools should be run by private entities/entrepreneurs.• All education above higher secondary school level shouldbe primarily dealt with by private entities.
    41. 41. •Build the capacities of children from 7 standardonwards to access various courses of higher educationaccording to their aptitude.•College education through correspondence system to beincreased•Streamlining the youth to various courses of highereducation and job market.•School improvement program including English languageprogram to be put in place in Govt.schools.
    42. 42. •School improvement program including English languageprogram to be put in place in Govt.schools.Impediments in the way of setting up for-profit privatecolleges to be removed•Alternate education must be promoted•Building up awareness on the scholarships, incentivesand other facilities being provided for backward classesby the Government.•Universalization of good quality basic education:
    43. 43. • Expanding secondary education and improving quality• Reforming vocational education and training• Expanding and Improving Technical and TertiaryEducation:• Building awareness on scholarship entitlements forcandidates along with special assistance programs underthe Government schemes.•The rural women should now look for quality Educationfor their children, which is the surest way out of poverty.
    44. 44. (2007)