MGMT 326Foundations Products & Quality Planning Facilitiesof Operations Processes Assuranc & Control e Managing Managing Capacit Introduction y Projects Quality and Strategy Product Statistical Location Design Process Facility Control Layout Process Design Just-in-Time & Lean Systems
Presentation Outline Importance of layout planning Process and product layouts Office layouts Designing cellular layouts
What Is Layout Planning? Layout planning is determining the best physical arrangement of resources within a facility
Why is layout planning important? Eliminates unnecessary costs for space and materials handling Reduces work-in-process inventory Produces goods and services faster Reduces distances that workers must travel in the workplace Improves communication and morale Increases retail sales Improves brand image
Types of Layouts Process layouts: Group similar resources together Product layouts: Designed to produce a specific product, or a small number of products efficiently Hybrid layouts: Combine aspects of both process and product layouts Example: cellular layout Fixed-Position layouts: Product is too large to move Examples: building construction, shipyard Resources must be brought to where they are needed
Process Layouts Used in project and batch manufacturing (intermittent processes) Also used in department stores, offices, hospitals, and universities Able to make or sell a variety of products Use general purpose resources Less automation than in product layouts
Process Layouts (2) Material handling costs per unit are higher than in product layouts Scheduling production is more complex than in product layouts
Product Layouts Used in assembly lines and continuous manufacturing (repetitive processes) A cafeteria line is a product layout In manufacturing, product layouts are used to produce one product, or a small group of products, efficiently Uses special purpose resources More automation than in process layouts
Product Layouts (2) Material handling costs per unit are lower than in process layouts Scheduling production is simpler than in process layouts
Designing Process Layouts Step 1: Gather information: Space needed, space available, importance of proximity between various units Step 2: Develop alternative block plans: Using trial-and-error or decision support tools 2 approaches Relationship (REL) chart From-to matrix Can use both Decision support systems are heuristic methods Usually give a "good" solution Solution may not be optimal (best solution)
Designing Process Layouts (2) Step 3: Develop a detailed layout Consider exact sizes and shapes of departments and work centers including aisles and stairways Tools like drawings, 3-D models, and computer-assisted design (CAD) software are often used
Process Layout Example Block layout for a sports medicine clinic A B C Radiology Laboratory Lobby & Waiting D E F Examining Surgery & Physical Rooms Recovery Therapy
Designing Product Layouts Objectives Produce the required number of units to meet demand Use workers and equipment efficiently High utilization of workers and equipment Balance workload among employees
Designing Product Layouts (2) Based on a precedence diagram Assign tasks to work stations Assign work stations to locations
Office Layouts Almost half the U. S. work force works in an office Human interaction and communication are the primary considerations in office layouts People who need to interact frequently should be close to each other One key layout tradeoff is between closeness and privacy
Office Layouts (2) Open concept offices promote understanding and trust. A few closed rooms are needed for private discussions, such as personnel matters. Moveable walls provide flexibility to change the layout when needed.
Office Layout Example 3D Systems Hi-tech company – provides equipment and materials for rapid product design and manufacturing Rock Hill headquarters handles product design, sales, training, and administration Open office plan Conference room Areas for informal meetings Product showroom for customers Cyber café and fitness center for employees
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