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  • 1. Chapter 17 Legal, Ethical, and Social Impacts of EC
  • 2. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 2 Learning Objectives 1. Describe the differences between legal and ethical issues in EC. 2. Understand the difficulties of protecting privacy in EC. 3. Discuss issues of intellectual property rights in EC. 4. Describe unsolicited ad problems and remedies. 5. Understand the conflict between free speech and censorship on the Internet.
  • 3. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 3 Learning Objectives 6. Describe major legal issues in EC. 7. Describe the types of fraud on the Internet and how to protect against them. 8. Describe representative societal issues in EC. 9. Describe the role and impact of virtual communities on EC. 10. Describe the future of EC.
  • 4. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 4 Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues ethics The branch of philosophy that deals with what is considered to be right and wrong
  • 5. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 5 Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues • The Major Ethical and Legal Issues Discussed in this Chapter – Privacy – Intellectual property rights and online piracy – Unsolicited electronic ads and spamming – Free speech versus censorship – Consumer and merchant protection against fraud
  • 6. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 6 Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues • EC Ethical Issues – Non-Work-Related Use of the Internet • Employees are tempted to use e-mail and the Web for non-work-related purposes • In some companies, this use is tremendously out of proportion with its work-related use • The utility of monitoring employee usage can be considered “one of the most controversial EC issues”
  • 7. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 7 Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues – Codes of Ethics: Useful guidelines for a corporate Web policy: • Issue written policy guidelines about employee use of the Internet • Make it clear to employees that they cannot use copyrighted trademarked material without permission • Post disclaimers concerning content, such as sample code, that the company does not support • Post disclaimers of responsibility concerning content of online forums and chat sessions
  • 8. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 8 Legal Issues Versus Ethical Issues • Codes of Ethics: Useful guidelines for a corporate Web policy: – Make sure that Web content and activity comply with the laws in other countries – Make sure that Web content and activity comply with the laws in other countries – Make sure that the company’s Web content policy is consistent with other company policies – Appoint someone to monitor Internet legal and liability issues. – Have attorneys review Web content to make sure that there is nothing unethical, or illegal, on the company’s Web site
  • 9. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 9 Privacy privacy The right to be left alone and the right to be free of unreasonable personal intrusions • Collecting Information about Individuals – Web Site Registration – Cookies – Spyware and Similar Methods – RFID’s Threat to Privacy – Privacy of Employees – Privacy of Patients
  • 10. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 10 • Protection of Privacy – Notice/awareness – Choice/consent opt-out clause Agreement that requires computer users to take specific steps to prevent the collection of personal information opt-in clause Agreement that requires computer users to take specific steps to allow the collection of personal information
  • 11. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 11 Privacy • Protection of Privacy – Access/participation – Integrity/security – Enforcement/redress
  • 12. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 12 Privacy • The USA Patriot Act – E-mail and Internet searches – Nationwide roving wiretaps – Requirement that ISPs hand over more user information – Expanded scope of surveillance based on new definitions of terrorism – Government spying on suspected computer trespassers with no need for court order – Wiretaps for suspected violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
  • 13. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 13 Privacy • The USA Patriot Act – Dramatic increases in the scope and penalties of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act – General expansion of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) authority – Increased information sharing between domestic law enforcement and intelligence – FISA detours around federal domestic surveillance limitations; domestic surveillance detours around FISA limitations
  • 14. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 14 Privacy • Privacy Protection in Other Countries – In 1998, the European Union passed a privacy directive (EU Data Protection Directive) reaffirming the principles of personal data protection in the Internet age – The directive aims to regulate the activities of any person or company that controls the collection, storage, processing, or use of personal data on the Internet
  • 15. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 15 Intellectual Property Rights intellectual property Creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs, used in commerce
  • 16. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 16 Intellectual Property Rights copyright An exclusive grant from the government that allows the owner to reproduce a work, in whole or in part, and to distribute, perform, or display it to the public in any form or manner, including over Internet • Literary works • Musical works • Dramatic works • Artistic works • Sound recordings, films, broadcasts, cable programs
  • 17. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 17 Intellectual Property Rights • Copyrights – Piracy of Software, Music, and Other Digitizable Material – Copyright Protection Approaches digital watermarks Unique identifiers embedded in digital content that make it possible to identify pirated works – Digital Rights Management
  • 18. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 18 Intellectual Property Rights trademark A symbol used by businesses to identify their goods and services; government registration of the trademark confers exclusive legal right to its use – Domain Name Disputes and Resolutions cybersquatting The practice of registering domain names in order to sell them later at a higher price
  • 19. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 19 Intellectual Property Rights patent A document that grants the holder exclusive rights to an invention for a fixed number of years • Fan and Hate Sites cyberbashing The registration of a domain name that criticizes an organization or person
  • 20. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 20 Unsolicited Electronic Ads: Problems and Solutions • E-Mail Spamming unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE) The use of e-mail to send unwanted ads or correspondence – What Drives UCE? Many spammers are just trying to get people’s financial information
  • 21. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 21 Unsolicited Electronic Ads: Problems and Solutions – Why It Is Difficult to Control Spamming • Spammers send millions of e-mails, shifting Internet accounts to avoid detection • Spammers use different methods to find their victims – Solutions to Spamming • Junk-mail filters • Automatic junk-mail deleters • Blocking certain URLs and e-mail addresses
  • 22. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 22 Exhibit 17.1 How Spam Blockers Work
  • 23. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 23 Unsolicited Electronic Ads: Problems and Solutions • E-Mail Spamming – Anti-spam Legislation • Do-not-spam lists • Protecting employees
  • 24. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 24 Unsolicited Electronic Ads: Problems and Solutions • Protecting against Pop-Up Ads – Pop-Up stoppers • Concluding Remarks – The spam situation has not yet been resolved. However, it seems that both e-mail spamming and pop-ups are not increasing, and they may even be declining
  • 25. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 25 Free Speech Versus Censorship and Other Legal Issues • On the Internet, censorship refers to government’s attempt to control, in one way or another, the material that is presented • “Donham’s First Law of Censorship.” This semiserious precept states: “Most citizens are implacably opposed to censorship in any form— except censorship of whatever they personally happen to find offensive.” • Children’s Online Protection Act (COPA) exemplifies the protective approach
  • 26. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 26 Free Speech Versus Censorship and Other Legal Issues – Other Legal Issues – Electronic Contracts • A legally binding contract requires a few basic elements: an offer, acceptance, and consideration • These requirements are difficult to establish when the human element in the processing of the transaction is removed and the contracting is performed electronically • Intelligent Agents and Contracts Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act ( 2000), makes clear that contracts can be formed even when a human is not directly involved
  • 27. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 27 Free Speech Versus Censorship and Other Legal Issues • Taxing Business on the Internet This issue is extremely important because it is related to global EC, as well as to fairness in competition when EC competes with off-line marketing channels, which requires the collection of taxes
  • 28. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 28 Free Speech Versus Censorship and Other Legal Issues • The Tax-Exemption Debate – The Internet Tax Freedom Act 1(998) sought to promote e-commerce through tax incentives, by barring any new state or local sales taxes on Internet transactions until October 2001 – The U.S. Congress extended the tax moratorium until 2006, giving it time to digest the contents of the report and hash out contentious tax issues
  • 29. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 29 Free Speech Versus Censorship and Other Legal Issues • The Tax-Exemption Debate – Proposed Taxation in the United States • The National Governors’ Association, the National League of Cities, and the U.S. Conference of Mayors fought the Tax Free Bill for the Internet • The U.S. Congress blocked state and local governments from taxing connections that link consumers to the Internet, at least until November 2007
  • 30. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 30 EC Fraud and Consumer and Seller Protection • Fraud on the Internet – Online Auction Fraud – Internet Stock Fraud – Other Financial Fraud
  • 31. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 31 EC Fraud and Consumer and Seller Protection • Fraud on the Internet – Identity Theft and Phishing identity theft A criminal act in which someone presents himself (herself) as another person and uses that person’s social security number, bank account numbers, and so on, to obtain loans, purchase items, make obligations, sell stocks, etc.
  • 32. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 32 EC Fraud and Consumer and Seller Protection • Consumer Protection – Third-Party Assurance Services • TRUSTe’s “Trustmark” • Better Business Bureau • WHICHonline • Web Trust Seal and Others • Online Privacy Alliance • Evaluation by Consumers – Authentication and Biometric Controls
  • 33. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 33 EC Fraud and Consumer and Seller Protection • Seller Protection – Customers who deny that they placed an order – Customers who download copyrighted software and/or knowledge and sell it to others – Customers who give false payment (credit card or bad checks) information in payment for products and services provided – Use of their name by others – Use of their unique words and phrases, names, and slogans and their Web addresses by others
  • 34. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 34 EC Fraud and Consumer and Seller Protection • What can Sellers Do? – Use intelligent software to identify possibly questionable customers – Identify warning signals for possibly fraudulent transactions – Ask customers whose billing address is different from the shipping address to call their bank and have the alternate address added to their bank account
  • 35. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 35 Societal Issues digital divide The gap between those who have and those who do not have the ability to access electronic technology in general, and the Internet and EC in particular • Other Societal Issues – Education – Public safety, criminal justice, and homeland security – Health aspects
  • 36. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 36 Virtual (Internet) Communities virtual (Internet) community A group of people with similar interests who interact with one another using the Internet • Characteristics of Communities One possibility is to classify members as traders, players, just friends, enthusiasts, or friends in need
  • 37. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 37 Virtual (Internet) Communities 1. Search communities 2. Trading communities 3. Education communities 4. Scheduled events communities 5. Subscriber-based communities 6. Community consulting firms 7. E-mail-based communities 8. Advocacy communities 9. CRM communities 10.Mergers and acquisitions activities Commercial Aspects of Communities
  • 38. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 38 Virtual (Internet) Communities • Types of Virtual Communities – Transaction – Purpose or interest – Relations or practice – Fantasy • Financial Viability of Communities: Revenue model of communities can be based on: – Sponsorship – Membership fees – Sales commissions – Advertising – Combination of these
  • 39. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 39 Exhibit 17.5 Value Creation in Electronic Communities
  • 40. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 40 Virtual (Internet) Communities 1. Increase traffic and participation in the community 2. Focus on the needs of the members; use facilitators and coordinators 3. Encourage free sharing of opinions and information—no controls 4. Obtain financial sponsorship. This factor is a must. Significant investment is required 5. Consider the cultural environment 6. Provide several tools and activities for member use; communities are not just discussion groups 7. Involve community members in activities and recruiting 8. Guide discussions, provoke controversy, and raise sticky issues. This keeps interest high Eight critical factors for community success:
  • 41. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 41 Virtual (Internet) Communities Key Strategies for Successful Online Communities 1. Handle member data sensitively 2. Maintain stability of the Web site with respect to the consistency of content, services, and types of information offered 3. Provide fast reaction time of the Web site 4. Offer up-to-date content 5. Offer continuous community control with regard to member satisfaction 6. Establish codes of behavior (netiquette/guidelines) to contain conflict potential
  • 42. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 42 The Future of EC • Nontechnological Success Factors – Internet Usage – Opportunities for Buying – M-Commerce – Purchasing Incentives – Increased Security and Trust – Efficient Information Handling – Innovative Organizations – Virtual Communities
  • 43. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 43 The Future of EC • Nontechnological Success Factors – Payment Systems – B2B EC – B2B Exchanges – Auctions – Going Global – E-Government – Intra-business EC – E-Learning – EC Legislation
  • 44. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 44 The Future of EC • EC Technology Trends – Clients – Embedded Clients – Wireless Communications and M-Commerce – Pervasive Computing – Wearable Devices – RFID – Servers and Operating Systems – Networks
  • 45. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 45 The Future of EC • EC Technology Trends – EC Software and Services – Search Engines – Peer-to-Peer Technology – Integration – Web Services – Software Agents – Interactive TV – Tomorrow’s Internet
  • 46. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 46 The Future of EC • EC Technology Trends utility computing Computing resources that flow like electricity on demand from virtual utilities around the globe—always on and highly available, secure, efficiently metered, priced on a pay-as-you-use basis, dynamically scaled, self-healing, and easy to manage – Grid Computing coordinates the use of a large number of servers and storage, acting as one computer
  • 47. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 47 The Future of EC • Integrating the Marketplace with Marketspace – Probably the most noticeable integration of the two concepts is in the click-and-mortar organization – A major problem with the click-and-mortar approach is how the two outlets can cooperate in planning, advertising, logistics, resource allocation, and so on and how the strategic plans of the marketspace and marketplace can be aligned – The impact of EC on our lives will be as much as, and possibly more profound than, that of the Industrial Revolution
  • 48. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 48 Managerial Issues 1. What sorts of legal and ethical issues should be of major concern to an EC enterprise? 2. What are the most critical ethical issues? 3. Should we obtain patents? 4. What impacts on business is EC expected to make? 5. Do we have a community?
  • 49. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 49 Summary 1. Differences between legal and ethical issues. 2. Protecting privacy in EC. 3. Intellectual property rights in EC. 4. Unsolicited ads and spamming. 5. Conflict between free speech and censorship.
  • 50. Electronic Commerce Prentice Hall © 2006 50 Summary 6. Legal issues. 7. Protecting buyers and sellers online. 8. Societal issues and EC. 9. The role of virtual communities. 10.The future of EC.