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  • 1. p e r c e p t i o n
  • 2. After studying this module, you should be able to:
    • understand how two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently
    • describe how shortcuts can assist in or distort our judgment of others
    • Perception: implications for managers
    L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
  • 3. What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important?
    • People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
    • Human mind assembles, organizes and categorizes information
    Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
  • 4. Factors That Influence Perception All these factors will be discussed in the subsequently
  • 5. Perceptual Process Selective Attention (or Selecting Stimuli) Organising (Or Receiving Stimuli) Stimuli Perceptual Organisation Interpreting (Assigning meaning) Response
  • 6. Perception process: 6 Steps
    • Stimuli
    • Organising (or Receiving Stimuli)
    • Selective Attention (or Selecting Stimuli)
    • Perceptual Organisation
    • Interpreting
    • Response
  • 7. 1. Stimuli
    • We live in the world of objects, therefore we are constantly bombarded with stimuli
    • We are often subject to the influence of stimuli
    • Stimuli can be external and internal
    • External: sound waves, light waves, mechanical energy or pressure, and chemical energy from objects that we can smell and taste
    • Internal: energy generated by muscles, food passing through the digestive system, and glands secreting behavior-influencing hormones
  • 8. 2. Organising (or Receiving Stimuli)
    • Stimuli enter in our organism through sensory organs: vision, hearing, smell, touch, taste and kinaesthetics
    • In other words – stimuli are received by us through these organs
    • Sensory organs perceive not only physical objects but also the events or the objects that have been repressed
  • 9. 3. Selective Attention (or Selecting Stimuli)
    • Not all the stimuli received by the human organism are accepted by it
    • Some stimuli are noticed and some are screened out
    • Example:
    • A nurse working in a post-operative care might ignore the smell of recently disinfected instruments or the sound of coworkers talking nearby, but she would immediately notice the flashing red light bulb on the nurse station console.
    • Boy happily studying with full concentration even while the TV is on
    • The process of filtering information received by or sense is called selective attention (or selecting stimuli)
    • Several factors influence selective attention; some of these factors are external and other are internal to our body
    Lets discuss some of these external factors
  • 10.
    • Quick snap-shot of external factors:
    • Nature
    • Location
    • Colour
    • Size
    • Contrast
    • Movement
    • Repetition
    • Novelty and familiarity
  • 11.
    • Nature: refers to whether the object is visual or auditory and whether it involves pictures, people or animals.
    • Picture attract attention more readily than words
    • Picture of a human being or animal attracts attention more than picture of inanimate objects alone
    • Rhyming auditory passage attracts more attention than the same passage presented as narrative
  • 12.
    • Location:
    • The best location for a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in front of the eyes
    • Or for example, in the centre of the page
  • 13.
    • Colour:
    • Colour attracts attention and portray realism
    • In the mass of black and white, a modicum of color catches the eye
    • A single colour in an advertising can enhance the attention-getting value
    • Colours also have psychological impacts on individuals
    • Some colours can act as stimulant and others as depressant
    • e.g. a dark blue ceiling may appear refreshing but after sometimes it starts becoming irritant
  • 14. The Effects of Different Colours
    • Colour Psychological Effect Temperature Effect Distance Effect
    • Violet Aggressive Cold Very close
    • Blue Restful Cold Further away
    • Brown Exciting Neutral Claustrophobic
    • Green Very restful Cold/neutral Further away
    • Yellow Exciting Very warm Close
    • Orange Exciting Very warm Very close
    • Red Very stimulating Warm Close
  • 15.
    • Size:
    • Generally objects of larger size attract more attention
    • e.g. a 6 feet 5 inches tall boss may receive more attention than a 5 foot 7 inches tall boss
  • 16.
    • Contrast:
    • Contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background, will receive attention
    • e.g. safety signs in black lettering on yellow background
    • Movement:
    • The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is stationary
    • e.g. attention of a work will normally be more on the conveyer belt rather than the wall paintings
  • 17. Contrast Principle: Example The dark circle on the right side appears to be larger than the one of left, however they both are of same size
  • 18.
    • Repetition:
    • The repetition principle states that a repeated stimulus is more attention drawing than a non-repetitive one
    • e.g. repeated ads on the TV are based on this principle
    • Novelty and Familiarity:
    • This principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as a attention getter, and
    • new objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new settings will draw attention
    • e.g. job rotation helps workers increase the attention
  • 19. 3. Selective Attention (or Selecting Stimuli)
    • Not all the stimuli received by the human organism are accepted by it
    • Some stimuli are noticed and some are screened out
    • Example:
    • A nurse working in a post-operative care might ignore the smell of recently disinfected instruments or the sound of coworkers talking nearby, but she would immediately notice the flashing red light bulb on the nurse station console.
    • Boy happily studying with full concentration even while the TV is on
    • The process of filtering information received by or sense is called selective attention (or selecting stimuli)
    • Several factors influence selective attention; some of these factors are external and other are internal to our body
    Lets discuss some of these internal factors
  • 20.
    • Quick snap-shot of internal factors:
    • Learning
    • Needs
    • Age difference
    • Interest
    • Ambivalence
    • Paranoid perception
  • 21.
    • Quick snap-shot of internal factors:
    • Learning: is a cognitive factor, has considerable influence on perception. It creates expectancy in people, and expectancy makes him see what he wants to see.
    • Needs: needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. Usual things often look real because of deprived needs. E.g. a thirsty person in desert gets illusion of water.
    • Age difference: young ones take cycling as fun, whereas older may take it as helpful cardiovascular exercise
  • 22. Learning Principle: Example
  • 23.
    • Quick snap-shot of internal factors:
    • Interest: an architect will notice many details of a building while passing by only once, whereas someone else may pass by the same building several times for years without even observing such details
    • Ambivalence: mixed feelings about a situation
    • Paranoid perception: when a person’s perception is so selective that he/she can find a little common ground for communication with others, he is likely to be paranoid.
    • It is the characteristics of am emotionally disturbed person that his/her perceptual field differs from that of reality and personalized interpretation. His/her self concept is poor and he/she is very “ insecure” , as a result of which he/she behaves in an inflexible manner.
  • 24. 4. Perceptual Organization
    • Perceptual organization is the process by which people group stimuli into recognizable patterns
    • Example:
    • What mental picture do you have for a wooden object with 4 legs?
    • When people actually see the above wooden object having these characteristics, they are able to organize information into meaningful whole and recognize the object to be a chair
    • Following factors help understand the perceptual organization:
    • Ambiguous figures
    • Figure background
    • Perceptual grouping ( including: similarity, closure, continuity and area)
    • Perceptual constancy
  • 25. Attractive or Ugly Woman? An Ambiguous Figure — a duck or a rabbit An Ambiguous Figure — a kneeling woman or a man’s face Ambiguous Figures
  • 26. A Figure Ground Experiement Figure Background Demonstration Figure Background Relationship of target to its background influences the perception, and the perceived objects stand out as separable from the background
  • 27. Principle of Similarity Principle of Proximity Perceptual Grouping Similarity Proximity Objects of similar size, shape, color etc tend to be grouped together Tendency to perceive stimuli which are near one another as belonging together
  • 28. The Principle of Closure Perceptual Grouping Closure Perceiving on the basis of missing stimuli
  • 29.
    • Continuity
    • is the tendency to perceive objects as continues patterns
    • The tendency to perceive continuous pattern may result in an inability to perceive uniqueness and detect changes
    • The principle of continuity is closely related to the principle of closure, but there is a difference  closure supplies missing stimuli, whereas continuity principle says that a person will tend to perceive continues lines or patterns
    Perceptual Grouping An Example of Perceptual Continuity
  • 30.
    • Area
    • Where one part of the area depicting the figure is smaller than the remainder, it is more likely that smaller area will be noticed as actual figure and rest of the figure as background only
    Perceptual Grouping An Example of Area
  • 31.
    • Perceptual constancy refers to our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object while remaining keep constant, despite variations in stimuli that provide us with conflicting information
    • Shape constancy (whenever an object appears to maintain its shape despite marked changes in the retinal image Example: top the bottle appears circular whether seen from top or side)
    • Size constancy (no matter how further the object is moved, we tend to see it more or less variant Example: football player on the opposite side of the field do not look smaller to other player, even though the images on the retina are smaller )
    • Color constancy (familiar objects appear to be of same colour under varied conditions Example: owner of blue car will see it as blue whether looking in bright sunlight, in dim illumination, or under yellow street light)
    Perceptual Constancy
  • 32. An Example of Illusion Perceptual error: Illusion Illusion can be understood as reliable perceptual error (when the constancy doesn’t hold good)
  • 33. 5. Interpreting
    • After data has been received and organised, the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information.
    • In fact, perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted
    • Several factors contribute toward interpretation of data. More important amongst them are:
    • Perceptual set
    • Attribution
    • Stereotyping
    • Halo effect
    • Perceptual context
    • Perceptual defense
    • Implicit personality theory
    • Projection
  • 34.
    • Perceptual set
    • Previously held beliefs about objects influencing individual's perception of similar objects
    • e.g. a manager may have developed a general belief that the workers are lazy, and they want to get best from the organization without putting much efforts. His subsequent perceptions will be influenced by this set
    • All workers are selfish
  • 35.
    • Attribution
    • Process by which the individual assigns causes to the behavior
    • e.g. a nurse who drops a tray of medicine will be excused if the incident is perceived as caused by slippery floor, and chastised if it is perceived to be caused by her clumsiness and perhaps fired if it is perceived as a deliberate act.
  • 36.
    • Stereotyping
    • Stereotyping is tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on the basis of a category of people to which that person belongs
    • e.g. all New Zealanders are destructive and money grubbers
    • Stereotyping can lead to inaccuracies and negative consequences
    • Stereotyping is a four step process
    • Categorizing people into groups according to various criteria such as age, sex, race, occupation, religion etc
    • Inferring that all people within a particular category possess the same traits
    • Forming expectations for other ; and
    • Interpreting their behavior according to our stereotypes
  • 37.
    • Halo effect
    • Drawing general impression of individual on the basis of a single characteristic
    • i.e. if someone is good at one dimension, he/she is perceived to be good at other dimensions as well
    • Example:
    • He is very amiable
    •  He must definitely be a good husband
    •  He must be soft-hearted
    •  He must be a true friend
    •  He must be a good son
  • 38. The Halo Effect: A Demonstration
  • 39.
    • Perceptual defense
    • According to this principle, an individual is likely to put up a defense when confronted with conflicting, unacceptable, or threatening stimuli
    • The defense mechanism is of four forms:
    • Outright denial: the factory worker was not intelligent
    • Modification of data received: a factory worker was intelligent but he/she usually lack initiative (associating intelligence with initiative – modification)
    • Change in perception but refusal to change mechanism: the world ‘intelligent’ itself conflicts with a factory worker (change in perception)…may be a factory worker cannot be too intelligent (refusal to change mechanism)
    • Change in perception itself : the worker was really intelligent because he was really witty and good at jokes (Note: however the perception has changed, but this change is quite subtle i.e. not significant)
  • 40.
    • Projection
    • Under certain conditions, people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves possess i.e. they project their own feelings, tendencies, or motives into their judgment of others
    • e.g. an individual who is himself not very energetic may see others as lazy or may explain their lack of achievement as resulting from their unwillingness to work
  • 41. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation Consistency: responds in the same way over time Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
  • 42. Attribution Theory
  • 43. Rules of Attribution
  • 44. Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
  • 45. Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
  • 46. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception Generally people cannot assimilate all they observe, but rather take in bits and pieces People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes etc.
  • 47. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
  • 48. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Expectations ( Self-fulfilling prophecy) People’s preconceived expectations and beliefs determine their behavior, thus, serving to make their expectations come true e.g. if a supervisor believes that a new employee will not be able to perform the job, this expectation influences the supervisor’s behavior towards the employee
  • 49.
    • Helps understand the difference between perceived world and real world
    • Plays decisive role in employee hiring
    • Key role in performance appraisal
    • Helps determine loyalty of employees
    • Treating employees under Theory Y
    • Individual decision making
    Perception: Implications for Managers
  • 50. Managing Perceptual Process
            • Have a high level of self-awareness: Individual needs, experience, and expectations can all affect perceptions. The successful manager knows this and is able to identify when he or she is inappropriately distorting a situation because of such perceptual tendencies.
            • Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation: The successful manager minimizes the biases of personal perceptions by seeking out the viewpoints of others. These insights are used to gain additional perspective on situations and the problems or opportunities they represent.
  • 51. Managing Perceptual Process
            • Be empathetic-that is, be able to see a situation as it is perceived by other people: Different people will define the same situation somewhat differently. The successful manager rises above personal impressions to understand problems as seen by other people.
            • Influence perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting: People act in terms of their perceptions. The successful manager is able to influence the perceptions of others so that work events and situations are interpreted as accurately as possible and to the advantage of all concerned.
  • 52. Managing Perceptual Process
            • Avoid common perceptual distortions that bias our views of people and situations: These distortions include the use of stereotypes and halo effects, as well as selective perception and projection. Successful managers are self-disciplined and sufficiently self-aware so that the adverse impacts of these distortions are minimized.
            • Avoid inappropriate attributions: Everyone has a tendency to try and explain why events happened the way they did or why people behaved as they did. The successful manager is careful to establish the real reasons why things happen and avoid quick or inappropriate attributions of casualty.
  • 53. Managing Perceptual Process
            • Diversity management programmes: As firms globalize themselves, diversity management assumes greater relevance. The challenge for corporate executives is to leverage the benefits of this diversity while minimizing the perceptual and behavioral problems that tend to accompany heterogeneity. OB experts have designed diversity management programmes. Typically, these training programmes serve two purposes. First, they communicate the value of diversity. Second, these programmes help participants become aware of their personal biases and give them more accurate information about people with different backgrounds, thus avoiding perceptual distortions.
            • Know yourself: Apply the Johari window to know the real self. A powerful way to minimize perceptual biases is to know and become more aware of one’s values, beliefs, and prejudice.
  • 54. Thank you