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2. individual behavior

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  • 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r Foundations of Individual Behavior
  • 2. Foundations of Individual Behavior
  • 3. Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural
  • 4. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability
    • Example
    • Accountant
    • Manager
    • Fire investigator
    • Market Researcher
    • Manager/ Supervisor
    • Interior Decorator
    • Secretary
    • Ability
    • Number aptitude
    • Verbal comprehension
    • Perceptual speed
    • Inductive reasoning
    • Deductive reasoning
    • Spatial visualization
    • Memory
  • 5. Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  • 6. Nine Physical Abilities
    • Other Factors
    • Body coordination
    • Balance
    • Stamina
    • Strength Factors
    • Dynamic strength
    • Trunk strength
    • Static strength
    • Explosive strength
    • Flexibility Factors
    • Extent flexibility
    • Dynamic flexibility
  • 7. Biographical Characteristics
    • Biographical Characteristics
    • Personal characteristics —such as
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Religion
    • Race
    • etc
  • 8. The Ability- Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements
  • 9. Learning
    • Learning
    • Involves change
    • Is relatively permanent
    • Is acquired through experience
    Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  • 10. Theories of Learning
    • Key Concepts
    • Unconditioned stimulus
    • Unconditioned response
    • Conditioned stimulus
    • Conditioned response
    Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Theories of Learning (cont’d)
    • Key Concepts
    • Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
    • Conditioned (learned) behavior
    • Reinforcement
    Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
  • 13. Theories of Learning (cont’d)
    • Key Concepts
    • Attentional processes
    • Retention processes
    • Motor reproduction processes
    • Reinforcement processes
    Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience.
  • 14. Theories of Learning (cont’d)
    • Key Concepts
    • Reinforcement is required to change behavior
    • Some rewards are more effective than others
    • The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence
    • (Contd…)
    Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
  • 15. Types of Reinforcement
    • Positive reinforcement
      • Following a response with something pleasant e.g. providing a reward for a desired behavior
    • Negative reinforcement
      • Following a response by termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant
    • Punishment
      • Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior
    • Extinction
      • Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation
  • 16. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
  • 17. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
  • 18. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-ratio
  • 19. Behavior Modification
    • Five Step Problem-Solving Model
    • Identify critical behaviors
    • Develop baseline data
    • Identify behavioral consequences
    • Develop and apply intervention
    • Evaluate performance improvement
    OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
  • 20. OB MOD Organizational Applications
    • Well Pay versus Sick Pay
      • Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence
    • Employee Discipline
      • The use of punishment can be counter-productive
    • Developing Training Programs
      • OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness
    • Self-management
      • Reduces the need for external management control