2. individual behavior

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2. individual behavior

  1. 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r Foundations of Individual Behavior
  2. 2. Foundations of Individual Behavior
  3. 3. Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural
  4. 4. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Accountant </li></ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Fire investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Market Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Manager/ Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Interior Decorator </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Number aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual speed </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  6. 6. Nine Physical Abilities <ul><li>Other Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Body coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Stamina </li></ul><ul><li>Strength Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic strength </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk strength </li></ul><ul><li>Static strength </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive strength </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Extent flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic flexibility </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Biographical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics —such as </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Ability- Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements
  9. 9. Learning <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Involves change </li></ul><ul><li>Is relatively permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Is acquired through experience </li></ul>Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  10. 10. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned response </li></ul>Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
  11. 12. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive (unlearned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned (learned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
  12. 13. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Attentional processes </li></ul><ul><li>Retention processes </li></ul><ul><li>Motor reproduction processes </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement processes </li></ul>Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience.
  13. 14. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is required to change behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Some rewards are more effective than others </li></ul><ul><li>The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence </li></ul><ul><li>(Contd…) </li></ul>Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
  14. 15. Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following a response with something pleasant e.g. providing a reward for a desired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following a response by termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
  16. 17. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
  17. 18. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-ratio
  18. 19. Behavior Modification <ul><li>Five Step Problem-Solving Model </li></ul><ul><li>Identify critical behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Develop baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>Identify behavioral consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and apply intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate performance improvement </li></ul>OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
  19. 20. OB MOD Organizational Applications <ul><li>Well Pay versus Sick Pay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee Discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of punishment can be counter-productive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing Training Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the need for external management control </li></ul></ul>

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