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Page 1 of 6(A). Differences between teacher performance and teacher competence.Most of the people always tend to confuse between the two terms of teacher performance andteacher competence especially in the teaching profession in education sector. But these termsseems to be different although they all focus the same to education development and quality.Teacher Competence. Refers to the teacher’s ability to perfume or of carryout defined tasks inparticular context at higher level of excellence (Slavik, 2008).It also refers to the excellence capability which includes knowledge, skill, altitudes andexperiences to perfume or carryout a defined task in a particular level of high excellence by ateacher (Ibid).In a general view, teacher competence is a pattern of thinking, feeling, acting or even speakingthat cause a teacher to be successfully to his or her job. It may also involve qualification (interms of certification) and competences (in terms of thought and action).Teacher Performance. This refers to the knowledge, skills, and even abilities which beginningteachers should have and be able to demonstrate in their activities (Bragado, 1961). This tends toinclude teacher’s improvement in professional skills, changing classroom behavior contentdelivery and hence producing desired outcomes.Teacher performance and teacher competence are seen as two terms which are the same but itdiffers. For stance, the teacher performance deals with the abilities of teacher to demonstrate theinstructional in the classroom and teacher competencies deal with the professional skills of theteacher which enable them to performance to work or task to the high excellence (Slavik, 2008).Therefore, the following are the differences between teacher performance and teachercompetence.Teacher performance tends to include a number of aspects in education which can be explainedas follows;Teacher performance involves engaging and supporting students learning through makingcontent more accessible by the use of specific instructional strategies and materials to reinforcestate-adopted academic content standards (Bragado, 1961). Supporting students learning by
Page 2 of 6using different instructional strategies. Example, using manipulative, physical models, andperforming arts, diagrams and technological devices. It also involve providing opportunities andadequate time for students to practice and apply and apply what they have learned by motivatingthem.Assessing student learning. Monitoring student learning during teaching, use of progressmonitoring at key points during instruction to see if students are progressing adequately towardachieving the state adopted academic content standards for students (Bragado, 1961). Assessingstudent learning by using different assessments such as questions, to the students, examinedstudents works and also students behavior in the classroom. This help teacher to anticipate, checkfor and address common students misconceptions and misunderstanding.Presenting subject matter or content in clear manner. Presentation in the classroom by a teacheris clear and understandable for the students due to the arrangement of that content in logical way.It also include providing vivid examples to the students during teaching and use of strategies andteaching aids for making the lesson attractive. Herbert, G. (2007) supported that “the teachereffective teacher performance involves effective engaging students in learning by using a varietyof effective instructional strategies in order to meet individual learning by using a variety ofeffective instructional strategies in order to meet individual learning needs and making lessonclear”.Planning instructions and designing learning experiences for students. Includes teacher planninginstruction and designing learning experiences through instructional plans. For example, lessonplans, scheme of work and nature of the students. Slavik M. (2008), suggest that learning aboutstudents draw upon an understanding of patterns of children and adolescence development tounderstand their students using formal and informal methods , able to asses students priormastery of academic Language abilities, content knowledge and skills and maximize learningopportunities for all students.Creating and maintaining effective environment for student learning, social environmentdevelopment and maintain clear expectations for academic and social behavior to the students. Italso includes promoting student’s effort and engagement and creates a positive climate for
Page 3 of 6learning (Bragado, 1961). Social environment help students to learn in safe and healthenvironment and also social environment create rapport with all students and their families.Also, teacher performance includes ability to manage the classroom. Involves teacher ability tocontrol classroom by using different techniques like reinforcement to the students, methods ofteaching, learning aids, and rewards for those students who show good behavior in theclassroom. Herbert, G. (2007), stated that “they support students taking of intellectual risks suchas sharing ideas that may include errors candidates distinguish between misbehavior and over-enthusiasm and they respond appropriately to students who are testing limits and students whoalternatively assume and reject responsibility.Teacher competence includes professional knowledge and understanding, professional skillsand abilities and professional values and personal commitment, which all registered teachersshould be demonstrate in their professional activities. These teacher competencies explained asfollows;Professional knowledge and understanding. Competent teacher have detailed knowledge andunderstanding of the relevant areas of pre-schools, primary or secondary curriculum and havesufficient knowledge and understanding to fulfill their responsibilities for literacy and numeracy,personal, social, health education and ICT (Slavik, M. 2008). Competent teacher understand thenature of curriculum and its development for each levels of education, have detailed workingknowledge of their sector of the schools in which they teach and of their professionalresponsibilities within them and also have research-based knowledge relating to teaching andlearning and a critical appreciation of the contribution research to education in general. Forexample, research that related to the educational system for improving quality education.Professional skills and abilities. Competent teacher have able to plan coherent and progressiveteaching programs which match their students or pupils needs and abilities and they can justifywhat they teach (AFT, 1990). Competent teacher work cooperatively with other professionalsand other staff members within the school and outside the school. For example, issue related tothe education such as in the Teacher Resource Centre (TRCs). And also use the results ofassessment to evaluate and improve their teaching and learning and attainment of the studentsthey teach.
Page 4 of 6Professional values and personal commitment. Competent teacher convey and understanding ofpractice and general educational matter in their professional dialogue and communication andthey show day-to-day practice and commitment to social justice and inclusion (Slavik, M. 2008).Competent teacher have the values and personal commitment to school and communities atlarge. For instance, in issues related to values, respect and active partners in the communities inwhich they work.(B). Difference between school inspection and school supervision.School Supervision. This refers to the professional activity concerned with the development,maintenance and improvement of a school instructional programs especially its curricular and thewhole teaching personnel (Ogusanji, 1983).School supervision is the process of bringing about the improvement in instructional by workingwith people who are working with pupils so as to make sure that all activities taking place in aschool goes in a well planned manner (Adepoju, 1998).In a general view, school supervision is vital process and combination of activities concernedwith the teaching and improvement of other curricular taking place in a school so as toaccomplish school and national goals to education sector.School Inspection. This refers to the critical examination and evaluation of a school as aninstitution and as a place of saving (Ojelabi, 1981).It refers to the integral part of a school improvement of standards and quality of a school byactivities of monitoring and improving the school performance by the use various inspectors,(Wanzare, 2001).If qualitative education is a thing seriously desired in schools can be highly improved, schoolsupervision must therefore be accorded high priority. Through inspection and supervision, theinspectors and supervisors assist in improving classroom instructions because teachers are mademore competent and efficient, parent are satisfied with the performance of their children aremotivated to work harder in order to achieve the required standards, hence in the long run, thegoal of education is achieved.According to Ojelabi, (1981), the following are the differences between school inspection andschool supervision;
Page 5 of 6School inspection is described as critical examination and evaluation of a school as a place oflearning where by necessary and relevant advice is given for the improvement of school. Forexample, inspections on the school constructed buildings, WHILE school supervision isdescribed as a regular and continuous process of personal guidance based on frequent to a schoolto concrete and constructive advice and encouragement to teachers so as to improve teaching andlearning situation in school. For example, daily school activities such as teaching and learning,time for attending to school among teachers and students.School inspection, the inspecting officers when visit school pay attention on inspecting rules andregulations governing the school, condition of buildings and equipments, position of staffs,records, account and government grants, WHILE school supervision is the procedure of givingdirection to and providing critical evaluation of the instructional processes where by supervisorcoordinate, stimulate and direct the growth of teachers.School inspection evaluate and examine teachers and leads to advice the commission ofeducation on the best ways to improve the national education policy .For example, policies onthe educational curriculum reforms WHILE school supervision lead to improvement of learningfrom the improvement of instructions. For example, teacher to improve their strategies,assessment and evaluation of their teaching and learning to their students.Also school inspection is done by inspectorate, inspecting officers. Usually inspectorate orInspecting officers come from nation levels or high authorities such as District EducationalOfficers (DEOs), Regional Educational Officers (REOs) WHILE school supervision can bedone by the head of the school, head of department or teacher. This occurs within the membersof the schools to the respect levels of authority.Generally, quality in education also depends much on the issues of teacher performance andcompetence together with the proper supervision and frequent school inspection in all privateand public schools. The government in hand with the ministry of education should also introducea number teacher development programs to ensure that quality in education starts from schools.REFERENCES.Adepoju, T.L. (1998). Fundamental of school Administration, planning and supervision inNigeria. Alafas Company. Nigeria.Ogunsaju, s. (1983). Educational supervision perfective and practice in Nigeria. OafemiAwolowo University press. Nigeria.
Page 6 of 6Ojelabi, A. (1981). A guide to school management Ibadan. Valuta Educational publishers.Nigeria.Wanzare, (2001). Re- thinking school inspection in the third World. The case of Kenya. KenyaEducation publishing press. Kenya.AFT, (1990). Standards for teacher competence in educational assessment of students. NationalEducation Association. United State of America.Bragado, G. (1961). Teacher performance Expectations. Brandman University. California.Slavik, M. (2008). Teacher competence, Institute of education and communication. University oflife sciences Prague. Czech.Herbert, G. (2007). Teacher performance pay: synthesis of plans, Research and Guidelines forpractice. University of Pennsylvania. Columbia.