Foundation & Pile driving equipment


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Foundation & Pile driving equipment

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Foundation & Pile driving equipment

  2. 2. A foundation is the lowest and supporting layer of a structure divided into two categories: •shallow foundations and • deep foundations. Shallow foundations of a house versus the deep foundations of a Skyscraper
  3. 3. o Shallow foundations, often called footings, are usually embedded about a metre or so into soil.  Spread footing which consists of strips or pads of concrete, transfer the weight from walls and columns to the soil  Slab-on-grade foundation where the weight of the building is transferred to the soil through a concrete slab placed at the surface. • reinforced mat slabs, which range from 25 cm to several metres thick, depending on the size of the building
  4. 4. Shallow foundation construction example
  5. 5. o Deep foundation is used to transfer the load down through the upper weak layer of topsoil to the stronger layer of subsoil below. o Deep footings including impact driven piles, drilled shafts, caissons, helical piles, geo-piers and earth stabilized columns. o Historically, piles were wood, later steel, reinforced concrete, and pre-tensioned concrete
  6. 6. o A monopile foundation is a type of deep foundation o Which uses a single, generally large-diameter, structural element embedded into the earth to support all the loads (weight, wind, etc.) of a large above- surface structure. o A large number of monopile foundations have been utilized in recent years for economical construction
  7. 7. o The primary design concerns are settlement and bearing capacity. o When considering settlement, total settlement and differential settlement is normally considered. o Differential settlement is when one part of a foundation settles more than another part. o This can cause problems to the structure the foundation is supporting.
  8. 8. o A pile driver is a mechanical device o Used to drive piles (poles) into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. o One traditional type of pile driver includes a heavy weight placed between guides so that it is able to freely slide up and down in a single line. o The weight is raised, which may involve the use of hydraulics, steam, diesel, or manual labour. o When the weight reaches its highest point it is then released and smashes into the ground.
  9. 9. Pile driving hammer Pile driver Accessory Tools
  10. 10.  Ancient pile driving equipment used manual or animal labor to lift heavy weights, usually by means of pulleys, to drop the weight onto the end of the pile.  Modern pile driving equipment uses various methods to raise the weight and guide the pile
  11. 11. A Diesel hammers impact compression, impact and explosion energy to the pile 1) Raise the piston to start 2) Injection of diesel fuel and compression 3)Impact and explosion 4)Exhaust ports exposed and gases escape. 5)Draws fresh air through the exhaust ports.
  12. 12. o Developed in response to the fundamental limitations of either a fixed lead or swinging lead system. o The fixed lead system is well suited to level job sites with few obstructions and has the advantage of faster positioning of the lead. o The hanging lead is very adaptable to different elevations and batter piles but takes much longer to position. o The Vertical Travel Lead was developed to combine the fast and accurate positioning of fixed leads, with the ability to adjust the height of the lead base up or down. o The VTL is connected to the boom by a sliding connection, which allows the lead to be elevated or lowered below grade.
  13. 13. oVertical Travel Leads come in two main forms: Spud and Box Lead types. Vertical Travel Leads
  14. 14. Pile Hammer  To furnish the energy required to drive a pile. Pile driving hammers are designated by type and size  The hammer types commonly used include the following: o Single-acting stream or compressed air oDrop o Double-acting stream or compressed air o Differential-acting stream or compressed air o Diesel oHydraulic o Vibratory drivers
  15. 15. o Modern type of piling hammer o Used in place of diesel and air hammers for driving steel pipe, precast concrete, and timber piles. o More environmentally acceptable than the older, less efficient hammers as they generate less noise and pollutants. o Dominant noise is caused by the impact of the hammer on the pile
  16. 16. o Specialty equipment which installs piles using hydraulic rams to press piles into the ground. o Preferred where vibration is a concern. o There are press attachments that can adapt to conventional pile driving rigs to press 2 pairs of sheet piles at a time. o Additional types of press equipment sit on top of existing sheet piles and grip onto previously driven piles. o Allows for greater press-in and extraction force to be used since more reaction force is developed. o The reaction based machines operate at only 69dB at 23 ft allowing for installation and extraction of piles.
  17. 17. steel sheet pile being hydraulically pressed
  18. 18. o Designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. o The pile driving machine is lifted and positioned over the pile by means of an excavator or crane o Vibratory hammers can either drive in or extract a pile o Hydraulic fluid is typically supplied to the driver by a diesel engine powered pump mounted in a trailer or van and connected to the driver head through a set of long hoses. o Hammers are available with several different vibration rates, ranging from about 1200 vibrations per minute to about 2400 VPM
  19. 19. vibratory pile driver powered by a diesel engine
  20. 20. o Piling rig is a construction machine for piling in foundation engineering. o Mainly applied to drill in sandy soil, clay, silty clay, etc. o widely used cast-in-place piles, diaphragm walls, foundation reinforcement and other foundation projects. o power of engine is around 108–450 kW o output torque 60–400 KNm o maximum pile diameter 1.5–4 m o maximum pile depth 60–90 m.
  21. 21. Junttan purpose-built piledriving rig oeasy and comfortable to control. omainly used in foundation engineering of municipal construction, expressway, bridge, industrial and civil buildings, diaphragm wall, water conservancy project, Slope protection, etc.
  22. 22. 1) middle-sized – torque is around 120–180 kN.m, engine power 125–200 kW, drilling diameter 0.8–1.8m, drilling depth 60m, total quality 42–65t. 2) large-sized - torque is around 240 kN.m, engine power 300 kW, drilling diameter 1–2.5m, drilling depth 80m, total quality 100t 3) small-sized – torque is around 60–100 kN.m, engine power 108 kW, drilling diameter 0.5–1.2m, drilling depth 40m, total quality 40t.