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  1. 1. Stephanie Yamniuk,Instructor and PhDcandidate, WHO HEARSFaculty of EducationUniversity of Manitoba MY VOICE?stephanie@shar.caMay 25, 2012 Empowering newcomer students to realize their rights and responsibilities in a school 1 environment
  2. 2. MY BACKGROUND IN REFUGEESTUDENTS AND EDUCATION UNICEF Canada Canadian Red Cross Teacher and educator on global issues Social Justice framework of teaching Have taught in diverse communities in US, Micronesia, and Canada
  3. 3. Activity:The Story of My Name How does talking about your name help to build intercultural respect and understanding?
  4. 4. KEY TERMS Refugee Immigrant Differentiated citizenship Rights Responsibilities Resilience Acculturation Culture of resilience 4
  5. 5. DISCUSSION OUTLINE• Challenges that Immigrant and Refugee children face• Educational Interventions: Ecological Theory, Strengths approach, Empowerment• Citizenship: rights and responsibilities: Belonging• Role of education• Resiliency Theory  Cultural resilience  Individual mindset, family influence, external supports (the school community)• Children and War• Conclusion 5
  6. 6. The challenges that refugee andimmigrant children and theirfamilies face in Canada 6
  7. 7. RAYMOND WILLIAM’S IDEA ABOUT THE UNCONSCIOUS COMPONENTS OF COMMUNITY AND CULTURE: A culture, while it is being lived, is always in part unknown, in part unrealized. The making of a community is always an exploration, for consciousness cannot precede creation, and there is no formula for unknown experience. . . (as cited in Eagleton, 2000, p. 118). 7
  8. 8. A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OFNEWCOMERSImmigrants Refugees• A person who has • A refugee is a left their own nation person who has left to live in another for fear of being country. persecuted for• They have left by reasons of race, choice, and not by nationality, religion, necessity (disaster or membership into or war) a specific social group (Fong, 2004). 8
  9. 9. At school At home Students are Students are encouraged to be: encouraged to be:  Modest Independent  Respectful Spontaneous  Concerned with the Outspoken family as a whole Aggressive  Speaking the language spoken at home (Fong, 2004) CHALLENGES FOR CHILDREN GROWING UP IN TWO CULTURES
  11. 11. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS FOR REFUGEE CHILDREN: THEORETICAL APPROACHES AND KEY ISSUES TO SUPPORT REFUGEE STUDENTS IN SCHOOL Bronfenbrenner’secological theory – development occurs in contexts, and can only be understood in contexts (Hamilton and Moore, 2004; Fong, 2004).
  12. 12. BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICALTHEORY http://early-childhood- resources.com
  13. 13. BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICALTHEORY  Individual – the child – age, gender, health  Microsystem – pattern of activities, social roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by a developing person  Mesosystem – the linkages and processes taking place between two or more settings (home and school, school and workplace)  Exosystem – the linkages and processes taking place between two or more settings, one of which does not contain the developing person (child and parent’s workplace, family social networks, neighbourhood)  Macrosystem – attitudes and ideologies of the culture, such as belief systems, customs, hazards, opportunity structures
  14. 14. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS FORREFUGEE CHILDREN:THEORETICAL APPROACHES AND KEYISSUES TO SUPPORT REFUGEE STUDENTS INSCHOOLThe Strengths approach (Fong, 2004, p. 25).1. developing positive attitudes towards students2. focusing on family strengths3. encouraging students to engage in effective behaviours4. challenging students to appreciate their own ethnic and cultural backgrounds5. encouraging students to find their own resources
  15. 15. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS FORREFUGEE CHILDREN:THEORETICAL APPROACHES AND KEY ISSUESTO SUPPORT REFUGEE STUDENTS IN SCHOOL The Empowerment approach(Fong, 2004, p. 29).  Empowerment is a process of increasing personal, interpersonal, or political power so that individuals can take action to improve their life situations.
  16. 16. Howe, R.B., andCITIZENSHIP RIGHTS AND Covell, K. (2007). Empowering Children:RESPONSIBILITIES FOR Children’s Rights Education As a Pathway toNEWCOMER CHILDREN Citizenship. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 16
  17. 17. CHILDREN’S ROLE IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION; WHY WE MUST GIVE THEM MEMBERSHIP INTO SOCIETY AS EVOLVING CITIZENS Four building blocks of a modern view of citizenship, according to Howe (2005). Rights Responsibilities Participation Differentiated citizenship 17
  18. 18. POWER OF CHILD’S PARTICIPATION Participation seems to be accompanied by a sense of social responsibility when one is involved in society. 18
  19. 19. SEVERAL ARGUMENTS AGAINSTCHILDREN THE RIGHTS OFCITIZENSHIP These include limited economic independence a low level of cognitive ability 19
  20. 20. DIFFERENTIATED CITIZENSHIP Citizenship is about inclusion and belonging. . .” (Howe, 2005, p. 45) 20
  22. 22. UN CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OFTHE CHILD (1989) Legally established a child’s rights and responsibilities to participate in society according to his or her maturity and ability 22
  24. 24.  What does the literature say about a child’s self-esteem and their ability to participate as a citizen? 24
  25. 25.  When a child sees themselves as moral and concerned with others, they will act that way. 25
  26. 26. • What is unique about Howe and Covell’s (2007) contribution to the discussion about children’s identity, is the impact of using participatory pedagogy in teaching citizenship education. The “lasting impact on the child’s democratic values and participation. . . must be integrated into personal identity” (p. 117). 26
  27. 27. • When both “curriculum content and pedagogy effectively engage children, they increasingly come to see themselves as being competent to act” (as quoted in Battistich et al, 1999, in Howe and Covell, 2007). They see themselves as a person who can make an impact on society, their classroom and their community. 27
  29. 29. APPLE’S (2008) CHALLENGE TOEDUCATORS: To situate education within a political society. 29
  31. 31. REPOSITIONING 31
  33. 33. RESILIENCE THEORY: WHAT IS RESILIENCE?HOW DO WE FOSTER A “CULTURE OFRESILIENCE” IN OUR SCHOOL? HOW DOESCULTURE FACTOR INTO OUR STRATEGIES? The study of resilience began in the areas of psychology, poverty and traumatic stress (Condly, 2006; Brooks & Goldstein, 2003), and continues to be explored in business (Coutu, 2002); in the field of education (Hamilton & Moore, 2004); social work (Fong, 2004; Ungar, 2008); and nursing (Black & Kobo, 2008). 33
  34. 34. THREE FACTORSTHAT CAN BEFOUND IN ALLDEFINITIONS OFRESEARCH ONRESILIENCE Individual traits Family supports External supports 34
  35. 35. THREE FACTORS THAT CAN BE FOUND IN ALL DEFINITIONS OF RESEARCH ON RESILIENCE:1. Individual characteristics2. Family and the support they give to the child3. External support from people and institutions that are outside of the individual or family that can assist the child and the family 35
  36. 36. COMPETENCE IN CHILDREN HAS THREEDIMENSIONS  School or academic  Social  Conduct or behaviour 36
  37. 37. BRACKENREED (2010) ALSO IDENTIFIESTHE INDIVIDUAL’S PROTECTIVE FACTORSOF SOCIAL COMPETENCE, PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS, AND INDEPENDENCE.  In youth, she describes, “the more resilient kids have an uncanny ability to get adults to help them out. . . and often have talents such as athletic abilities that attract other to them” (p. 48). 37
  38. 38. SEVERAL FACTORS THAT INCREASED A CHILD’S CAPACITY FOR RESILIENCE AND IMPACTED THEIR COPING SKILLS (BOOTHBY ET AL, 2006) school as a vital social and academic arena; self-efficacy and guarded optimism; recreational activities; role models; and friendships (cited from pp. 119- 124). 38
  39. 39. SEVERAL DEFINITIONS OF RESILIENCE One definition of resilience is the continuous ability to defy challenges of poverty, lack of opportunity, lack of a high IQ or living in a low socioeconomic status (SES), or living in difficult circumstances (Condly, 2006). 39
  40. 40.  Resilience is also defined as “. . . a process that directs our interactions as we strengthen our children’s ability to meet life’s challenges and pressures with confidence and perseverance” (Brooks & Goldstein, 2003, p. 3). 40
  41. 41.  Fong (2004), in the context of talking about Filipino people and their strengths and needs, discusses “tremendous difficulties, including centuries of colonization, natural disasters, poverty, and underdevelopment. These have developed in them a high degree of tolerance and resiliency. They are creative in meeting needs and solving problems and skillful in generating resources and finding a use for everything” (p. 69). 41
  42. 42. Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience acrossRESILIENCE IN Cultures. British Journal of Social Work, 38, 218-235.THE CONTEXTOF CULTURE 42
  43. 43. INTERNATIONAL RESILIENCEPROJECT (IRP) This involved a participatory model of mixed methods research, and interviews and research with over 1500 youth in 14 communities on five continents (Ungar, 2008). The most difficult task was to find a “negotiated” definition of resilience between individuals and their communities. 43
  44. 44. UNGAR’S DEFINITION OF RESILIENCE “Resilience is therefore both a process of the child’s navigation towards, and the capacity of individuals to negotiate for, health resources on their own terms” (Ungar, 2008, p. 225). “Resilience occurs in the presence of adversity” (p. 220). “Resilience is influenced by a child’s environment, and that the interaction between individuals and their social ecologies will determine the degree of positive outcomes experienced” (ibid). 44
  46. 46. 2) Interventions need to be sensitive to thecontext of specific aspects of resilience. 46
  47. 47. 3) Interventions needs to be multi-faceted. Ungar(2008) explains this further, that it can includecollaboration between “. . . personal counselling,family-based interventions, school programs,community mobilization, etc” (p. 233). 47
  48. 48. 4) The fourth strategy is to create empoweringinterventions, where the child can choose tonavigate through the many tensions ofresilience, which will result in the child findingthe best way that works for her. 48
  49. 49. INDIVIDUALS: RESILIENCEMINDSET We can build resilience in our students by simply encouraging their individual talents, and reinforce the positive mindset that we believe that they have the ability to succeed in school. 49
  50. 50. FAMILY INFLUENCE ON RESILIENCE The second factor which research has shown to impact resiliency in children is family dynamics and the quality of relationships that children have with family members. 50
  52. 52. COMMON FACTORS THAT AREEVIDENT IN RESILIENT FAMILIES(BLACK & LOBO, 2008, P. 38): positive outlook;  financial spirituality; management; family member  family time; accord;  shared recreation; flexibility;  routines and rituals; family  a support network communication; 52
  53. 53. EXTERNAL SUPPORT – IN THE CONTEXT OF A SCHOOL COMMUNITY The third factor which impacts the resiliency of a child can be the external supports that effect him or her. This is where the school community can show its strengths and supports with the goal to integrate families into the school culture and community. Research has shown that it is best when the family as a whole is being supported (Condly, 2006). 53
  54. 54.  Schools can be protective and safe places for children and adolescents to develop and build resiliency skills. “The positive experiences that children can get from school may involve academic success, sporting or musical achievement, assuming responsibility in the school or developing positive relationships with teachers and peers” (Brackenreed, 2010, p. 116). 54
  55. 55. 1. Schools should offer opportunities forstudents to establish significant relationshipswith compassionate adults. 55
  56. 56. 2. Schools should build on social competenciesand academic skills to provide experiences ofcompetency and success. 56
  57. 57. 3. They should offer students the opportunity formeaningful engagement and responsibility withthe school and community. 57
  58. 58. 4. Schools should identify and support servicesfor children and youth. 58
  59. 59. 5. School should ensure that they do notcontribute with faulty practices to the risksalready encountered by their students. 59
  60. 60. TALKING TO O’Malley, C. J., Blankemeyer, M., Walker, K.K., and Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (2007). Children’s ReportedCHILDREN Communication With Their Parents About War, Journal of Family Issues,ABOUT WAR 28 (12), 1639-1662. 60
  61. 61. TALKING TO CHILDREN ABOUT WAR AND TERRORISM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eTIwoROvyFI 61
  62. 62. USING A STRENGTHS APPROACH TOTALKING WITH CHILDREN ABOUT WARThe Strengths approach (Fong, 2004, p. 25).1. developing positive attitudes towards students and children2. focusing on family strengths3. encouraging students to engage in effective behaviours4. challenging students to appreciate their own ethnic and cultural backgrounds5. encouraging students to find their own resources 62
  63. 63. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE EFFECTS OFWAR ON CHILDREN?  According to O’Malley et al (2007), “in general children are negatively affected by politically violent situations and often experience psychological disruption. . . behavioral problems. . . and depression” (as cited in O’Malley et al, 2007, p. 1640).  Girls seem to have higher anxiety about war and boys showed an increase in behavioural problems from pre-war to during-war. 63
  64. 64. CHILDREN’S CONCEPTIONS OFPOLITICAL VIOLENCE (O’MALLEY ET AL,2007) Girls were more likely to define war in terms of quarrels between friends Boys more often mentioned weapons and soldiers when discussing war. PEACE: Children understood war at age 8, but could not explain peace until age 10 The CMHR can do something to improve childrens knowledge about peace and conflict resolution. 64
  65. 65.  “Family education programs should incorporate elements that support parents in alleviating negative child reactions” (p. 1659) Watching visual media about war can provide parents and children “teachable moments” to talk about war “Families can learn how to help their children better understand values related to conflict resolution, prosocial behaviors, justice, decision making, and problem solving. Such values discussions may . . . help strengthen the family” (p. 1659). 65
  66. 66. CONCLUSION 66
  67. 67. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Hamilton, R. & Moore, D. (Eds.) (2004). Educational Interventions for Refugee Children: Theoretical perspectives and Apple, M. (2008). Can schooling contribute to implementing best practice. New York: a more just society? Education, Citizenship RoutledgeFalmer. and Social Justice, 3 (3), 239-261.  Howe, B. (2005). Citizenship Education for Black, K., & Lobo, M. (2008). A Conceptual Child Citizens. Canadian and International Review of Family Resilience Factors. Education, 34 (1), 42 – 49. Journal of Family Nursing, 14(1), 33-55.  Howe, R.B., and Covell, K. (2007). Brackenreed, D. (2010). Resilience and Risk. Empowering Children: Children’s Rights International Education Studies, 3 (3), pp. Education As a Pathway to Citizenship. 111 – 121. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of  Keddie, A. (2011). Pursuing justice for Human Development: Experiences by Nature refugee students: addressing issues of and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard cultural (mis)recognition. International University Press. Journal of Inclusive Education. Online Brooks, R. & Goldstein, S. (2003). Nurturing article. DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2011.560687. Resilience in Our Children: Answers to the Retrieved 03 July, 2011. Most Important Parenting Questions.  O’Malley, C. J., Blankemeyer, M., Walker, Toronto: McGraw Hill. K.K., and Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (2007). Condly, S. (2006). Resilience in Children: A Children’s Reported Communication With Review of Literature With Implications for Their Parents About War, Journal of Family Education. Urban Education, 41 (3), 211-236. Issues, 28 (12), 1639-1662. Eagleton, T. (2000). The Idea of Culture.  Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across Cultures. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. British Journal of Social Work, 38, 218-235. Fong, V. (Ed). (2004). Culturally Competent Practice with Immigrant and Refugee Children and Families. New York: The Guilford Press. 67