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Preservice Teachers Environmental Concerns

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Doug Hayhoe

Doug Hayhoe

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  • Describing the institution and preservice teachers involved in the study
  • Describing the participants, courses, and provincial curriculum focus
  • This curriculum framework for science is similar to that used across the United States, in California, New York, Texas, etc.
  • Teacher candidates prepare microteaching assignments, lesson plans, and unit plans for 1 or more of the 40 topics in this chart. Since most of them have not had any science in university, or even in Gr. 11-12, we need to discuss science concepts in the course. With the environmental focus in Ontario, I usually focus on the knowledge and concepts in the fourth column, Earth & Space, which has the most to do with the environment.
  • PJ teacher candidates can choose any topic from K-Gr. 6 on which to present microteaching, lesson plans, or unit plans.
  • JI teacher candidates choose from Gr. 4-10
  • David Suzuki (i.e., “Sacred Balance”) is an example of a prominent Canadian environmentalist with little Christian faith. The four topics I choose to research, soil, air, water, and energy are all in the fourth strand of the curriculum, Earth & Space. By change (serendipity) they correspond to the four classical elements of Earth, Air, Water, and Fire, as pointed out to me by my dean
  • One morning, I happened to be reading in Jeremiah, and noticed that this poem in ch. 10 is repeated, word for word, in ch. 51. It frames the main part of the book of Jeremiah, some 40 chapters.
  • It mentions Earth
  • Air (heavens, wind)
  • Water (clouds, rain)
  • And fire or energy (lightning). The four classical elements – earth, air, fire, water – or soil, energy, water, and climate, in the case of my research, are all parts of God’s creation. They’re His.
  • The challenge I was taking up.
  • The four areas of study are in the Earth & Space (environmental) strand of the curriculum on the right. The left strand, Life Systems, describes the amazing webs of life that inhabit the physical environment.
  • I focused on two of the topics in my PJ Science Methods course,
  • … and the other two in my JI science methods course
  • I had three questions before more – their initial understanding at the beginning of the course
  • … their understanding at the end of the course, after we engaged in some course activities (1 or 2 classes) focused on the two topics
  • … and their stewardship understandings, probed in focus group interviews several months later
  • The pre and post-tests were the same. At the PJ level, soils and energy, they consisted of 25 multiple choice questions as this one.
  • … and this one for energy
  • At the JI level, they consisted of 45 binary choice questions for water and climate. (Pilot studies had shown that they either chose the one correct answer, or the same incorrect answer. Thus we only needed binary choice questions, and we could use 45 rather than just 25.
  • PJ teacher candidates knew quite a bit at the start (50% vs a random score of 25%) about soils (Gr. 3) and conservation of energy (Gr. 5), and increased their understanding significantly, through engaging in a couple of classes of focused activities. They gained 18% of the 51% available, about one third advance.
  • JI teacher candidates didn’t know as much at the beginning (not much greater than a random 50%, at least for climate), and didn’t increase their understanding as much, only 6 or 8%, much less gain than the PJ teacher candidates. Perhaps this was because climate change in particular is a much more complex topic.
  • In addition to the specific scientific concepts, the curriculum focuses on Big Ideas (matter, energy, change, etc.) In the past decade or two, the science curriculum has brought in a new Big Idea – Sustainability and Stewardship, defined as above. Since the curriculum is secular, it makes no mention of God, so as stewards we are not responsible to God, but to the next generation. Initially, I reacted against this, BUT see the next slide
  • Someone pointed out this paragraph to me, which has almost the same definition of sustainability and stewardship, i.e., leaving things for the next generation in as good or better a state as when we received it. (Turns out, this was written 500 years ago, by John Calvin, the prominent Christian thinker and Reformation Leader, in his commentary on Genesis ch. 2. It’s online, in Calvin’s Institutes) So the secular science curriculum turned out to be more Christian in its thinking than I had thought (or perhaps than the creators of the curriculum had thought!)
  • 1 to 3 months after the course was over, and after the teacher candidates had written the post-tests, we invited them to volunteer for focus group interviews. 5 PJ teachers and 7 JI teachers came for two different interview groups (out of 30 in each course). So these views are not representative of the whole class, but of those interested enough to come for an interview.
  • I was particularly interested in question 4. On the next few slides, I’ll give some of their answers to question 4: how do they view stewardship or sustainability (with respect to soil, energy, water, and climate) from a scientific, ethical, or faith-based point of view? (Not assuming they are all Christians).
  • I wasn’t expecting this idea of an analogy, as I had thought it was a weak connection. But since that time, I’ve found analogies in nature in semi-secular writings, also.
  • This teacher candidate refers to how I shared my passion for astronomy with my classes (setting up a telescope after an evening class for all to see the moons of Jupiter, craters of the moon, etc.)
  • Continued from previous slide. Before reading this, I didn’t think that astronomy was relevant to the environment. But I see now that if it causes us to have a sense of wonder at what God has done, and this wonder carries over into care and concern for the environment, it is indeed a part.
  • A colleague also interviews some PJ students at a public university nearby. This was one of the responses, contrasting with those from Tyndale.
  • The JI interview was similar to the PJ one, especially the last question
  • So, yes, we need to understand scientific concepts, before we can look after the environment
  • A well thought out linking of all three perspectives.
  • In interjected this question
  • One of my students, who had been a youth pastor before, had a well thought out theology
  • Another teacher candidate
  • I distilled these key ideas from the interviews
  • Calvin de Witt, a prominent evangelical environmental scientist (in Michigan) has been concerned for many years about the 7 degradations of creation we have caused.
  • About 10-15 years ago, de Witt had an inspiration, actually 2! First, we need to give people hope by framing it in a positive manner, first, the 7 provisions or gifts (my phrase) of creation, that God has given us. Emotionally, people – Christians, also – might react more positively to a postive framework to start with (before looking then at the 7 degradations). De Witt’s 2 nd inspiration was to include humans as the 7 th gift – we aren’t just destroyers, but caregivers of the environment, in God’s plan
  • Back to the curriculum, so where does astronomy fit, my hobby? What about rocks & minerals, my wife’s hobby? Aren’t these also gifts from God Can we not also degrade them (i.e., air and light pollution, mountaintop removal and other forms of environmentally damaging mining)? And what about all living things (the left strand), the biotic component interacting with the abiotic environment? An environmental theme has to include ecosystems and diversity of living things!
  • Calvin de Witt’s scheme relates to topics in the left strand of webs of life and the right strand of our physical environment, but it leaves out many topics in the science curriculum.
  • So I’ve revised de Witt’s scheme, to give us 7 giftings that can include all topics in the Life Systems strand and the Earth & Space strand (Compare back). Question: How does this compare to ecotheologian, Anne Primavesi’s 2009 Gaia and Climate Change: A Theology of Gift Events ?
  • Now I have a complete Christian framework for training my preservice teachers in science education, with the environment the complete context, and our role in the environment (life systems in an earth and space framework) to explore science (matter & energy) and build technology (structures & mechanisms) for God’s glory and the blessing of mankind.
  • Now I have a complete Christian framework for training my preservice teachers in science education, with the environment the complete context, and our role in the environment (life systems in an earth and space framework) to explore science (matter & energy) and build technology (structures & mechanisms) for God’s glory and the blessing of mankind.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Preservice teachers, Environmental Concerns,and a Christian Perspective Doug Hayhoe, Tyndale University College & Seminary, Toronto, ON, Canada
    • 2. Tyndale department of education Christian university, authorized by Ontario to graduate one-year Bachelor of Education students Preservice teachers don’t sign a statement of faith, as faculty do, but agree to follow lifestyle code. Of the 60-70 teachers, some 1/3 are evangelical, 1/3 Catholic, and 1/3 other, including no faith
    • 3. The commonplaces Preservice teachers  30 primary-junior (PJ) teachers (K-Gr. 6)  30 junior-intermediate (JI) teachers (Gr. 4-10) Science & technology methods course  Knowledge: understanding of concepts  Skills: inquiry, investigation, & communication skills  Relating science & tech. to society & the environment Provincial focus in Ontario  The Environment
    • 4. Ontario’s K-10 Curriculum forScience & Technology Gr. Life Systems Structures & Matter & Earth & Mechanisms Energy Space 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    • 5. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Energy Earth & Space Mechanisms 1 Ontario’s K-10& Scienceour Living things Materials Structures Energy in Lives & Daily & Seasonal Changes 2 Technology CurriulumLiquids Animals Movement Solids & Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Changes Conservation of Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Environment 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Organs Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change Reactions
    • 6. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Energy Earth & Space Mechanisms 1 Ontario’s K-10& Scienceour Living things Materials Structures Energy in Lives & Daily & Seasonal Changes 2 Technology CurriulumLiquids Animals Movement Solids & Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Changes Conservation of Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Environment 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Organs Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change Reactions
    • 7. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Energy Earth & Space Mechanisms 1 Ontario’s K-10& Scienceour Living things Materials Structures Energy in Lives & Daily & Seasonal Changes 2 Technology CurriulumLiquids Animals Movement Solids & Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Changes Conservation of Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Environment 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Organs Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change Reactions
    • 8. The context Leadership in the environmental movement has often been provided by those of little faith, or little Christian faith. Our natural environment, however, is a very much a part of God’s creation. My own research in science education as a Christian focuses on soil, air, water, and energy. Classical Greek and Egyptian thought talked about four elements: earth, air, water, and fire.
    • 9. Jeremiah’s World “But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding. When he thunders, the waters in the heavens roar; he makes clouds rise from the ends of the earth; he sends lightning with the rain and brings out the wind from his storehouses.” Jer. 10:12-13; 51:15-16
    • 10. Jeremiah’s World “But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding. When he thunders, the waters in the heavens roar; he makes clouds rise from the ends of the earth; he sends lightning with the rain and brings out the wind from his storehouses.” Jer. 10:12-13; 51:15-16
    • 11. Jeremiah’s World “But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding. When he thunders, the waters in the heavens roar; he makes clouds rise from the ends of the earth; he sends lightning with the rain and brings out the wind from his storehouses.” Jer. 10:12-13; 51:15-16
    • 12. Jeremiah’s World “But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding. When he thunders, the waters in the heavens roar; he makes clouds rise from the ends of the earth; he sends lightning with the rain and brings out the wind from his storehouses.” Jer. 10:12-13; 51:15-16
    • 13. Jeremiah’s World “But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding. When he thunders, the waters in the heavens roar; he makes clouds rise from the ends of the earth; he sends lightning with the rain and brings out the wind from his storehouses.” Jer. 10:12-13; 51:15-16
    • 14. The challenge To develop a Christian framework for focusing on environmental concerns in a science methods course with preservice teachers, which compliments the secular science curriculum they will be teaching from in school. The environment is a key focus in the province of Ontario, with sustainability a “big idea”
    • 15. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Energy Earth & Space Mechanisms 1 Ontario’s K-10& Scienceour Living things Materials Structures Energy in Lives & Daily & Seasonal Changes 2 Technology CurriulumLiquids Animals Movement Solids & Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Changes Conservation of Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Environment 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Organs Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change Reactions
    • 16. Focus in science methods courses With PJ preservice teachers (Gr. K-6)  Soils (Grade 3 unit)  Conservation of Energy (Grade 5 unit)
    • 17. Focus in science methods courses With PJ preservice teachers (K- Gr. 6)  Soils (Grade 3 unit)  Conservation of Energy (Grade 5 unit) With JI preservice teachers (Gr. 4-10)  Water Systems (Grade 8 unit)  Climate Change (Grade 10 unit)
    • 18. Focus in science methods courses With PJ preservice teachers (K- Gr. 6)  Soils (Grade 3 unit)  Conservation of Energy (Grade 5 unit) With JI preservice teachers (Gr. 4-10)  Water Systems (Grade 8 unit)  Climate Change (Grade 10 unit)Q1. What is their initial level of conceptual understanding?
    • 19. Focus in science methods courses With PJ preservice teachers (K- Gr. 6)  Soils (Grade 3 unit)  Conservation of Energy (Grade 5 unit) With JI preservice teachers (Gr. 4-10)  Water Systems (Grade 8 unit)  Climate Change (Grade 10 unit)Q1. What is their initial level of conceptual understanding?Q2. Can this be improved with course activities?
    • 20. Focus in science methods courses With PJ preservice teachers (K- Gr. 6)  Soils (Grade 3 unit)  Conservation of Energy (Grade 5 unit) With JI preservice teachers (Gr. 4-10)  Water Systems (Grade 8 unit)  Climate Change (Grade 10 unit)Q1. What is their initial level of conceptual understanding?Q2. Can this be improved with course activities?Q3. Will this also affect their stewardship concerns?
    • 21. Sample item: soils (Gr. 3)2. It usually takes how many years to form 1 cm oftopsoil? a) 1-10 months b) 1-10 years c) 100-1000 years d) 1-10 million years
    • 22. Sample item: energy (Gr. 5)23. Which of the following decisions would save theaverage family the most energy? a) Replace all the incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent light bulbs b) Buy all new energy-efficient appliances c) Only buy fruit and vegetables grown near where you live d) Trade in a large family car for a compact electric car
    • 23. Sample item: water (Gr. 8)20. Water that becomes groundwater a) Typically occurs as underground lakes and rivers b) Exists in the spaces between soil and rock particles
    • 24. Sample item: climate change (Gr. 10)16. Over the past century, the average surface temperature of Earth’s oceans a) has risen significantly b) has stayed approximately the same
    • 25. Pre-post results: soils & energy PJ teachers wrote a multiple choice survey on soils and on energy with 25 items each. The random score would be 25%.
    • 26. Pre-post results: water & climate chg JI teachers wrote a survey on climate change and water with 45 binary choice items each. The random score would be 50%.
    • 27. Ontario’s K-10 Curriculum forScience & Technology A NEW BIG IDEA IN THE CURRICULUM Sustainability is the concept of meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Stewardship involves understanding that we need to use and care for the natural environment in a responsible way and making the effort to pass on to future generations no less than what we have access to ourselves.
    • 28. Stewardship and sustainability – anew BIG IDEA?“The custody of the garden was given in charge toAdam, to show that we possess the things whichGod has committed to our hands, on the condition,that being content with the frugal and moderateuse of them, we should take care of what shallremain. Let him who possesses a field, so partakeof its yearly fruits, that he may not suffer theground to be injured by his negligence; but let himendeavor to hand it down to posterity as hereceived it, or even better cultivated.”
    • 29. PJ Focus Group Interviews1. Why do you think soil is an important topic for students to learn about?2. Which key concepts about soil should students learn?3. What should we be doing to conserve energy as teachers, students, adults, world citizens?
    • 30. PJ Focus Group Interviewsl Why do you think soil is an important topic for students to learn about?l Which key concepts about soil should students learn?l What should we be doing to conserve energy as teachers, students, adults, world citizens?l What perspectives inform your answer? In terms of scientific, ethical, faith-based?
    • 31. Answer – an analogy from nature“Life is based on death and in order for life tohappen there needs to be death and so I madean analogy that in order for us to have life and tohave oxygen there needs to be a de-compositioncycle that goes on. [When] things in the soil arein the process of dying, that gives life … thatleads [to] as teachers we are going to have toput certain behaviors to death in our classroomsso that we can then have life with our students ”
    • 32. Answer – ethical considerations“Ethically we have to start thinking about whatare we putting into the soil. Do we really needtomatoes that are so large, is it changing the waythe soil is made, is it changing the de-composition, is it changing the way the humus isin the soil for us to be creating crops that aresurviving? ”
    • 33. Answer – ethical coming out of faith-based considerations “I think the ethical component comes out of the faith-based. Because we feel that, you know, this world is given to you by God and he created it for you. He wants you to take from it but also give back to it, care for it, nurture it and pass it on to the next generation. Those are the underlying values that inform the ethical … we are supposed to take care of the earth for ethical reasons, but it comes to, I think, a faith-based reason.””
    • 34. Answer – created by God, so weneed to take care of it“My last placement was in a Catholic board, so Icould speak about faith openly. So, a lot ofconversation did come back to that God createdthis beautiful world for us. He created plants andthe soil and we need to take care of it. There wasconversation with children – you know, Godmade this for us, so we have to take care of it.He made us, so we have to take care ofourselves. So there was ownership there.”
    • 35. Answer – an awe for God’s creation “I love the term stewardship because that in itself is a Biblical term. Because God tells us to be good stewards of the earth and so that’s a task that he has given us. So, absolutely it is faith- based and to instill a love for the earth in our students and to instill a wonder for what they are seeing … that is something that you did and I really appreciate it in science” (continued)”
    • 36. Answer – an awe for God’s creation (continued) “you just have this awe and wonder for the world which carries on into your students because when we have that same wonder, then they are going to want to learn more and learn … and hopefully they will want to learn more about how we can protect in the best manner possible … that’s why God put us here for. He gave us the gift and we have to respect that gift.””
    • 37. Answer – take care of the earth“We always say that God wants me to do this, butthe first thing he said to any human was to takecare of the earth. So often we forget that, andthere are Christians who say, well, Christ iscoming back so we can use up whateverresources we want because the world is going toend anyways … When they say that, you aremissing the whole section where God gave it tous as a gift and we have to respect that and wehave to fear God too. ”
    • 38. A PJ student at a secular university “I wouldn’t say faith-based …Umbrella Christianity, and depending who you talk to, some may yes, others no. That’s a hard one. As far as ethical, same thing. What’s ethical to you might not be ethical to me … People get backed into a corner when you talk ethics, morals, or faith. But if the ministry angles it from the scientific, factual basis, you are giving people less opportunity to argue it isn’t important.”
    • 39. JI Focus Group Interviewsl Describe the water cycle.l Why is water a looming environmental issue, when the Earth has so much water?l Explain why Earth’s average global temperature is rising?l What obligations do we have as teachers, students, adults, world citizens?l What perspectives inform your answer? In terms of scientific, ethical, faith-based?
    • 40. Answer – ethical considerations #1“I think on an ethical basis we are all people wholive on the earth. The planet belongs to everyoneand though we have enough in Canada, we arespoiled because we have this natural source ofwater that we take for granted that it will alwaysbe there and that it is ours.”
    • 41. Answer – inform ourselves, first “I think we have to inform ourselves, first and foremost, and then bring that to life in the classroom. Not only in terms of instruction but also in what we do in day to day life at school.”””
    • 42. Answer – ethical considerations #2“I’d like to take a holistic approach. And I thinkthat all three of those can inter-play with eachother. My faith-base motivates me to act ethicallyand I use the science to back it up.” (to becontinued)
    • 43. Answer – Biblical considerations [Question: Do you think there is a commandment that says, ‘take water to poor countries”?]”
    • 44. Answer – Biblical considerations[Question: Do you think there is a commandmentthat says, ‘take water to poor countries”?]“No, it says ‘do unto other as you would havethem do unto you’ and another commandment‘love you neighbor as yourself’ and my faithcommands me to be a good steward of the earthas well. So, stewardship is another part of thescience curriculum here in Ontario and so I thinkwe need to practice this. So I see it as a holisticpiece.”
    • 45. Answer – more ethical than faith- based [Q: What does sustainability & stewardship mean?]”””
    • 46. Answer – more ethical than faith-based[Q: What does sustainability & stewardship mean?]“I would say it is more ethical …what you are doingeffects the person next to you. You don’t need tobe someone of a particular faith to realize that isnot being fair. So, I think it is more ethical than faithbased. Because even if you have no religion –like, you don’t have anything that you are holdingonto, that in itself that you’re being concernedabout the next human being is coming more froman ethical point of view rather than faith.”
    • 47. Answer – more ethical than faith-based[Q: What does sustainability & stewardship mean?]“I would say it is more ethical …what you are doingeffects the person next to you. You don’t need tobe someone of a particular faith to realize that isnot being fair. So, I think it is more ethical than faithbased. Because even if you have no religion –like, you don’t have anything that you are holdingonto, that in itself that you’re being concernedabout the next human being is coming more froman ethical point of view rather than faith.”
    • 48. Answer – for Christians, faith-based “I also hear what Olga and Jack have said that there are those who do not hold to a faith basis, but if you are a teacher with a faith basis, that is motivating for you to educate your students and their families about climate change and the environment. It does motivate, and those who do have a faith basis should be motivated by that because we do know that it has been given to us to take care of and it is a pleasure to take care of it.””
    • 49. Key ideas of preservice teachers: Stewardship is not just a faith-based concept Sustainability is not just a secular concept Ethical and faith-based reasons support each other Having a wonder for creation links to caring for it Creation also has lessons for us to appreciate Stewardship goes back to Genesis, but the two great commandments were emphasized by Christ We have to be informed before being transformed
    • 50. Approaching the issue negatively Calvin de Witt’s 7 Degradationsl Climate change caused by greenhouse gasesl Land and soil degradationl Deforestationl Extinction of speciesl Water degradationl Global toxificationl Human and cultural degradation
    • 51. Approaching the issue positively Calvin de Witt’s 7 Provisions for Creationl Earth’s energy exchange with the sun and spacel Soil buildingl Cycling in the atmosphere (water, carbon cycles)l Water purification and detoxificationl Fruitfulness and abundant life (habitats, biodiversity)l Global circulations of water and airl Human ability to learn from creation
    • 52. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Energy Earth & Space Mechanisms 1 Ontario’s K-10& Scienceour Living things Materials Structures Energy in Lives & Daily & Seasonal Changes 2 Technology CurriulumLiquids Animals Movement Solids & Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Changes Conservation of Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Environment 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Organs Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change Reactions
    • 53. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Energy Earth & Space Mechanisms 1 Ontario’s K-10& Scienceour Living things Materials Structures Energy in Lives & Daily & Seasonal Changes 2 Technology CurriulumLiquids Animals Movement Solids & Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Changes Conservation of Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Environment 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Organs Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change
    • 54. Our Creator’s unique gifts to us:1. The universe, a unique energy environment for Earth2. Earth’s unique atmosphere for life3. Earth’s unique water systems4. Earth’s unique rock and soil formations5. The unique web of life6. Unique cycles of energy and matter7. Humans, a unique species in relationship with the Creator, stewarding the Earth and our own bodies
    • 55. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Earth & Space Mechanisms Energy 1 Ontario’sMaterials & Science & Living things K-10 Structures Energy in our Lives Daily & Seasonal Changes 2 Technology Curriulum Movement Solids & Liquids Animals Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Conservation of Changes Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Envir. 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change
    • 56. Grade Life Systems Structures & Matter & Earth & Space (biotic Mechanism Energy (abiotic environment) environment) (technology) (science) 1 Ontario’sMaterials & Science & Living things K-10 Energy in our Daily & Seasonal Structures Lives Technology Curriulum Changes 2 Animals Movement Solids & Liquids Air & Water in the Environment 3 Plants Structures Forces Soils in the Environment 4 Habitats Pulleys and gears Light & Sound Rocks & Minerals 5 Human body Structures Chemical Conservation of Changes Energy 6 Biodiversity Flight Electricity Space (Astronomy) 7 Ecosystems Form & Function Solutions Heat in the Envir. 8 The cell Systems Fluids Water Systems 9 Ecosystems Electricity Atoms Space (Astronomy) 10 Tissues & Light & Optics Chemical Climate Change

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