Faculty Stress CCCU


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Janine Allen and Gary Railsback

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Faculty Stress CCCU

  1. 1. FACULTY STRESS AT PRIVATECHRISTIAN (CCCU) LIBERALARTS COLLEGES:SOURCES, PERCEPTIONS ANDIMPACTGary Railsback, Ph DDean, School of Education, Point Loma UniversityJanine Allen, Ed DDean of Education and Counseling, CorbanUniversity International Council for Christian Teacher Educators May, 2012 Azusa Pacific University
  2. 2. Introduction Study data will share highest levels of stress during the 2004-05 academic year. Since that time, economic downturn, prolonged recession [endowments], hiring freeze, and layoffs around the country have occurred (NAICU, 2008). Private higher education has fought for enrollment and several privates have closed due to the realties of a tuition-driven budget. Additional stressors due to legislative oversight Will stress erode the mission of the CCCU university? How do we maintain and protect our mission during times of stress, increased uncertainty and new high- stakes impact? Is this a concern?
  3. 3. Research QuestionsThe three research questions for this study are:1. What are the major sources of stress for private Christian Liberal Arts college faculty?2. Are there gender differences in these sources of stress?3. How do private Christian Liberal Arts college faculty compare with those at other institutions regarding sources of stress?
  4. 4. Conceptual Framework Miller, Buchholdt and Shaw (2008) conclude that there is no single unifying definition of the term faculty stress in the literature. Jex (1998) three definitions of stress  “environmental stimuli or conditions to which people must adapt.”  The second definition focuses on the individual’s perceptions and feelings about their work environment  The third definition is broader and is defined as “the relationship between persons’ perceptions, needs and abilities and the conditions of their work situations” (Jex 1998, p. 4).
  5. 5. Methodology National survey distributed during the 2004-05 academic year. Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) National norms  40,670 full-time undergraduate faculty : 2,762 CCCU  421 colleges and universities : 38 CCCU  Permission granted by CCCU The 2004-05 Christian College faculty subset has been utilized previously to study spirituality (Railsback, 2008), tenure (Railsback, 2010), satisfaction (Railsback & Swezey, 2010; Railsback, Swezey, Cintas, Croy, & Gibbs, 2008), and now stress.
  6. 6. Research Question #1: What are the majorsources of stress for private Christian Liberal Artscollege faculty? Dey’s (1994) method of comparison used to categorize responses  Each of the sources of stress allowed faculty to choose between “extensive,” “somewhat,” or “not at all.”  All CCCU have five major sources of extensive stress – self-imposed high expectations (28%), lack of personal time (25%), teaching load (21%), household responsibilities (20%), and personal finances (16%)
  7. 7. Research Question #2: Are there genderdifferences in these sources of stress? Gender differences of tenured and untenured faculty as sources of stress are considered further Stressor one: “self-imposed high expectations” ; 28% of all CCCU faculty agree  Ofthose, 23% of tenured men reported this as an area of extensive stress, 36% of tenured women report it.  More tenured women reported high self-imposed high expectations as a stressor than untenured women (34%)  Males report less stress from self-imposed high
  8. 8. CCCU sample: Stressors Second stressor: Lack of Personal Time (25%)  Tenured women reported the highest level of response for this stressor (40%); without tenure (36%).  Men report much lower levels of stress about the lack of personal time when tenured (17%) and untenured (20%). Third highest stressor: Teaching Load (21%)  Notas much variation between men and women faculty around teaching load once they receive tenure (19 and 22% respectively),
  9. 9. Research Question #3: How do private ChristianLiberal Arts college faculty compare with those atother institutions regarding sources of stress?National: US Faculty n= CCCU Faculty n= 2,762 40,670 Self-imposed High  Self-imposed High Expectations (79%) Expectations (83%) Lack of personal time  Lack of Personal Time (74%) (77%) Household  Household responsibilities (74%) Responsibilities (76%) Teaching Load (65%)  Teaching Load (66%) Personal finances 60% and  Personal Finances 62%.
  10. 10. Unintended FindingsAreas  After tenure, women self-report anwomen sawa rise in the increase in stress in the followingdependent areasvariableafter tenure  Self-imposed high expectationswhereasmen saw a  Lack of personal timedecline in  Institutional procedures/red tapethe samevariable  Subtle discriminationafterreceivingtenure.
  11. 11. Back to the Literature Women often experience overall higher levels of stress in job-alike positions (Doyle & Hind, 1998)  Time stress variable self-reported by women is much higher (Lindholm & Szelenyi, 2008) Women saw in increase self-imposed expectations and lack of personal time as tenured faculty and experienced a decline in work satisfaction (Olsen, 1993). Additional analysis forthcoming
  12. 12. Implications Faculty may be less motivated to recruit, teach, retain, and develop positive relationships with students and colleagues  Small system paradigm Current impact of recession is tenuous, budgets are highly dependent upon student tuition and yet faculty still need to develop scholarly work  Imperative to support professional growth and manage faculty emotional health and well-being  Seventeen of 22 stress variables decreased after tenure for men, thirteen of 22 stress variables for tenured women
  13. 13. Recommendations  Small system structure needs evaluation  Faculty mentoring, Programs to alleviate stress  Administration must provide support to newer faculty for developing and achieving a scholarship agenda  longevity in the institution and self- perceived success  Relationship networks
  14. 14. Mission of the Institution Faculty attrition will threaten or at least disturb the culture of the CCCU institution which depends upon internal and external relationships Spiritual fulfillment of vocation in partnership Scriptural principle of community A Godward orientation and life-giving work according to the specific call of vocation (Smith, 1999)  Vocational integrity (Ecc. 2:24, Col. 3:23)
  15. 15. Vocational Integrity24 Aperson can do nothing better than to eat and drink and find satisfaction in their own toil. This too, I see, is from the hand of God… Ecclesiastes 2:24 23Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for human masters… Colossians 3:23
  16. 16. ReferencesAbouserie, R. (1996). Stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in university academic staff. [Article]. Educational Psychology, 16(1), 49.Buckholdt, D. R., & Miller, G. (Eds.). (2009). Faculty stress. New York, NY: Haworth Press.Buckholdt, D. R., & Miller, G. E. (2008). Conclusion: Is Stress Likely to Abate for Faculty? [Article]. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17, 213-229.Dey, E. (1994). Dimensions of faculty stress: A recent survey. Review of Higher Education, 17(3), 305-322.Doyle, C., & Hind, P. (1998). Occupational Stress, Burnout and Job Status in Female Academics. Gender, Work & Organization, 5, 67-82.Eddy, P. L., & Gaston-Gayles, J. L. (2008). New Faculty on the Block: Issues of Stress and Support. [Article]. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1-2), 89-106.Elliott, M. (2008). Gender Differences in the Causes of Work and Family Strain Among Academic Faculty. [Article]. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1-2), 157-173.Gonzales, S., & Bernard, H. (2006). Academic workload typologies and burnout among faculity in Seventh-day Advantist colleges and universities in North America. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 15(1), 13-37.Hart, J. L., & Cress, C. M. (2008). Are Women Faculty Just "Worrywarts?" Accounting for Gender Differences in Self-Reported Stress. [Article]. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1-2), 175-193.He, X.-X., Li, Z.-y., Jian, S., & Mao, R. (2000). A comparative study of stress among university faculty in China and Japan. [Feature DER: 20000606]. Higher Education, 39(3), 253-278.
  17. 17. ReferencesHendel, D. D., & Horn, A. S. (2008). The Relationship Between Academic Life Conditions and Perceived Sources of Faculty Stress Over Time. [Article]. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1-2), 61-88.Jex, S. M. (1998). Stress and job performance: Theory, research and implications for managerial practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Kinman, G., & Jones, F. (2009). A life beyond work? Job demands, work-life balance, and wellbeing in UK academics. In D. R. Buckholdt & G. E. miller (Eds.), Faculty Stress (pp. 41-60). New York: Routledge.Levin, J. S. (2006). Faculty work: Tensions between educational and economic values. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(1), 62-88.Lindholm, J. A., & Szelényi, K. (2008). Faculty time stress: Correlates within and across academic disciplines. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1/2), 19- 40.Lindholm, J. A., Szelenyi, K., Hurtado, S., Korn, W. S. (2005). The American college teacher: National norms for the 2004-05 HERI faculty survey. Los Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute.Michailidis, M. P. (2008). Gender-related work stressors in tertiary education. journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1).
  18. 18. ReferencesMiller, G. E., Buckholdt, D. R., & Shaw, B. (2008). Introduction: Perspectives on Stress and Work. [Article]. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1-2), 1-18.Murray, J. P. (2008). New faculty members perceptions of the academic work life. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1).Olsen, D. (1993). Work satisfaction and stress in the first and third year of academic appointment. Journal of Higher Education, 64(4), 453-471.Railsback, G. L. (2008). Faculty religious convictions and spirituality at Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU) campuses. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association.Railsback, G. L. (2010). Faculty perceptions about tenure at private Christian liberal arts colleges. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association
  19. 19. References Railsback, G. L., & Swezey, J. (2010). The Impact of Institutional Size on Faculty Satisfaction Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association. Railsback, G. L., Swezey, J., Cintas, C., Croy, K., & Gibbs, S. (2008). Faculty satisfaction at private religious colleges. Private School Monitor, 29(2), 1-14. Rush, R. R. (2003). The influence of selected factors on burnout among faculty in higher education. Unpublished Ph.D., Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, United States -- Louisiana. Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., ODriscoll, M., Sparks, K., Bernin, P., et al. (2002). Locus of control and well-being at work: How generealizable are western findings? . Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 453-466. Thompson, C. J., & Dey, E. L. (1998). Pushed to the margins: Sources of stress for African American college and university faculty The Journal of Higher Education, 69(3), 324-345. Trautvetter, L. C., Braskamp, L. A., & Ward, K. A. (2008). Reducing stress for new faculty at church-related colleges and universities. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1). Watts, J., & Robertson, N. (2011). Burnout in university teaching staff: a systematic literature review. [Article]. Educational Research, 53(1), 33-50.
  20. 20. ContactsGary Railsback, PhD Janine F. Allen, Ed DDean, School of Dean, School of Education EducationPoint Loma University Corban Universitygaryrailsback@pointloma.ed jallen@corban.edu u (503)589-8158(619) 849-2323