Specification of objectives


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Educational objectives,bloom's taxonomy

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Specification of objectives

  1. 1. Specifications of Objectives By Dr. Shazia Zamir NUML
  2. 2. Levels of Specificity of Objectives Objectives are specific statements of what is to be accomplished and how well and are expressed in terms of quantifiable ,measurable outcomes. Level Definition Related Terms General objectives Broad statements of long term outcomes. Goals Intermediate objectives More precise statements of short term outcomes. Unit objectives Course objectives Specific objectives Precise statements of immediate outcomes. Instructional objectives Behavioral objectives
  3. 3. Learning Objectives Learning objectives are statements of what is expected that a student will be ab le to DO as a result of a learning activity. INPUT INPUT PROC PROC ESS ESS OUTCOM OUTCOM ES ES Descripto Descripto rs rs
  4. 4. The Three Domains
  5. 5. The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. Comple Comple x x Simple Simple
  6. 6. The cognitive domain
  7. 7. Knowledge The remembering of previously learned material Examples of learning objectives: -know common terms -know specific facts -know methods and procedures -know basic concepts -know principles
  8. 8. Knowledge (Example) Who is the founder of Pakistan? A. Allama Iqbal B. Liaqat Ali Khan C. Quaid-e-Azam D. Maulana Zafar Ali
  9. 9. Comprehension The ability to grasp the meaning of material Examples of learning objectives: -understand facts and principles interpret charts and graphs -interpret verbal materials -justify methods and procedures translate verbal material to mathematical formulae
  10. 10. Comprehension (Example) What is the main idea of this paragraph? A. Nitrous oxide can cause an environmental problem. B. Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas. C. Nitrous oxide destroys the earth’s ozone layer. D. Nitrous oxide’s concentration appears to be rising.
  11. 11. Application The ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations Examples of learning objectives: -apply concepts and principles to new situations apply laws and theories to practical situations solve mathematical problems construct graphs and charts demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure
  12. 12. Application (Example) Which one of the following values approximates best to the volume of a sphere with radius 5m? A. 2000 m3 B. 1000 m3 C. 500 m3(Correct Answer) D. 250 m3 E. 125 m3 (MCQ)
  13. 13. Analysis The ability to break down material into its component parts Examples of learning objectives: -recognize logical fallacies in reasoning distinguish between facts and inferences evaluate the relevancy of data analyze the organizational structure of a work
  14. 14. Analysis (Example) What are the parts or features of ___?  How is _____ related to _____?  Can you list the parts …? What inference can you make …? What conclusions can you draw …? How would you classify …? How would you categorize …? Can you identify the difference parts …? What is the relationship between …? What is the function of …?
  15. 15. Synthesis The ability to put parts together to form a new whole Examples of learning objectives: -write a well organized theme -give a well organize speech write a creative short story propose a plan for an experiment integrate learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem
  16. 16. Synthesis (Example) Write a paragraph summarizing the text you have read. Your summary should have a topic sentence defining the problem, some of the causes, some of the effects, and a conclusion.
  17. 17. Evaluation The ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose based on definite criteria Examples of learning objectives: - judge the logical consistency of written material -judge the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data.
  18. 18. arran e o er g rd lab el d e efin reco n e g iz dp u licate recall list rep eat m o e emriz state relate rep d ce ro u
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  20. 20. ap ly p o erate ch o p o se p ractice d o strate emn sch u d atiz sk ed le ram e etch emlo py so lve illu strate u se in ret w terp rite
  21. 21. an e d alyz ifferen tiate ap raise d p iscrim ate calcu in late d g ish categ riz ex in co p istin u o e am e mare co trast n q estio u n criticiz e test ex erim t p en
  22. 22. a n e fo u te as mle mng rra g rmla se b aae c lle t oc o a iz c moe rgn e o ps p pre re a c a p ps re te ro oe p n c ntrut la os c ds n eig w rite
  23. 23. ap raise ju g p de rate attach arg e p ict u red assess sco ch o re o se select co p su p rt estim evalu mare p o ate ate
  24. 24. The Affective domain describes learning objectives that emphasize a feeling tone, an emotion, or a degree of acceptance or rejection. 
  25. 25. Affective domain
  26. 26. The psychomotor domain is organized according to the degree of coordination including involuntary responses as well as learned capabilities.
  27. 27. Psychomotor Domain Reflex movements -are actions elicited without learning in response to some stimuli.  Basic fundamental movement – are inherent movement patterns which are formed by combining of reflex movements and are the basis for complex skilled movements. Examples are: walking, running, pushing, twisting, gripping, grasping etc.
  28. 28. Perceptual – refers to interpretation of various stimuli that enable one to make adjustments to the environment. Visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination. Suggests cognitive as well as psychomotor behavior. Examples include: coordinated movements such as jumping rope, or catching.
  29. 29. Physical activities- require endurance, strength, vigor, and agility which produces a sound, efficiently functioning body. Examples are: all activities which require a) tough effort for long periods of time; b) muscular effort; c) a quick, wide range of motion at the hip joints; and d) quick, precise movements.
  30. 30. Skilled movements-  are the result of the acquisition of a degree of efficiency when performing a complex task. Examples are: all skilled activities obvious in sports, recreation and dance.
  31. 31. Non-Discursive Communication Objectives in this area refer to expressive movements through posture, gestures, facial expressions and/or creative movements like those in parody or ballet.  These movements refer to interpretive movements that communicate meaning without the aid of verbal commands or
  32. 32. Advantages of specifying learning outcomes Help students learn more effectively. Make it clear what students can hope to gain from a course. Help instructors to design their materials more effectively. Help instructors select the appropriate teaching strategy. Assist in setting examinations based on the materials delivered. Ensure that appropriate assessment strategies are employed.