M.Phil Edu 2nd
Constructing Objective Test Items simple and
test is a device or instrument which we use to
measure knowledge, skills, feelings, intellegence,or
aptitude of an individual or group.
Constructing Objective Test Items
Each type of test item has its own unique
characteristics, uses, advantages,
limitations, and rules for construction. The
characteristics that are considered for
objective test forms that typically measure
relatively simple learning outcomes are the
short answer item, the true-false item, and
the matching exercise.
Short Answer Items
Short answer and the completion item are both
supply type test items.
Can be answered by a word, phrase, number, or
Uses of the Short-Answer Items
Is suitable for measuring a variety of
relatively simple learning outcomes.
Some of the common uses are knowledge of
terminology, knowledge of specific facts,
knowledge of principle, knowledge of
method/procedure, and simple interpretations
Knowledge of Terminology
Lines on a weather map that join points of the same
pressure are called______. (isobars)
Knowledge of Specific Facts
A member of the United
to a term of ________ years.
• Knowledge of Principles
If the temperature of a gas is held constant
while the pressure is applied to it is increased,
what will happen to its volume?
( it will increase)
Knowledge of Method or Procedure
What device is used to detect whether an electric
charge is positive or negative?
Simple Interpretations of Data
In the number 612, what value does the 6
Short answer items
More complex interpretations can be made when the
short-answer item is used to measure the ability
to interpret diagrams, charts, graphs, and
Advantages and Limitations
Reduces the possibility that students will guess
Measures the recall of memorized information
One of the easiest test items to construct
Limitations:Un suitability for measuring complex learning
The difficulty in scoring .
suggestion for Constructing short-answer items
1. Word the item so that the required answer is both
brief and specific.
Do not take statements directly from textbooks to
use as a basis for short-answer items.
A direct question is generally more desirable
than an incomplete statement.
If the answer is to be expressed in numerical
units, indicate the type of answer wanted.
Blanks for answers should be equal in length and
in a column to the right of the question.
When completion items are used, do not include
too many blanks.
True-False or Alternative-Response Items
Consists of a declarative statement that the
student is asked to mark true or false, right or
wrong, correct or incorrect, yes or no, fact or
opinion, agree or disagree.
Only two possible answers.
Uses of True-False Items
The most common is to measure the ability to
identify the correctness of statements of facts,
definitions of terms, statements of principles,
and the like.
Advantages Limitations T/F items
T/F are very efficient.
A wide sampling of course material can be
T/F items are not especially useful beyond the
Susceptible to guessing.
Suggestions for Constructing T/F Items
1. Avoid broad general statements if they are to
be judged true or false.
2. Avoid trivial statements.
3. Avoid the use of negative statements,
especially double negatives.
4. Avoid long, complex sentences.
5. Avoid including two ideas in one statement,
unless cause-and-effect relationships are being
Constructing suggestions for T/F Items
6. If opinion is used, attribute it to some source, unless
t the ability to identify opinion is
7. True statements and false statements should be
approximately equal in length.
8. The number of true statements and false statements
should be approximately equal.
Consist of two parallel columns with each word,
number, or symbol in one column being matched to
a word, sentence, or phrase in the other column.
Uses of Matching Exercises
The typical matching exercise is limited to
measuring factual information based on simple
Has also been used with pictorial materials in
relating pictures and words to identify positions
on maps, charts, and diagrams.
Advantages Limitations of Matching Exercises
The compact form, which makes it possible to
measuring a large amount
The ease of construction
The matching exercise is restricted to the
measurement of factual information based on rote
suggestions for Constructing
Use only homogeneous material in a single
Include an unequal number of responses and
premises and instruct the student that responses
may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
Keep the list of items to be matched brief and
place the shorter responses on the right.
Arrange the list of responses in logical order,
place words in alphabetical order, and numbers in
Place all the items for one matching exercise on
CONSTRUCTING OBJECTIVE TEST ITEMS:
Objective test items are not limited to the measurement of
simple learning outcomes.
The multiple choice item can measure both knowledge
and understanding levels and is free of many of the
limitations of other forms of objective items.
Most widely used
Measure simple learning outcomes
Measure complex learning outcomes
(knowledge, understanding, and
Flexible, high quality items adaptable to
most subject-matter content
Used extensively in achievement testing
Characteristics of MultipleChoice Items
Consists of a problem (stem) and a list of suggested solutions
(alternatives, choices, or options)
Answers other than the correct answer are called distracters
(decoys or foils)
Items can be stated in two ways.
1) Direct questions
a) easier to write
b) more natural for younger students
c) present a clearly formatted problem
2) Incomplete sentences
a) more concise
b) present a well defined problem if phrased well
USES OF MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS
Measuring Knowledge Outcomes
1) Knowledge of Terminology
2) Knowledge of Specific Facts
3) Knowledge of Principles
4) Knowledge of Methods and Procedures
Measuring Outcomes at the Understanding
and Application Levels
1) Ability to Identify Application of Fact and
2) Ability to Interpret Cause-and-Effect
3) Ability to Justify Methods and Procedures
Advantages and Limitations of MultipleChoice Items
Measures achievement and complex learning outcomes.
Structure of alternatives eliminate vagueness and
Knowledge of content area is measured without concern
for spelling errors
Multiple-choice requires students to choose the correct
or best answer while true-false tests allow students to get
credit for knowing a statement is not correct.
Advantages and Limitations of MultipleChoice Items (cont)
Multiple-choice items have a greater reliability
Multiple-choice items measure a single idea
while matching exercises require a series of
Multiple-choice items are usually free of
Incorrect answers in multiple-choice items can
usually allow for diagnosis of errors and
misunderstandings that need correction
Limited to learning outcomes at the verbal level
Requires selection of the correct answer and therefore
it does not measure problem solving skills in math and
science or the ability to organize and present ideas
It is difficult to find a sufficient number of reasonable
alternatives or distracters (especially at the primary