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  • 1. By Saima Bashir M.Phil Edu 2nd Semester. To Dr.Shazia zamir
  • 2. Constructing Objective Test Items simple and multiple-choice forms  Test:- test is a device or instrument which we use to measure knowledge, skills, feelings, intellegence,or aptitude of an individual or group.
  • 3. Constructing Objective Test Items Simple Forms Each type of test item has its own unique characteristics, uses, advantages, limitations, and rules for construction. The characteristics that are considered for objective test forms that typically measure relatively simple learning outcomes are the short answer item, the true-false item, and the matching exercise.
  • 4. Short Answer Items  Short answer and the completion item are both supply type test items.  Can be answered by a word, phrase, number, or symbol.
  • 5. Uses of the Short-Answer Items  Is suitable for measuring a variety of relatively simple learning outcomes.  Some of the common uses are knowledge of terminology, knowledge of specific facts, knowledge of principle, knowledge of method/procedure, and simple interpretations of data.
  • 6. Examples:  Knowledge of Terminology Lines on a weather map that join points of the same pressure are called______. (isobars) barometric  Knowledge of Specific Facts A member of the United to a term of ________ years. (6) States Senate is elected
  • 7. Examples: • Knowledge of Principles If the temperature of a gas is held constant while the pressure is applied to it is increased, what will happen to its volume? ( it will increase)  Knowledge of Method or Procedure What device is used to detect whether an electric charge is positive or negative? ( electroscope)  Simple Interpretations of Data In the number 612, what value does the 6 represent (600)
  • 8. Short answer items  More complex interpretations can be made when the short-answer item is used to measure the ability to interpret diagrams, charts, graphs, and pictorial data.
  • 9. Advantages and Limitations Reduces the possibility that students will guess Measures the recall of memorized information One of the easiest test items to construct Limitations:Un suitability for measuring complex learning outcomes. The difficulty in scoring .
  • 10. suggestion for Constructing short-answer items 1. Word the item so that the required answer is both 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. brief and specific. Do not take statements directly from textbooks to use as a basis for short-answer items. A direct question is generally more desirable than an incomplete statement. If the answer is to be expressed in numerical units, indicate the type of answer wanted. Blanks for answers should be equal in length and in a column to the right of the question. When completion items are used, do not include too many blanks.
  • 11. True-False or Alternative-Response Items Consists of a declarative statement that the student is asked to mark true or false, right or wrong, correct or incorrect, yes or no, fact or opinion, agree or disagree. Only two possible answers.
  • 12. Uses of True-False Items  The most common is to measure the ability to identify the correctness of statements of facts, definitions of terms, statements of principles, and the like.
  • 13. Advantages Limitations T/F items  T/F are very efficient.  A wide sampling of course material can be obtained.  T/F items are not especially useful beyond the knowledge area.  Susceptible to guessing.
  • 14. Suggestions for Constructing T/F Items 1. Avoid broad general statements if they are to be judged true or false. 2. Avoid trivial statements. 3. Avoid the use of negative statements, especially double negatives. 4. Avoid long, complex sentences. 5. Avoid including two ideas in one statement, unless cause-and-effect relationships are being measured.
  • 15. Constructing suggestions for T/F Items (Continued) 6. If opinion is used, attribute it to some source, unless t the ability to identify opinion is being measured. 7. True statements and false statements should be approximately equal in length. 8. The number of true statements and false statements should be approximately equal.
  • 16. Matching Exercises  Consist of two parallel columns with each word, number, or symbol in one column being matched to a word, sentence, or phrase in the other column.
  • 17. Uses of Matching Exercises  The typical matching exercise is limited to measuring factual information based on simple associations.  Has also been used with pictorial materials in relating pictures and words to identify positions on maps, charts, and diagrams.
  • 18. Advantages Limitations of Matching Exercises  The compact form, which makes it possible to measuring a large amount  The ease of construction  The matching exercise is restricted to the measurement of factual information based on rote learning .
  • 19. suggestions for Constructing Matching Exercises  Use only homogeneous material in a single     exercise. Include an unequal number of responses and premises and instruct the student that responses may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Keep the list of items to be matched brief and place the shorter responses on the right. Arrange the list of responses in logical order, place words in alphabetical order, and numbers in sequence. Place all the items for one matching exercise on one page.
  • 20. CONSTRUCTING OBJECTIVE TEST ITEMS: MULTIPLE-CHOICE FORMS  Objective test items are not limited to the measurement of simple learning outcomes.  The multiple choice item can measure both knowledge and understanding levels and is free of many of the limitations of other forms of objective items.
  • 21. Multiple-Choice Items  Most widely used  Measure simple learning outcomes  Measure complex learning outcomes (knowledge, understanding, and application)  Flexible, high quality items adaptable to most subject-matter content  Used extensively in achievement testing
  • 22. Characteristics of MultipleChoice Items  Consists of a problem (stem) and a list of suggested solutions (alternatives, choices, or options)  Answers other than the correct answer are called distracters (decoys or foils)  Items can be stated in two ways. 1) Direct questions a) easier to write b) more natural for younger students c) present a clearly formatted problem 2) Incomplete sentences a) more concise b) present a well defined problem if phrased well
  • 23. USES OF MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS Measuring Knowledge Outcomes 1) Knowledge of Terminology 2) Knowledge of Specific Facts 3) Knowledge of Principles 4) Knowledge of Methods and Procedures Measuring Outcomes at the Understanding and Application Levels 1) Ability to Identify Application of Fact and Principles 2) Ability to Interpret Cause-and-Effect Relationships 3) Ability to Justify Methods and Procedures
  • 24. Advantages and Limitations of MultipleChoice Items Advantages  Measures achievement and complex learning outcomes.  Structure of alternatives eliminate vagueness and ambiguity  Knowledge of content area is measured without concern for spelling errors  Multiple-choice requires students to choose the correct or best answer while true-false tests allow students to get credit for knowing a statement is not correct.
  • 25. Advantages and Limitations of MultipleChoice Items (cont)  Multiple-choice items have a greater reliability than true-false  Multiple-choice items measure a single idea while matching exercises require a series of related ideas  Multiple-choice items are usually free of response sets  Incorrect answers in multiple-choice items can usually allow for diagnosis of errors and misunderstandings that need correction
  • 26. Disadvantages  Limited to learning outcomes at the verbal level  Requires selection of the correct answer and therefore it does not measure problem solving skills in math and science or the ability to organize and present ideas  It is difficult to find a sufficient number of reasonable alternatives or distracters (especially at the primary level)