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Curriculum and development in education

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  • 1. Curriculum and Development in Education Submitted To: Dr. Shazia Zamir Submitted by : Hina Rashid Sadia Ajmal Ghania Shahid Sama Hunaiza Development of Education
  • 2. Curriculum And Development In Education  Curriculum consists of the learning activities and experiences ,selected to achieve educational goals.  It involves interaction between teachers and learners, between learners and learners, and between learners and curriculum content.
  • 3. Curriculum And Development In Education Concept of curriculum is defined as, The sum total of experiences provided for learners for which school takes responsibility.(Berman) All of the planned experiences , a student can have at school. ( Ben and Unruh)
  • 4. Concept cont…… Curriculum is a cultural reproduction in a structured way. It is even more: It should also value independent thinking in the context of the widest sense of social responsibility.(Smith, Stanley & Shores)
  • 5. Concept cont…… Tanner & Tanner offers the following definition, derived from Dewey’s definition of education; “That reconstruction of knowledge and experience that enables the learner to grow in exercising intelligent control of subsequent knowledge and experience”
  • 6. Different Stages Of Curriculum Change Series of activities under taken at different levels. Situational analysis. Formulation of aims and objectives. Selection and organization of curriculum. Selection and organization of learning experiences. Evaluation of curriculum.
  • 7. Situational Analysis Preliminary analysis of situation existing at present and background against which process has to be under taken. It Involves,  Needs assessment and determining priorities on the basis of these needs. educational system requirements cultural and social change
  • 8. Elements of Situational Analysis Analysis factors that constitute the situation: Teachers - abilities/skills - teaching style - strengths / weaknesses Pupils - needs - abilities - personal characteristics
  • 9. Elements cont….. Physical Plant And Facilities - materials - equipment - facilities Psycho-social Climate - organizational climate - traditions , beliefs , attitudes Development trends
  • 10. Formulation of aims and objectives Curriculum should aim to:  Provide knowledge and develop skills, attitudes, values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing society.  Provide learning experiences which increases a child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in the society.
  • 11. Aims and Goals in Pakistan  QURANIC principles and Islamic practices  Achievement of universal primary education  To meet basic learning needs of children  To expand education qualitatively  and quantitatively  To ensure school access
  • 12. Continue…..  To make curriculum development a continuous process  To prepare students for professional needs  To develop a framework for policy planning and development of teacher training.  To develop technical education  and improvement of it’s quality
  • 13. Continue…..  To popularize information technology among children  To encourage private schools for free education to poor students  To institutionalize process of monitoring and evaluation  To achieve excellence in  different fields of higher  education
  • 14. Continue….  To institutionalize the process of monitoring and evaluation at all levels  To achieve excellence in higher education  To bring teaching learning and research process in line with international needs1
  • 15. Selection and organization of content  Predescribed activities for achievement of educational objectives.  Activities are the primary aim  Activities lead towards development Two types of development  Internal development  External development
  • 16. Activities organized while study of content  Study of text book  Additional instructional material  Exercise consist of recapitulation  Practical work and experiments  Educational visits and special education sessions  Occasional celebrations and service programs  Physical training including games and sports  Educational content and students self-help activities  Scouting and girl guiding
  • 17. Internal development Internal development involves following aspects:  Psycho-physical development  Student's vocabulary  Knowledge  Problem solving ability  Physical strength  Stamina  Attitudes  Interests
  • 18. Principle and criteria of content selection and organization  Selection of content according to aims and objectives  Careful selection  According to demands  Validity  Significance  Difficulty  Pupil’s needs and interests  University
  • 19. Validity  Valid content  Helps to achieve the predetermined objectives  Addition of valid and relevant content as per requirement
  • 20. Significance  Content should be beneficial for the learner and society  Depth and breath of content according to demands  Change according to the new era
  • 21. Difficulty  To keep this in mind that is the content easy to understand for students / learners without guidance i.e. home assignments  If difficult content is added, to understand that content, relevant skills should be given at school
  • 22. Pupil's needs and interests  Pupils interest is an important motivational factor for learner  Students interest will enable the content selectors to select interesting and facilitating activities
  • 23. Universality  The content should be selected according to recent educational terminologies and universal standards  It is very important to teach basics of educations as equal to the global standards  It reduces confusion among students
  • 24. Selection and organization of learning experience  Relevant learning experience will enhance the desired changes in learners  Allows to add, compare or contrast the learning experiences to understand the actual meanings  Methods  Learning activities and experiences with reference is a perfect method to adopt  Economic and rigidity constraints effects the methods a lot
  • 25. Teaching Methodologies  Class participation  Techniques of evaluation  1. tests 2. questionnaires  Cultural taboos and restrictions should be eliminated  Updated teachers  Proper evaluation criteria  Successful evaluation leads towards better changes in curriculum
  • 26. Evaluation of the curriculum  On the basis of field practices  What attitude may occur in learner’s attitude due to learning  What could be different ways to evaluate the learners  This step provides a feedback to the teacher to improve the teaching methodology  Effectiveness of the curriculum to establish better learners for better future
  • 27. Education  Education is a process of development of overall personality as well as a product to be a social competent person of the society.  Pakistan inherited a system of education which had been designed to produce literate man power to assist the colonial master at lower level.  Governess of masses
  • 28. Early phase when Pakistan came into being 90% illiterate people when Pakistan came into being  Only two universities were situated in Pakistan out of 21  According to one-unit scheme education became the provincial subject  Four boards were working for intermediate and secondary education  School run by machinery groups were considered as providing quality education
  • 29. First educational conference  Held in November 1947 in Karachi  Produced a number of recommendations designed  To make the educational system strong and relevant to the country needs and aspirations  Including making Urdu the official language curriculum revision  Diversification of courses  Compulsory religious instruction  Development of administrative machinery
  • 30. Educational reforms  Six year development plan  New type teaching institutions  Specialized centers  Second plan period  Setting  Bureau of education for research and data collection  Plan reorganization for higher education  Increase the degree level beyond class 14
  • 31. Education policy  Education reforms of 1972  Drew up fairly radical proposal  Emphasis upon Students Teachers Enrolment  Policy of 1972 Aimed restricting education Top to bottom
  • 32. Content of Education • Common curriculum for all provinces • Cooperative study of curriculum • Identification and resolution of problem areas • Consultation with subject specialist • Seminars and meetings
  • 33. Function of national textbook board  To design the layout the board national policy related to textbooks  Review textbooks time to time  Identical and achievable content of education for all levels  Production of model textbook  Production of Standard books for selected discipline
  • 34. Function of NBCT To  Provide assistant and advise for the formulation and implementation of national curriculum and evaluation  Provincial bureau and boards for curriculum and textbook development  Provide leadership in curriculum  conduct research in different aspects of curriculum development  Collect information and data regarding curriculum development
  • 35.  Provide guidance and resource material to textbooks boards and authors  Evaluate textbooks for all levels against national goals and objectives  Advise concerning curricula and material for special education  To liaise with educational institutes i-e UNESCO UNICEF
  • 36. Functions of provincial bureau  Initial drafts of syllabi provincial bureau of curriculum  Collaborations with provincial textbooks boards to prepare textbooks manuscripts  Implementation of agreed curricula in various boards
  • 37. THE PROCESS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT  In Pakistan the process of curriculum development is generally proceed in following steps.
  • 38. 1.DETERMINING THE AIMS AND GOALS OF EDUCATION  This step includes a guideline for the curriculum developers by the prevalent education policy, cabinet decision or some other policy statement by the president, Prime Minister or Federal Minister.
  • 39. FORMULATION OF VARIOUS COMMITTEES BY THE CURRICULUM WING:  In order to proceed policy statement or police guidelines, curriculum wing of the Ministry of education made two committees at National level. 1. National Committee in Secondary and Primary Education 2. Subject Committee at Primary and Secondary levels.
  • 40. These committees include: 1. Teachers 2. Subject specialists 3. Administrators
  • 41. Purpose of these committees is 1. Delineate aims of education for subsequent input. 2. Curriculum wing communicates with above mentioned committees along with CRDC at provincial level on aims and goals of education and other policy guidelines.
  • 42. 3. PROPOSALS BY THE CRDC’S AND CURRICULUM BUREAUS Then after the formulation of two committees the CRDC and the bureaus of curriculum functioning at the provincial level do following actions: 1. Take appropriate initiative firstly 2. Then secondly finalize their proposals keeping in view the overall aims of education, local situation and their research experience etc 3. Then send it to the National committee of Primary, Secondary Education for further proceeding.
  • 43. 4. PROCESSING IN THE NATIONAL COMMITTEES  Relevant committee either the primary or secondary level committee received the curricular proposals from the provincial CRDC’s and BC’s check their suitability in the light of aims of education. • Then with its recommendations and observations curricular proposals send to relevant subject committee.
  • 44. 4. PROCESSING IN THE NATIONAL COMMITTEES  Relevant committee either the primary or secondary level committee received the curricular proposals from the provincial CRDC’s and BC’s check their suitability in the light of aims of education.  Then with its recommendations and observations curricular proposals send to relevant subject committee.
  • 45.  The relevant subject committee then considers the whole package and send it back to the primary and secondary level from whom it had received.  Then primary/secondary level committee functioning at the international level and reconsiders the original proposals and the subsequent recommendations and made final approval of the curriculum.
  • 46. TEXTBOOKS  Textbooks play a vital role in educational activity  Full fledged textbook sector was established in the Bureau of curriculum and Textbooks in 1974.
  • 47.  This sector has certain objectives: 1.To coordinate work of four provincial Textbook Boards. 2.To keep a check on prices of Textbooks published by the boards.
  • 48. 3.To ensure that textbooks prepared by the provinces are according to the National aims and objectives as expressed through National curriculum. 4. To maintain uniformity in textbooks both in content and production. 5. To provide leadership to the boards by preparing model textbooks.
  • 49. PRODUCTION OF TEXTBOOKS  Production of textbooks in Pakistan is basically the responsibility of four Provincial Textbook Boards.  These Boards are autonomous organizations of Provincial Education Department.  The process of textbook production for classes I to XII start from Federal Ministry of Education.  Then Federal Ministry formulates curriculum  and devices schemes of studies.
  • 50.  The finalized curricula are forwarded to CRDC’s and the Board for preparation of textbooks.
  • 51. FOR THE PREPARATIONS OF MANUSCRIPTS OF TEXTBOOKS;THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF PRACTICES 1.Some boards appoint panel of authors for writing a textbook and assign different chapters to them. 2. Another way is through open competition invite written manuscripts, a committee of Board’s experts examines the manuscript, then best manuscript is selected for publication.
  • 52. In some cases when no manufactures are found up to the mark then different lessons/ chapters are selected from different manuscripts. Then final selected/adopted manuscript submitted to the Federal Ministry for the approval.
  • 53. • Then Ministry and Provincial Education Dept. form National review committee. • It consists teachers, curriculum planners and subject specialists etc.
  • 54. • Committee determines adequacy of content according to the grade and ability level as well as it also reflects true spirit of National curricula. • It also check the uniformity in the prices of books and ensures that there is no overloading. .
  • 55. • Then examined manuscripts with the recommendations of the committee are sent back to the Boards for printing. • And after printing and publishing, books entered the big cities through private agencies.

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