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Ultrsound

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Transcript

  • 1. Wonders of Ultrasound Shazia Akhtar 3/28/2008
  • 2. Amazing!!!!
  • 3. WHAT IS ULTRASOUND (U/S)
    • Breif History
    • Basic Technique
      • Physics
      • Instrumentation
      • Bioeffects or Safety Issues
    • Use
      • Diagnostic
      • Therapeutic
    • Misuse
      • By Medical professional
      • By People
  • 4. History
    • Although, SONAR was used in detecting moving object under water in early 1900s, the first application of sonic detector for medical diagnosis was carried out in 1940.
  • 5. Basic Technique and Ultrasound Instrumentation
    • PROBES and U/S MACHINE
                                                                                             
  • 6. HOW IT WORKS
    • The U/S Physics
      • Sound waves- mechanical waves
      • Ultrasonic- above 20,000 MHz
        • inaudible
    • The U/S Mechanics
    • Probe with crystal arrays
      • Receiver
      • Processor
        • Scan converter
        • Visual images on screen
  • 7. Safety issues
    • No evidence of hazardous effects in humans
    • Studies conducted on small animals as mouse and rabbit have shown some bio-effects.
    • AIUM (American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine) limits the use of ultrasound to “ALARA” meaning; as low as reasonanbly acquired
  • 8. Uses of U/S
    • Diagnostic Use:
    • To diagnose a disease process.
    • To prevent a disease.
    • To rule out a disease.
    • To determine the stage of disease by u/s guided biopsies.
  • 9. Fields of use
      • 2D, 3D and DopplerUltrasound is performed on adults, children and fetus for diagnosis of various medical conditions involving
      • Abdominal organs,
      • Pelvis,
      • Pregnancy,
      • Venous and Arterial System,
      • Heart
      • Brain
  • 10. Uses of U/S cont’
    • Therapeutic Uses
    • High intensity sound waves are used to treat some diseases
    • Ablation: Therapy used for treatment gallbladder and kidney stones by breaking them into small pieces
    • Burn: This technique is used to burn some tumors to decrease there mass.
    • Insonation: as in Cataract surgery.
  • 11. Mis-uses of U/S
    • Entertainment Fetal U/S
    • 3D & 4D fetal U/S
    • Use by non professional personnel
    • Food and Drug Administration says they represent a misuse of ultrasound technology, which is approved for diagnostic medical purposes.
    • There have been no long-term studies of children exposed to ultrasound and several small studies indicate a possible link between ultrasound exposure and neurological problems .
  • 12. 2. Hidden gendercide of girls in China and India
    • According to Times of India 5 million girls were eliminated between 1986 to 2001,in India, by fetal sex determination by unethical medical professionals.
    • According to 2000 census in China, 1 million girls were being eliminated annually, by innapprprite use of u/s for sex determination.
  • 13. Should U/S Be used as Tool of Entertainment???
  • 14.
    • “DON’T GET FOOLED”BY THESE CUTE ADDS.
  • 15. References
    • Hagen Ansert, Sandra;Text Book of Ultrasonography, sixth edi. 2006
    • timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1735074.cms
    • http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1554501