The Pueblo People <ul><ul><li>Lived in permanent towns made of adobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmed nearby fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke several discrete languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Many were converted by Franciscans to Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No central government </li></ul></ul>
Initial Tolerance of Spanish <ul><li>The Pueblos were always tolerant of outsiders as they had nowhere else to go. Any attempt to rebel were quickly quieted by Spaniards. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards of new draft animals, crops and metal tools from Iberia enriched Peublo material culture and encouraged them to cooperate with the Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish warriors were useful against their historic enemies and were offered spiritual power from Spanish priests. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1600's generations of Pueblos accomodated and benefited from the Spanish. </li></ul>
What Caused the Revolt? <ul><ul><li>1670-drought and famine resulted in raids and attacks from local nomadic tribes that Spanish were unable to defend. Also English diseases were ravaging the natives, decreasing their numbers. Caused them to turn back to their old religions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Franciscan missionaries became hostile towards pueblo traditions and idols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1675- Governor Trevino ordered the arrest of 47 Pueblo medicine men and charged them with practising sorcery. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>In response to the arrests, Pueblo leaders reacted by sending forces to Santa Fe to free their brothers. One of these leaders was Pope. </li></ul><ul><li>Pope, along with other Pueblo leaders planned and carried out the Pueblo Revolt. </li></ul><ul><li>The attack was planned fro August 11, 1680, but after the Spanish captured two messengers Pope then ordered the attack for August 10. Even after the Spanish discovered the plan of attack they were still caught off guard. </li></ul><ul><li> They killed twenty-one Franciscans, and another three hundred and eighty Spaniards, including men, women, and children. </li></ul>The Revolt Begins
The Revolt Continues <ul><li> Spanish settlers fled to Santa Fe , the only Spanish city, and Isleta Pueblo , one of the few Pueblos that did not participate in the rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Pope's insurgents surrounded Santa Fe and cut off the water supply. The Governor barricaded the Governor's Palace and called for a retreat. </li></ul><ul><li> On August 21 the remaining 3,000 Spanish settlers streamed out of the capital city and headed for El Paso del Norte . Believing themselves the only survivors, the refugees at Isleta left for El Paso del Norte on September 15. </li></ul>
Aftermath Following their success, the diverse Pueblo tribes, separated by hundreds of miles and eight different languages, quarreled as to who would occupy Santa Fe and rule over the country. These power struggles, combined with raids from nomadic tribes, Spanish raids (including the destruction of Zia with 600 Indians killed) and a seven-year drought, weakened the Pueblo resolve and set the stage for a Spanish reconquest.
Spanish Response <ul><li>In July 1692, Diego de Vargas returned to Santa Fe and called on the Indians, promising clemency and protection if they would swear allegiance to the King of Spain and return to the Christian faith. The Indian leaders gathered in Santa Fe agreed to peace and on September 14, 1692, Vargas proclaimed a formal act of repossession. </li></ul><ul><li> In the years that followed Vargas maintained increasingly severe control over the Pueblo people. During Vargas's absence from Santa Fe in 1693 the Pueblo retook the city. Vargas and his forces staged a quick and bloody recapture that concluded with seventy executions and 400 Pueblo sentenced to ten years' servitude. In 1696 the Indians attempted a second revolt, using weapons the Spanish themselves had traded to the Indians over the years; Vargas was unmerciful. By the end of the century the last resisting Pueblo had scattered and the Spanish reconquest was complete. </li></ul>
<ul><li>While their independence from the Spaniards was short-lived, the Pueblo Revolt granted the Pueblo Indians a measure of freedom from future Spanish efforts to eradicate their culture and religion following the reconquest. Moreover, the Spanish issued substantial land grants to each Pueblo and appointed a public defender to protect the rights of the Indians and argue their legal cases in the Spanish courts. </li></ul>The End.