proclaimed King of Castile and Aragon on March 14 1516
provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan, the first to circumnavigate the globe
During his reign, the territories in New Spain were extended by conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro
King Phillip II
1556 January: Philip II was crowned King of Spain
During his reign, Spain was the foremost Western European power.
The Knights of St John
Grand Master Phillippe Villiers de I'isle-Adam
prominent member of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes and later Malta.
Having risen to the position of Prior of the Langue of Auvergne , he was elected Grand Master of the Order in 1521.
Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette
Member of the Order Langue de Provence
Order's hero and most illustrious leader, commanding the resistance against the Ottomans at the Great Siege of Malta in 1565
The Eastern Leaders
Sulieman I, Sultan of Ottoman Empire
was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566.
Led armies to conquer the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529
The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death.
Known as Selim the Drunkard because he was the first Sultan devoid of active military interest and willing to abandon power to his ministers.
In 1516 he succeeded in liberating Jijel and Algiers from the Spaniards in North Africa, then assumed control over the cities and surrounding region.
Became Sultan, but then relinquished his title to the Ottomans.
Established the Ottoman presence in North Africa which lasted 4 centuries
Started out as a international sea tradesman
Ottoman admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades.
Pope Pius V
17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572
was Pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church . He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent , the Counter-Reformation , and the standardization of the Roman liturgy within the Latin Church . Pius V declared saint Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church and patronized prominent sacred music composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina .
excommunicated Elizabeth I of England for schism and persecutions of English Catholics during her reign
also arranged the formation of the Holy League, an alliance of Catholic states. Although outnumbered, the Holy League famously defeated the Ottomans, who had threatened to overrun Europe, at the Battle of Lepanto.
Don Juan of Austria
24 February 1547 - 1 October 1578
was an illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
military leader in the service of his half-brother, Philip of Spain and is best known for his naval victory at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 against the Ottoman Empire.
Very Important Battles Major Historical Events
Siege of Rhodes
The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Turkish invasion force of 400 ships arrived on Rhodes on 26 June 1522, they were commanded by Mustafa Pasha. Sultan Suleiman arrived with the army of 100,000 men on 28 July to take personal charge. The Turks blockaded the harbor and bombarded the town with field artillery from the land side, followed by almost daily infantry attacks. They also sought to undermine the fortifications through tunnels and mines.
With most of the walls now destroyed, it was merely a matter of time before the city would have to surrender, and on 20 December, after several days of pressure from the town's people, the Grand Master asked for a fresh truce.
On 22 December, the representatives of the city's Latin and Greek inhabitants accepted Suleiman's terms, which were generous.
The conquest of Rhodes was a major step towards Ottoman control over the eastern Mediterranean and greatly eased their maritime communications between Constantinople and Cairo and the Levantine ports
The Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire in five hours of fighting on the northern edge of the Gulf of Patras, off western Greece
Lepanto was the last major naval battle in the Mediterranean fought entirely between galleys, and has been assigned great symbolic importance.
The engagement was a significant defeat for the Ottomans, who had not lost a major naval battle since the fifteenth century. The defeat was mourned as an act of Divine Will, contemporary chronicles recording that "the Imperial fleet encountered the fleet of the wretched infidels and the will of God turned another way."
Despite the decisive defeat, the Ottoman Empire rebuilt its navy with a massive effort, by largely imitating the successful Venetian galeasses, in a very short time. By 1572, about six months after the defeat, more than 150 galleys and 8 galleasses, in total 250 ships had been built, including eight of the largest capital ships ever seen in the Mediterranean. With this new fleet the Ottoman Empire was able to reassert its supremacy in the Eastern Mediterranean