was Pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church . He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent , the Counter-Reformation , and the standardization of the Roman liturgy within the Latin Church . Pius V declared saint Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church and patronized prominent sacred music composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina .
excommunicated Elizabeth I of England for schism and persecutions of English Catholics during her reign
also arranged the formation of the Holy League, an alliance of Catholic states. Although outnumbered, the Holy League famously defeated the Ottomans, who had threatened to overrun Europe, at the Battle of Lepanto.
The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Turkish invasion force of 400 ships arrived on Rhodes on 26 June 1522, they were commanded by Mustafa Pasha. Sultan Suleiman arrived with the army of 100,000 men on 28 July to take personal charge. The Turks blockaded the harbor and bombarded the town with field artillery from the land side, followed by almost daily infantry attacks. They also sought to undermine the fortifications through tunnels and mines.
With most of the walls now destroyed, it was merely a matter of time before the city would have to surrender, and on 20 December, after several days of pressure from the town's people, the Grand Master asked for a fresh truce.
On 22 December, the representatives of the city's Latin and Greek inhabitants accepted Suleiman's terms, which were generous.
The conquest of Rhodes was a major step towards Ottoman control over the eastern Mediterranean and greatly eased their maritime communications between Constantinople and Cairo and the Levantine ports
The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire in five hours of fighting on the northern edge of the Gulf of Patras, off western Greece
Lepanto was the last major naval battle in the Mediterranean fought entirely between galleys, and has been assigned great symbolic importance.
The engagement was a significant defeat for the Ottomans, who had not lost a major naval battle since the fifteenth century. The defeat was mourned as an act of Divine Will, contemporary chronicles recording that "the Imperial fleet encountered the fleet of the wretched infidels and the will of God turned another way."
Despite the decisive defeat, the Ottoman Empire rebuilt its navy with a massive effort, by largely imitating the successful Venetian galeasses, in a very short time. By 1572, about six months after the defeat, more than 150 galleys and 8 galleasses, in total 250 ships had been built, including eight of the largest capital ships ever seen in the Mediterranean. With this new fleet the Ottoman Empire was able to reassert its supremacy in the Eastern Mediterranean