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Pharmacology  By category
Beta Adrenergic Blockers•   Acebutolol     HTN, ventricular dsyrhythmias•   Atenolol       HTN, angina after MI•   Betaxol...
Anticholinergic Antagonist• Atropine           pre-surgery, GI, biliary,                     intubation• Belladonna       ...
Adrenergic Agents•   Albuterol          2, 4 mg tab                bronchodilator•   Dopamine           IV 40, 80 160mg/mL...
Cholinergic Agents•   Ambenonium       Mytelase     tab 10mg•   Bethanechol      Urecholine•   Edrophonium      Tensilon  ...
Sedative-Hypnotics• Barbiturate-benzodiazepines• Non-barbiturate-non-benzodiazepine• Misc. sedative-hypnotics
Sedative Hypnotic•   Receptor Agonists:•   Zolpidem•   Zaleplon•   eszopiclone
Barbiturates•   For Sleep Disturbances:•   Amobarbital             Amytal    Sedation, Hypnosis•   Butabarbital           ...
Benzodiazepines• Estazolam                Hypnosis IA• Flurazepam     Dalmane Hypnosis LA• Lorazepam      Ativan    Hypnos...
Misc. Sedative Hypnotics•   Chloral hydrate   Aquachloral   Sedation•   Dexmedetomidine   Precedex      Sedation•   Diphen...
Parkinson Agents•   MAO B Inhibitors•   Dopamine Agonist•   COMT Inhibitors•   Anticholinergic Agents
Parkinson’s Agents• MAO B Inhibitors:• rasagiline   Azliect   Monotherapy,               0.5, 1 mg adjunct therapy• Selegi...
Parkinson’s Agents• Dopamine Agonists:• Apomorhine Apokyn          SQ 10 mg/mL in 2                             mL amp and...
Parkinson’s Agents• COMT:• Entacapone          Comtan   –   Inhibits metabolism of dopamine   –   Reduce motor fluctuation...
Parkinson’s Agents•   Anticholinergics:•   Benztropine            Cogentin•   Biperiden              Akineton•   Diphenhyd...
Antianxiety Agents•   Benzodiazepines•   Azaspirones•   SSRI•   Misc. Antianxiety Agents•   TCA•   Beta Blocker used too! ...
Antianxiety Agents•   Benzodiazepines:•   Alprazolam            Xanax•   Chlordiazepoxide      Librium•   Clorazepate     ...
Antianxiety Agents•   Azaspirones:•   Buspirone              Buspar•   Partial serotonin & dopamine agonist•   Acts in mid...
Antianxiety Agents• SSRI:• fluvxoamine         Luvox  – Inhibit reuptake of serotonin  – Treat OCD w/marked distress  – Do...
Misc. Antianxiety Agents• Hydroxyzine            Vistaril, Atarax  – Is an antihistamine  – Worry about slurred speech!  –...
Antidepressants•   MAO Inhibitors (MAOI)•   TCA•   SSRI•   SNRI•   Misc. Agents
Antidepressants•   MAOI:•   Phenelzine                Nardil•   Tranylcypromine           Parnate•   Isocarboxazid        ...
Antidepressants•   TCA (block dopamine, serotonin, norepi.)•   Amtritriptyline•   Amoxapine•   Clomipramine            Ana...
Antidepressants•   SSRI:•   citalopram             Celexa•   Escitalopram           Lexapro•   Fluoxetine             Proz...
Antidepressants•   SNRI•   Desvenlafaxine     Pristiq•   Duloxetine         Cymbalta•   Venlafaxine        Effexor big for...
Antidepressants•   Misc. Agents:•   Bupropion hydrochloride   Wellbutrin•   Mirtazapine               Remeron•   Nefazodon...
Anti-manic Agents• Lithium fall under mood disorder Mood Stabilizer   – Eskalith   – Lithane• Replaces intracellular & int...
Antipsychotics• Typical 1st Generation Phenothiazines    –   Chlorpromazine     Largactil    –   Fluphenazine       Modite...
Antiepileptic•   Tonic Clonic•   Absence•   Atonic, Myoclonic•   Partial Seizure
Seizures: AnticonvulsantsMisc. Anticonvulsants            Benzodiazepines                                 Clonzapam      K...
Pain: Opiate Agonists•   Opioid Agonists                     Merperidine-Like Derivatives•   Codeine                      ...
NSAID & Anti-inflammatory•   Salicylates     –   Aspirin             ASA     –   Diflunisal          Dolobid     –   Magne...
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Pharmacology by category

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Transcript of "Pharmacology by category"

  1. 1. Pharmacology By category
  2. 2. Beta Adrenergic Blockers• Acebutolol HTN, ventricular dsyrhythmias• Atenolol HTN, angina after MI• Betaxolol HTN• Bisprolol HTN• Carteolol HTN• Carvedilol HTN, CHF, MI• Esmolol SVT, HTN• Labetalol HTN• Metoprolol HTN, MI, angina, CHF• Nadolol Angina, HTN• Nebivolol HTN• Pindaolol HTN• Penbutolol HTN• Propranolol HTN, ANGINA, MI, MIGRAINE, HSS, dysrhythmias• Sotalol dysrhythmias• Timolol HTN, MI, migraines
  3. 3. Anticholinergic Antagonist• Atropine pre-surgery, GI, biliary, intubation• Belladonna indigestion, peptic ulcer, nocturnal enuresis, parkinsonism• Dicyclomine IBS• Glycopyrrolate PUD, pre-surgery• Mepenzolate PUD• Propantheline PUD
  4. 4. Adrenergic Agents• Albuterol 2, 4 mg tab bronchodilator• Dopamine IV 40, 80 160mg/mL vasopressor• Dobutamine IV 250 mg/20mL cardiac stimulant/inotropic• Isoetherine Inh. 1% sol bronchodilator• Isoproterenol SQ, IM, IV 1:5000 shock, digitalis toxicity, Metaproterenol Aerosol .65 mg/puff bronchodilator, Neb 0.4%, ).0.6%, 5% sol• Metaraminol SQ, IM, IV 10 mg/mL vasoconstrictor, shock• Teburtaline 2.5, 5 mg tabs• Epinephrine 1:1000 in 1 mL anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest• Ephedrine SQ, IM, IV 50 mg/mL• 25 mg cap• Norepinephrine IV 1 mg/mL in 4 mL vasoconstrictor, shock, BP• Phenylephrine
  5. 5. Cholinergic Agents• Ambenonium Mytelase tab 10mg• Bethanechol Urecholine• Edrophonium Tensilon Inj. 10mg/mL• Guanidine Guanidine tab 125 mg• Neostigmine Prostigmin 15 mg tab Inj. .25- .5 1mg/mL• Physostigmine Antilirium Inj. 1mg/mL in 2mL amp• Pilocarpine Isopto, Carpine, Pilcar• Pyriodostigmine Mestinon 60 mg tab Syrup 60mg/5mL tab SR 180 mg Inj. 5 mg/mL in 2mL
  6. 6. Sedative-Hypnotics• Barbiturate-benzodiazepines• Non-barbiturate-non-benzodiazepine• Misc. sedative-hypnotics
  7. 7. Sedative Hypnotic• Receptor Agonists:• Zolpidem• Zaleplon• eszopiclone
  8. 8. Barbiturates• For Sleep Disturbances:• Amobarbital Amytal Sedation, Hypnosis• Butabarbital Butisol Sedation, Hypnosis• Mephobarbital Mebaral Sedation Anticonvulsant• Pentobarbital Hypnosis, Sedation• Phenobarbital Luminal Sedation, Hypnosis, Anticonvulsant• Secobarbital Seconal Hypnosis
  9. 9. Benzodiazepines• Estazolam Hypnosis IA• Flurazepam Dalmane Hypnosis LA• Lorazepam Ativan Hypnosis, anxiety status epilepticus• Midazolam Apo-Mid.. Preop, induction of SA anesthesia, conscious sedation• Quazepam Doral Hypnosis LA• Temazepam Restoril Hypnosis IA• Triazolam
  10. 10. Misc. Sedative Hypnotics• Chloral hydrate Aquachloral Sedation• Dexmedetomidine Precedex Sedation• Diphenhydramine Benadryl Sedation• Doxlamine Unisom Sedation• Eszopiclone Lunesta Hypnosis• Melatonin Hypnosis• Ramelteon Rozerem Hypnosis• Valerian• Zaleplon Sonata Hypnosis• Zolpidem Ambien Hypnosis
  11. 11. Parkinson Agents• MAO B Inhibitors• Dopamine Agonist• COMT Inhibitors• Anticholinergic Agents
  12. 12. Parkinson’s Agents• MAO B Inhibitors:• rasagiline Azliect Monotherapy, 0.5, 1 mg adjunct therapy• Selegiline Eldepryl At breakfast & lunch 5 mg orally disintegrating 1.25 mg dissolved on tongue 16 max 2.5 max oral disintegrating!
  13. 13. Parkinson’s Agents• Dopamine Agonists:• Apomorhine Apokyn SQ 10 mg/mL in 2 mL amp and 3 mL cartridges• Carbidopa Sinemet• Levodopa Larodopa• Pramipexole Mirapex• Ropinirole Requip
  14. 14. Parkinson’s Agents• COMT:• Entacapone Comtan – Inhibits metabolism of dopamine – Reduce motor fluctuations – Increases on time – Reduces off time – Always give with Carbidopa-Levodopa to reduce total daily dosage needed• Stalevo is a drug with all three agents• Diarrhea, sedation, urine discolored, chorea, confusion, hallucinations, orthostatic hypotension
  15. 15. Parkinson’s Agents• Anticholinergics:• Benztropine Cogentin• Biperiden Akineton• Diphenhydramine Benadryl• Orphenadrine citrate Banflex, Norflex• Procyclidine• Trihexyphenidyl Trihexy
  16. 16. Antianxiety Agents• Benzodiazepines• Azaspirones• SSRI• Misc. Antianxiety Agents• TCA• Beta Blocker used too! For tachycardia, HTN• SRNI
  17. 17. Antianxiety Agents• Benzodiazepines:• Alprazolam Xanax• Chlordiazepoxide Librium• Clorazepate Tranxene• Diazepam Valium• Lorazepam Ativan• Oxazepam Serax• CNS depressants• Stimulating inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA:• Improves sleep disturbances, tremor, muscle tension!
  18. 18. Antianxiety Agents• Azaspirones:• Buspirone Buspar• Partial serotonin & dopamine agonist• Acts in midbrain modulator• Doesn’t affect GABA receptors• 7-10 days improvement• PO initially 5 mg TID and increase 5 mg Q2-3 days• Slurred speech, sedation, lethargy, dizziness
  19. 19. Antianxiety Agents• SSRI:• fluvxoamine Luvox – Inhibit reuptake of serotonin – Treat OCD w/marked distress – Doesnt prevent obsessions & compulsions – Decrease in level of anxiety
  20. 20. Misc. Antianxiety Agents• Hydroxyzine Vistaril, Atarax – Is an antihistamine – Worry about slurred speech! – Acts in CNS to produce sedation, antiemetic, anticholinergic, antihistamine, antianxiety, antispasmodic, antiprurtic• Meprobamate Miltown – CNS to produce sedation, antianxiety, muscle relaxation, **decrease level of anxiety to manageable – Worry about slurred speech, abuse, orthostatic hypotension, paradoxical excitation (withhold)
  21. 21. Antidepressants• MAO Inhibitors (MAOI)• TCA• SSRI• SNRI• Misc. Agents
  22. 22. Antidepressants• MAOI:• Phenelzine Nardil• Tranylcypromine Parnate• Isocarboxazid Marplan• Selegiline Emsam• HTN is a serious side effect food dye tyramine—chocolate, cheese
  23. 23. Antidepressants• TCA (block dopamine, serotonin, norepi.)• Amtritriptyline• Amoxapine• Clomipramine Anafranil• Desipramine Norpramin• Doxepin Subequan• Imipramine Tofranil• Mortriptyline Aventyl• Protriptyline Vivactil• Trimipramine Surmontil• Serious effects tremor, numbness, parkinson’s, seizure, heart failure—higher the dose the lower seizure threshold!
  24. 24. Antidepressants• SSRI:• citalopram Celexa• Escitalopram Lexapro• Fluoxetine Prozac• Fluvoxamine Luvox• Paroxetine Paxil• Sertraline Zoloft• OCD• Suicidal ideation is serious don’t take MAOI or Lithium, Warfarin
  25. 25. Antidepressants• SNRI• Desvenlafaxine Pristiq• Duloxetine Cymbalta• Venlafaxine Effexor big for Panic
  26. 26. Antidepressants• Misc. Agents:• Bupropion hydrochloride Wellbutrin• Mirtazapine Remeron• Nefazodone• Trazodone hydrochloride
  27. 27. Anti-manic Agents• Lithium fall under mood disorder Mood Stabilizer – Eskalith – Lithane• Replaces intracellular & intra-neuronal sodium, stabilizing the neuronal membrane• Therapeutic Blood level• Reduces release of norepinephrine• Increase uptake of tryptophan (the precursor to serotonin)• Treats acute mania• Prophylaxis of recurrent manic & depressive episodes in Bipolar• Maintain optimal level of functioning w/minimal exacerbations of mood swings• PO 300-600 mg TID or QID• N/V, anorexia, excessive thirst & urination, fine hand tremor• Persistent vomiting, profuse diarrhea, hyper-reflexia, weakness, progressive fatigue, weight gain, Nephrotoxicity, Hyperglycemia
  28. 28. Antipsychotics• Typical 1st Generation Phenothiazines – Chlorpromazine Largactil – Fluphenazine Moditen – Perphenazine – Prochlorperazine Compazine – Thioridazine – Trifluperazine• Thioxanthenes – Thiothixene Navane• Nonphenothiazines – Haloperidol Haldol – Loxapine Loxitane – Molindone Moban• Atypical 2nd Generation APA – Aripiprazole Abilify – Clozapine Clozaril – Olanzapine Zyprexa – Quetiapine Seroquel – Resperidone Risperdal – Ziprasidone Geodon
  29. 29. Antiepileptic• Tonic Clonic• Absence• Atonic, Myoclonic• Partial Seizure
  30. 30. Seizures: AnticonvulsantsMisc. Anticonvulsants Benzodiazepines Clonzapam KlonopinCarbamazepine Tegretol Clorazepate TranxeneGabapentin Neurontin Diazepam Valium Lorazepam AtivanLamotrigine LamictalLevetiracetam KeppraOxcarbazepine Trileptal Hydantions Ethotoin PeganionePhenobarbital Luminal Fosphenytion Cerebyx Phenytion DilantinPregabalin LyricaPrimidone MysolineTiagabie Gabitril Succinimides Ethosuximide SarontinTopiramate Topamax Methsuximide CelontinValproic Acid DepakeneZonisamide Zonergran
  31. 31. Pain: Opiate Agonists• Opioid Agonists Merperidine-Like Derivatives• Codeine Alfentanil Alfenta• Hydrocodone Fentanyl Duragesic• Hydromorphone Dilaudid Merperidine Demerol• Levorphanol Levo- Sufentanil Sufenta Dromoran• Morphine Roxanol, Methadone-Like Derivatives Oxycodone OxyContin Methadone Methadone• Oxycodone w/ASA Percodan Dolophine• Oxycodone w/tylenol Other Opiate Agonists• Oxymorphone Opana Tramadol Ultram Misc. Analgesics Acetaminophen Tylenol
  32. 32. NSAID & Anti-inflammatory• Salicylates – Aspirin ASA – Diflunisal Dolobid – Magnesium S Doan’s – Salsalate Salsitab• NSAID COX-1 Inhibitors – Diclofenac Cataflam – Etodolac – Fenoprofen Nalfon – Flurbiprofen Ansaid – Ibuprofen Motrin, Advil – Indomethacin Indocin – Ketoprofen Novi-Ketorolac – Meclofenamate – Mefenamic acid Ponstel – Meloxican Mobic – Nabumetone – Naproxen Naprosyn – Oxaparozin Daypro – Piroxicam Feldene – Sulindac Clinoril – Tolmetin• NSAID COX-2 Inhibitors – Celecoxib Celebrex
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