MULTIPLE SCLEROSISMedical Surgical NursingNeurological Systems
What Is Multiple Sclerosis?• Is a chronic inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System in which the immune cells attack the myelin sheath of nerve cell axons.
What causes MS?• MS is caused by damage to the myelin sheath,, the protecting covering that surrounds nerve cells.• The nerve damage is caused by inflammation.• Inflammation occurs when the body’s own immune cells attack the nervous system.
What are some symptoms of MS?• Symptoms vary, because the location and severity of each attack can be different.• These episodes alternate with periods of reduced or no symptoms.(Remission)• Fever, hot baths, sun exposure, and stress can trigger or worsen attacks.
Different types of symptoms• Muscle Symptoms• Bowel and Bladder Symptoms• Eye Symptoms• Speech and Swallowing Symptoms
Muscle Symptoms• Loss of Balance• Muscle Spasms• Numbness or Abnormal Sensation in any area• Problems Moving arms or legs• Problem Walking
Bowel && Bladder Symptoms• Constipation and Stool Leakage• Difficulty Beginning To Urinate• Frequent Need To Urinate• Strong Urge To Urinate• Urine Leakage
Speech && Swallowing Symptoms• Slurred or Difficult to understand speech• Trouble chewing and swallowing.
Treatment• There is no known cure for MS at this time.• The goal of treatment is to control symptoms and help you maintain a normal quality of life.
Signs & Tests of MS• Signs • Test • Decreased ability to move a part of • Lumbar puncture (Spinal tap) for the body cerebrospinal fluid test • Changes in the visual fields or eye • MRI scan of the brain & MRI scan of symptoms the spine • Rapid eye movements triggered when • Nerve function study (evoked the eye moves potential test)
Medications• Medications used to slow the progression of MS are taken on a long-term basis• They include • Interferons (Avonex, Betaseron, or Rebif) • Glatiramer Acetate (Copaxone) • Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)