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Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
Managing Virtual Project Teams
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Managing Virtual Project Teams

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This was a presentation I built and delivered for an annual Project Management Symposium in 2009. I borrowed heavily from a presentation I did in 2008 at the SAPPHIRE convention in Orlando, but I …

This was a presentation I built and delivered for an annual Project Management Symposium in 2009. I borrowed heavily from a presentation I did in 2008 at the SAPPHIRE convention in Orlando, but I changed up the stories a bit and linked into some great content by Penelope Sue Greenberg, Ralph H. Greenberg, Yvonne Lederer Antonucci from the Kelly School of Business 2007 titled “Creating & Sustaining Trust in Virtual teams”.
its now on my blog at http://bloomportu.wordpress.com/

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  • Thanks Martin! Tuckman helped me pull it all together in a framework, but the result might have a been a little too academic for the business users. In hindsight, I would keep Tuckman, but pull out a bit of the theory.
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  • Excellent use of the Tuckman Model
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  • 1. PMSU 1 Managing Distributed (Virtual) Project Teams Shawn Grubb (PMP) September 2009 Project Management Symposium
  • 2. 2 Objective • Map stages of team development & Trust • How to develop trust in VT during stages • Share a few stories I picked up • My Ask: help develop a skill…
  • 3. Born! Raised! SERPAT Company Benchmark! Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10 Move to France Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site San Jose CA Fall River Mills CA Redding & Chico CA Chico CA P&G: Cincinnati (Gov. Hill) Germany: Schwalbach (EBT + Local to Local) Germany: Weiterstadt France: Longjumeau + Bondoufle US: Mason Business Center US: Central Building Shawn Grubb 2000 2001 2004 2005 2007 2009 1995 Operations Mgmt. Mgmt Info Systems. ERP Systems Mgmt. Graduate: SAP University Alliance Recognition Shares! Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS) SOLD! Recognition Shares! Core Logistics SAP: Dreieich Germany Core Logistics SAP: Blois FR Morocco SAP Implementation Project Manager Italy Platform II Core Logistics SAP: Bournemouth UK Core Logistics Italy Plants & DCs Guest Speaker: “Managing a G-BPX team” PM: Vita L&A Barcelona ES PM: Patheon CM Longjumeau France Career #3: Pharma Product Supply Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs Married Hasnaa! Career #4: Move to GBS BPM IT Portfolio Manager Core Financials SAP: NA Accounts Payable KARZK9FM KPPL KALF KLRS Career #1: Radio Music & Media Career #2: SAP IT GBS CLFS – Move to OH Youngest of 4: -F: Mechanic -M: Homemaker Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance 1990 Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE. BandIII BandII
  • 4. Born! Raised! SERPAT Company Benchmark! Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10 Move to France Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site San Jose CA Fall River Mills CA Redding & Chico CA Chico CA P&G: Cincinnati (Gov. Hill) Germany: Schwalbach (EBT + Local to Local) Germany: Weiterstadt France: Longjumeau + Bondoufle US: Mason Business Center US: Central Building Shawn Grubb 2000 2001 2004 2005 2007 2009 1995 Operations Mgmt. Mgmt Info Systems. ERP Systems Mgmt. Graduate: SAP University Alliance Recognition Shares! Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS) SOLD! Recognition Shares! Core Logistics SAP: Dreieich Germany Core Logistics SAP: Blois FR Morocco SAP Implementation Project Manager Italy Platform II Core Logistics SAP: Bournemouth UK Core Logistics Italy Plants & DCs Guest Speaker: “Managing a G-BPX team” PM: Vita L&A Barcelona ES PM: Patheon CM Longjumeau France Career #3: Pharma Product Supply Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs Married Hasnaa! Career #4: Move to GBS BPM IT Portfolio Manager Core Financials SAP: NA Accounts Payable KARZK9FM KPPL KALF KLRS Career #1: Radio Music & Media Career #2: SAP IT GBS CLFS – Move to OH Youngest of 4: -F: Mechanic -M: Homemaker Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance 1990 Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE. BandIII BandII
  • 5. Born! Raised! SERPAT Company Benchmark! Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10 Move to France Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site San Jose CA Fall River Mills CA Redding & Chico CA Chico CA P&G: Cincinnati (Gov. Hill) Germany: Schwalbach (EBT + Local to Local) Germany: Weiterstadt France: Longjumeau + Bondoufle US: Mason Business Center US: Central Building Shawn Grubb 2000 2001 2004 2005 2007 2009 1995 Operations Mgmt. Mgmt Info Systems. ERP Systems Mgmt. Graduate: SAP University Alliance Recognition Shares! Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS) SOLD! Recognition Shares! Core Logistics SAP: Dreieich Germany Core Logistics SAP: Blois FR Morocco SAP Implementation Project Manager Italy Platform II Core Logistics SAP: Bournemouth UK Core Logistics Italy Plants & DCs Guest Speaker: “Managing a G-BPX team” PM: Vita L&A Barcelona ES PM: Patheon CM Longjumeau France Career #3: Pharma Product Supply Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs Married Hasnaa! Career #4: Move to GBS BPM IT Portfolio Manager Core Financials SAP: NA Accounts Payable KARZK9FM KPPL KALF KLRS Career #1: Radio Music & Media Career #2: SAP IT GBS CLFS – Move to OH Youngest of 4: -F: Mechanic -M: Homemaker Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance 1990 Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE. BandIII BandII
  • 6. Born! Raised! SERPAT Company Benchmark! Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10 Move to France Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site San Jose CA Fall River Mills CA Redding & Chico CA Chico CA P&G: Cincinnati (Gov. Hill) Germany: Schwalbach (EBT + Local to Local) Germany: Weiterstadt France: Longjumeau + Bondoufle US: Mason Business Center US: Central Building Shawn Grubb 2000 2001 2004 2005 2007 2009 1995 Operations Mgmt. Mgmt Info Systems. ERP Systems Mgmt. Graduate: SAP University Alliance Recognition Shares! Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS) SOLD! Recognition Shares! Core Logistics SAP: Dreieich Germany Core Logistics SAP: Blois FR Morocco SAP Implementation Project Manager Italy Platform II Core Logistics SAP: Bournemouth UK Core Logistics Italy Plants & DCs Guest Speaker: “Managing a G-BPX team” PM: Vita L&A Barcelona ES PM: Patheon CM Longjumeau France Career #3: Pharma Product Supply Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs Married Hasnaa! Career #4: Move to GBS BPM IT Portfolio Manager Core Financials SAP: NA Accounts Payable KARZK9FM KPPL KALF KLRS Career #1: Radio Music & Media Career #2: SAP IT GBS CLFS – Move to OH Youngest of 4: -F: Mechanic -M: Homemaker Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance 1990 Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE. BandIII BandII
  • 7. 7 Agenda • Who am I and why should you listen • Planning the Perfect Virtual Project • The Tuckman Model of development • Forming – Storming – Norming - Performing 1. Characteristics of the stage 2. What leaders should do in the stage 3. What's trust got to do with it 4. Practical steps to build trust in that stage • Q&A
  • 8. 8 Stolen!
  • 9. 9 Planning • Walk before you run – Experience working on a virtual team? • Select the Project Manager – Be on a successful virtual project team – Lead a successful project at home – A poor PM in a Physical environment is going to be worse in a Virtual one
  • 10. 10 Planning • Select the right members – The team – Go deeper than the role and function – Have they worked on a virtual project? • “how can she possibly know what we do here?” – Interpersonal skills – Ambiguity and stress – Arrange for needed Training: – Sharepoint, IM, Livemeeting, Outlook scheduling – English for Native English speakers
  • 11. 11 Stages of team: Tuckman Model • Bruce Tuckman, Psychologist • Naval Medical Research Institute
  • 12. 12 Stages: Forming
  • 13. 13 Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others) • Characteristics: – Most uncertain and ambiguous time – The forming of the team takes place – Independent - motivated - uninformed – Usually on their best behavior – Seek to understand the work
  • 14. 14 Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others) • What to do: – Need to be directive during this phase • Set some ground rules early – Rules lead to reduction in uncertainty • increase trust (there is something tangible) • Actions: – Be explicit about your thoughts – Start meetings on time – Observe deadlines – Lay out your expectations • RM: how to work with me .doc
  • 15. 15 Tangent: Trust • Trust: Factor for overcoming barriers – Necessary for • Effective communication • Obtaining Goals • Developing higher performing team • Quickly resolving issues – Need for trust in Global teams are magnified • It’s easy to blame someone you may never see • Mis-understandings are too common • Communication has to be more deliberate
  • 16. 16 Tangent: Trust • How does trust fit into the virtual team? • Normally trust is high to start – Hard to maintain in the virtual world • Hard for people to “see” themselves as a team – PM sitting in CA, but leading ES project • Interactions often are purely business – After call banter, hallway talk, • Lack of rich communication: – Verbal vs. verbal + physical communication – Tone, volume pitch and rhythm? – Lots of room for noise – Lack of understanding = trust?
  • 17. 17 Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others) • How trust fits in: Swift Trust – Two sources of trust • Personal endorsements – Someone I trust tells me I should trust you – Something I heard about you tells me I should trust you • Role based information – I understand your position, I can make assumptions – I understand your role, I think I know what you will do
  • 18. 18 Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others) • How to build Swift trust – Personal endorsements • Meet each member in advance – take notes • Follow each introduction with an endorsement – what have they done that was significant? – Where have they worked, how long in the role, level of expertise – In the absence of personal endorsements: • Standard P&G intro: Name, location, function,
  • 19. 19 • Trust based on role based assumptions – What are they here to do? – What level are they, function? – Stereotypes: country, voice, role in meeting • Bonus: Virtual Teambuilding exercise – At the second meeting, have each person introduce another person – Builds trust, encourages connections, and starts to “gel” the team Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others)
  • 20. VT:Predictability Add text here • VT: Sense of Order & Dependability • Why: Virtual teams need structure regularity • How: team meetings – Establish team meetings & keep them! – Never cancel a standing meetings – Rotating meeting owners avoid OOO – Why not: You will be bombarded with “are we having a meeting on today?” messages
  • 21. 21 Stages: Storming
  • 22. 22 • Characteristics – Competition of ideas – What is the work, what are the issues – How do we work: tools, meetings, processes – Open up & confront ideas and perspectives. • Quick storm: – strong expertise, tolerance for ambiguity, objectives • Long Storm: – Too many experts / opinions, no clear “A”, concensus – Empirical research: • more expertise / longer stage Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
  • 23. 23 • Watch out: Maturity needed here – People uncomfortable with Ambiguity • Tend to focus on minutiae to evade real issues • How will xxx work! • Easily divert discussions & challenge patience – TvN: • Details not all worked out; get ideas and push on • Courage; take some personal risks “I will own” Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
  • 24. 24 • What leaders should do – Contentious, unpleasant and painful • Cultural conflicts, misinterpretations, damage – Recognize how people respond to conflict • Strong opinions, disengage, only one solution – Tolerance of ideas and opinions is required – Create a safe environment; – Encourage exchange of ideas – Reward new and different ideas – Encourage all participants – Reward & Encourage inter-team feedback Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
  • 25. 25 • Watch outs: – Tolerance & patience or else • Destructive, de-motivating, damaging – PM needs to have an open door policy – Recognize the need for a decision – Bring to a close with concrete decisions • Agree not to revisit decisions – Use the issues list: • Lower priority items still needs to be agreed • What needs worked out Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
  • 26. 26 • How trust fits in: Cognitive assessments – Competency; ability to deliver the project • how do the members participate in the debates • Do they bring new ideas / fresh perspectives • Are they subject matter experts? – Integrity: • Do they work beyond their own view? • Do they encourage others to give their view • Are they transparent / cogent? • Do they work to move forward? Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
  • 27. 27 • How to build trust – Give opportunities to showcase strengths – Encourage each other to recognize each other’s ideas – Pull in the sideliner; doing that encourages everyone – Watch for positive and negative communication patterns & provide feedback Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
  • 28. 28 • Storming is necessary but dangerous – If done well: • Team will therefore resolve their differences • Be able to work with each other comfortably • Will not feel they are being judged • Will be comfortable sharing opinions and views Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
  • 29. VT:PhoneConferences Add text here • VT: effective use of phone conference – Expect multi-taskers – Don’t surprise people • Wallace what do you think of that? – Signal a need for people to listen back in • “Javier, what do you think about blah blah blah” • Sam and Soufiane, you need to hear this one • Mui, this one might touch you
  • 30. 30 Stages: Norming
  • 31. 31 • Characteristics: – Team adjust behavior to each other – Know each other better, views change – Work habits seem more natural / fluid. – Utilize rules, values, methods, tools, taboos – Motivation increases • Team gets more acquainted with the project Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
  • 32. VT:EnglishforEnglishSpeakers Add text here • VT: English for English speakers – Slang, sports, television, music – Broken phone – J.B. Document Bad Good I’m bushed! I’m very tired! I don’t have a clue. I don’t know. This project is going to cost an arm and a leg. This project is going to be very expensive. What are you up to tomorrow? What are you doing tomorrow?
  • 33. 33 • What leaders should do – Be the leader, but take a careful step back – Watch outs: • Threatened by responsibility, revert to storming • Norming becomes too strong: – Lose their creativity – stifle healthy dissent – exhibit groupthink Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
  • 34. 34 • How trust fits in: Cognitive assessments – Competency; ability to deliver the project • Perspective of competence and reliability • Expertise is accepted, Trust in decisions made • Trust in the process, people start using the tools – Integrity: • Trust to “do the right thing” becomes stronger • May not agree on the how, but the what is clear Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
  • 35. 35 • How to build trust – Model trust in peoples integrity • I trust you will make the best decision – Stefano, I am going to leave this one to you to work out – Kim, you made a good decision, thanks • Once decisions are made, TRUST THEM (you type “A” people you… ) Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
  • 36. 36 • How to build trust – Continue to encourage social relationships • Model: get to know people (according to culture) – Think of your current core teams – Do they have kids? How many do they have? • People get to know one another personally – Regional or national events (news clipper for country) – I saw there was a big storm in your area, was it bad? • Watch outs: – Sensitive to political / religious situations – Family situations “can I ask about….” – Admit, you are learning… • Emotional bonds start to build Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
  • 37. 37 • Global Godfathers Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
  • 38. 38 • Benevolence (affective trust) – Personal experiences vs. cognitive trust. – Confidence in a partner based on: • Feelings generated by the level of care • Amount of concern the partner demonstrates • Reliance on a partner based on emotions – It is characterized by: • feelings of security • perceived strength of the relationship. • Venture beyond available knowledge? Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
  • 39. VT:ExtremeFB Add text here • VT: Seek Extreme Feedback – Need the pulse of the virtual team – Leadership trust by Extreme Feedback • “Leadership opinions are often very strong – If the own opinion or pov is incongruent it is hard / impossible to convince the leader”
  • 40. 40 Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
  • 41. 41 • Characteristics: High performing teams – Team • Function as a seamless unit: smooth & effective • No inappropriate conflict, little supervision • Team members have become interdependent. – Members: • Motivated, knowledgeable, & able to decide • Competent, autonomous, and confident • Dissent: expected, allowed, and channeled – Not all teams reach this stage Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
  • 42. 42 • What leaders should do – Celebrate success • Virtually this is done via power of you awards • Awards page complete with photos and awards • Hand written letters delivered by post-mail – Make progress transparent • Publish the GANTT chart • Publicly congratulate milestones • Encourage others to congratulate (reward) – Release members from local tasks Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
  • 43. 43 • How trust fits in – Integrity gives way to benevolence: • Relationships are built, a sense of care develops • We have a relationship, you will help me • Go on holiday, I will finish for you over the weekend – What if you don’t have benevolence? • Transactional Relationships (that’s not my job) • Examine your relationships with your team • Provide a foundation for understanding Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
  • 44. VT:Whydotheydowhattheydo? Add text here • VT: Understand why they do that? – Mediterranean example live with SAP • Don’t follow job aids, always late – S. Plate: why do they do what they do? • No process or the process does not work. – French example in Longjumeau • Taking forever to get to resolution • Descartes – the process, not the resolution
  • 45. 45 • Forming – Swift Trust: Introduce people, virtual intro exercise • Storming – Ability: Showcase talent, encourage peer feedback, • Norming – Integrity: “I trust you”, model personal connections • Performing – Is “Benevolence” in your culture? Summary: Trust on Virtual Teams
  • 46. 46 Objective • Map stages of team development & Trust • How to develop trust in VT during stages • Share a few stories I picked up • My Ask: help develop a skill…
  • 47. 47 Questions?
  • 48. 48 The End!
  • 49. Sources: • “Creating & sustaining trust in Virtual teams” Penelope Sue Greenberg, Ralph H. Greenberg, Yvonne Lederer Antonucci. Kelly School of Business 2007 • “Communicating in Virtual Project Teams” Harvard Management Communication Letter, 2000 • “The Art of Managing Virtual Teams: Eight Lessons” Charles Wardell, Harvard Management Update, 1998 • “How will you make your team a team?” Paul Michelman, Harvard Business School Publishing 2004 • “Trust Makes A Team Go ‘Round” Judith A Ross, Business School Publishing, 2006 • “Long-Distance Relationship Troubles” Michael O’Brien, HRExecutive.com, 2009 • “Frontline Leadership” Lt. Colonel Diane Ryan, Harvard Business Review Voices, 2009 • “How the Right Measures Help Teams Excel” Christopher Meyer, Harvard Business Review, 1994 • “Managing Multicultural Teams” Jeanne Brett, Kristen Behfar, & Mary C. Kern, Harvard Business Review, 2006 • “Why Some Teams Succeed (and So Many Don’t)” Harvard Management Update, 2008 49

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