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Managing Virtual Project Teams

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This was a presentation I built and delivered for an annual Project Management Symposium in 2009. I borrowed heavily from a presentation I did in 2008 at the SAPPHIRE convention in Orlando, but I ...

This was a presentation I built and delivered for an annual Project Management Symposium in 2009. I borrowed heavily from a presentation I did in 2008 at the SAPPHIRE convention in Orlando, but I changed up the stories a bit and linked into some great content by Penelope Sue Greenberg, Ralph H. Greenberg, Yvonne Lederer Antonucci from the Kelly School of Business 2007 titled “Creating & Sustaining Trust in Virtual teams”.
its now on my blog at http://bloomportu.wordpress.com/

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  • Thanks Martin! Tuckman helped me pull it all together in a framework, but the result might have a been a little too academic for the business users. In hindsight, I would keep Tuckman, but pull out a bit of the theory.
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Managing Virtual Project Teams Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1
    Managing Distributed (Virtual)Project Teams
    Shawn Grubb (PMP)
    September 2009
    Project Management Symposium
    PMSU
  • 2. 2
    Objective
    Map stages of team development & Trust
    How to develop trust in VT during stages
    Share a few stories I picked up
    My Ask: help develop a skill…
  • 3. Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith
    Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing
    Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance
    Shawn Grubb
    1995
    1990
    Born!
    Raised!
    Graduate: SAP
    University Alliance
    Operations Mgmt.
    Mgmt Info Systems.
    ERP Systems Mgmt.
    Career #1: Radio Music & Media
    Youngest of 4:
    -F: Mechanic
    -M: Homemaker
    KALF
    KARZ
    K9FM
    KLRS
    SOLD!
    Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS)
    KPPL
    2000
    2001
    2004
    Married
    Hasnaa!
    Career #2: SAP IT
    GBS CLFS – Move to OH
    Career #3: Pharma Product Supply
    Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs
    Morocco SAP Implementation
    Core Logistics
    Italy Plants & DCs
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Dreieich Germany
    Band II
    Core Logistics
    SAP: Blois FR
    PM: Patheon CM
    Longjumeau France
    Core Financials SAP:
    NA Accounts Payable
    Project Manager
    Italy Platform II
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Bournemouth UK
    Move to France
    2005
    2007
    2009
    Band III
    SERPAT Company Benchmark!
    Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10
    Recognition
    Shares!
    Recognition
    Shares!
    PM: Vita L&A
    Barcelona ES
    Guest Speaker:
    “Managing a G-BPX team”
    Career #4:
    Move to GBS BPM
    IT Portfolio Manager
    Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site
    Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE.
  • 4. Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith
    Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing
    Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance
    Shawn Grubb
    1995
    1990
    Born!
    Raised!
    Graduate: SAP
    University Alliance
    Operations Mgmt.
    Mgmt Info Systems.
    ERP Systems Mgmt.
    Career #1: Radio Music & Media
    Youngest of 4:
    -F: Mechanic
    -M: Homemaker
    KALF
    KARZ
    K9FM
    KLRS
    SOLD!
    Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS)
    KPPL
    2000
    2001
    2004
    Married
    Hasnaa!
    Career #2: SAP IT
    GBS CLFS – Move to OH
    Career #3: Pharma Product Supply
    Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs
    Morocco SAP Implementation
    Core Logistics
    Italy Plants & DCs
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Dreieich Germany
    Band II
    Core Logistics
    SAP: Blois FR
    PM: Patheon CM
    Longjumeau France
    Core Financials SAP:
    NA Accounts Payable
    Project Manager
    Italy Platform II
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Bournemouth UK
    Move to France
    2005
    2007
    2009
    Band III
    SERPAT Company Benchmark!
    Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10
    Recognition
    Shares!
    Recognition
    Shares!
    PM: Vita L&A
    Barcelona ES
    Guest Speaker:
    “Managing a G-BPX team”
    Career #4:
    Move to GBS BPM
    IT Portfolio Manager
    Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site
    Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE.
  • 5. Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith
    Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing
    Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance
    Shawn Grubb
    1995
    1990
    Born!
    Raised!
    Graduate: SAP
    University Alliance
    Operations Mgmt.
    Mgmt Info Systems.
    ERP Systems Mgmt.
    Career #1: Radio Music & Media
    Youngest of 4:
    -F: Mechanic
    -M: Homemaker
    KALF
    KARZ
    K9FM
    KLRS
    SOLD!
    Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS)
    KPPL
    2000
    2001
    2004
    Married
    Hasnaa!
    Career #2: SAP IT
    GBS CLFS – Move to OH
    Career #3: Pharma Product Supply
    Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs
    Morocco SAP Implementation
    Core Logistics
    Italy Plants & DCs
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Dreieich Germany
    Band II
    Core Logistics
    SAP: Blois FR
    PM: Patheon CM
    Longjumeau France
    Core Financials SAP:
    NA Accounts Payable
    Project Manager
    Italy Platform II
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Bournemouth UK
    Move to France
    2005
    2007
    2009
    Band III
    SERPAT Company Benchmark!
    Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10
    Recognition
    Shares!
    Recognition
    Shares!
    PM: Vita L&A
    Barcelona ES
    Guest Speaker:
    “Managing a G-BPX team”
    Career #4:
    Move to GBS BPM
    IT Portfolio Manager
    Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site
    Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE.
  • 6. Values: Character – Integrity & Courage, Family & Faith
    Passions: Learning – Leading – Coaching – Solving – Strategizing
    Strengths Finder: Strategic – Futuristic – Command – Competition – Self-Assurance
    Shawn Grubb
    1995
    1990
    Born!
    Raised!
    Graduate: SAP
    University Alliance
    Operations Mgmt.
    Mgmt Info Systems.
    ERP Systems Mgmt.
    Career #1: Radio Music & Media
    Youngest of 4:
    -F: Mechanic
    -M: Homemaker
    KALF
    KARZ
    K9FM
    KLRS
    SOLD!
    Founder & Owner: Top Notch Entertainment ( 6 employees, $100M NOS)
    KPPL
    2000
    2001
    2004
    Married
    Hasnaa!
    Career #2: SAP IT
    GBS CLFS – Move to OH
    Career #3: Pharma Product Supply
    Manage a Global Team of 12 SAP BEs
    Morocco SAP Implementation
    Core Logistics
    Italy Plants & DCs
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Dreieich Germany
    Band II
    Core Logistics
    SAP: Blois FR
    PM: Patheon CM
    Longjumeau France
    Core Financials SAP:
    NA Accounts Payable
    Project Manager
    Italy Platform II
    Core Logistics SAP:
    Bournemouth UK
    Move to France
    2005
    2007
    2009
    Band III
    SERPAT Company Benchmark!
    Manati Puerto Rico 9.3 of 10
    Recognition
    Shares!
    Recognition
    Shares!
    PM: Vita L&A
    Barcelona ES
    Guest Speaker:
    “Managing a G-BPX team”
    Career #4:
    Move to GBS BPM
    IT Portfolio Manager
    Flowed to Longjumeau FR to help decommission the site
    Expanded team of 12 to include Pharma & Personal Healthcare Portfolio, PMO and SERPAT COE.
  • 7. 7
    Agenda
    Who am I and why should you listen
    Planning the Perfect Virtual Project
    The Tuckman Model of development
    Forming – Storming – Norming - Performing
    Characteristics of the stage
    What leaders should do in the stage
    What's trust got to do with it
    Practical steps to build trust in that stage
    Q&A
  • 8. 8
    Stolen!
  • 9. 9
    Planning
    Walk before you run
    Experience working on a virtual team?
    Select the Project Manager
    Be on a successful virtual project team
    Lead a successful project at home
    A poor PM in a Physical environment is going to be worse in a Virtual one
  • 10. 10
    Planning
    Select the right members – The team
    Go deeper than the role and function
    Have they worked on a virtual project?
    “how can she possibly know what we do here?”
    Interpersonal skills
    Ambiguity and stress
    Arrange for needed Training:
    Sharepoint, IM, Livemeeting, Outlook scheduling
    English for Native English speakers
  • 11. 11
    Stages of team: Tuckman Model
    Bruce Tuckman, Psychologist
    Naval Medical Research Institute
  • 12. 12
    Stages: Forming
  • 13. 13
    Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others)
    Characteristics:
    Most uncertain and ambiguous time
    The forming of the team takes place
    Independent - motivated - uninformed
    Usually on their best behavior
    Seek to understand the work
  • 14. 14
    Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others)
    What to do:
    Need to be directive during this phase
    Set some ground rules early
    Rules lead to reduction in uncertainty
    increase trust (there is something tangible)
    Actions:
    Be explicit about your thoughts
    Start meetings on time
    Observe deadlines
    Lay out your expectations
    RM: how to work with me .doc
  • 15. 15
    Tangent: Trust
    Trust: Factor for overcoming barriers
    Necessary for
    Effective communication
    Obtaining Goals
    Developing higher performing team
    Quickly resolving issues
    Need for trust in Global teams are magnified
    It’s easy to blame someone you may never see
    Mis-understandings are too common
    Communication has to be more deliberate
  • 16. 16
    Tangent: Trust
    How does trust fit into the virtual team?
    Normally trust is high to start
    Hard to maintain in the virtual world
    Hard for people to “see” themselves as a team
    PM sitting in CA, but leading ES project
    Interactions often are purely business
    After call banter, hallway talk,
    Lack of rich communication:
    Verbal vs. verbal + physical communication
    Tone, volume pitch and rhythm?
    Lots of room for noise
    Lack of understanding = trust?
  • 17. 17
    Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others)
    How trust fits in: Swift Trust
    Two sources of trust
    Personal endorsements
    Someone I trust tells me I should trust you
    Something I heard about you tells me I should trust you
    Role based information
    I understand your position, I can make assumptions
    I understand your role, I think I know what you will do
  • 18. 18
    Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others)
    How to build Swift trust
    Personal endorsements
    Meet each member in advance – take notes
    Follow each introduction with an endorsement
    what have they done that was significant?
    Where have they worked, how long in the role, level of expertise
    In the absence of personal endorsements:
    Standard P&G intro: Name, location, function,
  • 19. 19
    Stages: Forming(pretending to get along with others)
    Trust based on role based assumptions
    What are they here to do?
    What level are they, function?
    Stereotypes: country, voice, role in meeting
    Bonus: Virtual Teambuilding exercise
    At the second meeting, have each person introduce another person
    Builds trust, encourages connections, and starts to “gel” the team
  • 20. VT: Predictability
    Add text here
    • VT: Sense of Order & Dependability
    • 21. Why: Virtual teams need structure regularity
    • 22. How: team meetings
    • 23. Establish team meetings & keep them!
    • 24. Never cancel a standing meetings
    • 25. Rotating meeting owners avoid OOO
    • 26. Why not: You will be bombarded with “are we having a meeting on today?” messages
  • 21
    Stages: Storming
  • 27. 22
    Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
    Characteristics
    Competition of ideas
    What is the work, what are the issues
    How do we work: tools, meetings, processes
    Open up & confront ideas and perspectives.
    Quick storm:
    strong expertise, tolerance for ambiguity, objectives
    Long Storm:
    Too many experts / opinions, no clear “A”, concensus
    Empirical research:
    more expertise / longer stage
  • 28. 23
    Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
    Watch out: Maturity needed here
    People uncomfortable with Ambiguity
    Tend to focus on minutiae to evade real issues
    How will xxx work!
    Easily divert discussions & challenge patience
    TvN:
    Details not all worked out; get ideas and push on
    Courage; take some personal risks “I will own”
  • 29. 24
    Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
    What leaders should do
    Contentious, unpleasant and painful
    Cultural conflicts, misinterpretations, damage
    Recognize how people respond to conflict
    Strong opinions, disengage, only one solution
    Tolerance of ideas and opinions is required
    Create a safe environment;
    Encourage exchange of ideas
    Reward new and different ideas
    Encourage all participants
    Reward & Encourage inter-team feedback
  • 30. 25
    Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
    Watch outs:
    Tolerance & patience or else
    Destructive, de-motivating, damaging
    PM needs to have an open door policy
    Recognize the need for a decision
    Bring to a close with concrete decisions
    Agree not to revisit decisions
    Use the issues list:
    Lower priority items still needs to be agreed
    What needs worked out
  • 31. 26
    Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
    How trust fits in: Cognitive assessments
    Competency; ability to deliver the project
    how do the members participate in the debates
    Do they bring new ideas / fresh perspectives
    Are they subject matter experts?
    Integrity:
    Do they work beyond their own view?
    Do they encourage others to give their view
    Are they transparent / cogent?
    Do they work to move forward?
  • 32. 27
    Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
    How to build trust
    Give opportunities to showcase strengths
    Encourage each other to recognize each other’s ideas
    Pull in the sideliner; doing that encourages everyone
    Watch for positive and negative communication patterns & provide feedback
  • 33. 28
    Stages: Storming (Real u+ down to business + tempers)
    Storming is necessary but dangerous
    If done well:
    Team will therefore resolve their differences
    Be able to work with each other comfortably
    Will not feel they are being judged
    Will be comfortable sharing opinions and views
  • 34. VT: Phone Conferences
    Add text here
    • VT: effective use of phone conference
    • 35. Expect multi-taskers
    • 36. Don’t surprise people
    • 37. Wallace what do you think of that?
    • 38. Signal a need for people to listen back in
    • 39. “Javier, what do you think about blah blahblah”
    • 40. Sam and Soufiane, you need to hear this one
    • 41. Mui, this one might touch you
  • 30
    Stages: Norming
  • 42. 31
    Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
    Characteristics:
    Team adjust behavior to each other
    Know each other better, views change
    Work habits seem more natural / fluid.
    Utilize rules, values, methods, tools, taboos
    Motivation increases
    Team gets more acquainted with the project
  • 43. VT: English for English Speakers
    Add text here
    • VT: English for English speakers
    • 44. Slang, sports, television,music
    • 45. Broken phone
    • 46. J.B. Document
  • 33
    Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
    What leaders should do
    Be the leader, but take a careful step back
    Watch outs:
    Threatened by responsibility, revert to storming
    Norming becomes too strong:
    Lose their creativity
    stifle healthy dissent
    exhibit groupthink
  • 47. 34
    Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
    How trust fits in: Cognitive assessments
    Competency; ability to deliver the project
    Perspective of competence and reliability
    Expertise is accepted, Trust in decisions made
    Trust in the process, people start using the tools
    Integrity:
    Trust to “do the right thing” becomes stronger
    May not agree on the how, but the what is clear
  • 48. 35
    Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
    How to build trust
    Model trust in peoples integrity
    I trust you will make the best decision
    Stefano, I am going to leave this one to you to work out
    Kim, you made a good decision, thanks
    Once decisions are made, TRUST THEM
    (you type “A” people you… )
  • 49. 36
    Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
    How to build trust
    Continue to encourage social relationships
    Model: get to know people (according to culture)
    Think of your current core teams
    Do they have kids? How many do they have?
    People get to know one another personally
    Regional or national events (news clipper for country)
    I saw there was a big storm in your area, was it bad?
    Watch outs:
    Sensitive to political / religious situations
    Family situations “can I ask about….”
    Admit, you are learning…
    Emotional bonds start to build
  • 50. 37
    Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
    Global Godfathers
  • 51. 38
    Stages: Norming (comfortable + trust + productivity)
    Benevolence (affective trust)
    Personal experiences vs. cognitive trust.
    Confidence in a partner based on:
    Feelings generated by the level of care
    Amount of concern the partner demonstrates
    Reliance on a partner based on emotions
    It is characterized by:
    feelings of security
    perceived strength of the relationship.
    Venture beyond available knowledge?
  • 52. VT: Extreme FB
    Add text here
    • VT: Seek Extreme Feedback
    • 53. Need the pulse of the virtual team
    • 54. Leadership trust by Extreme Feedback
    • 55. “Leadership opinions are often very strong – If the own opinion or pov is incongruent it is hard / impossible to convince the leader”
  • 40
    Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
  • 56. 41
    Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
    Characteristics: High performing teams
    Team
    Function as a seamless unit: smooth & effective
    No inappropriate conflict, little supervision
    Team members have become interdependent.
    Members:
    Motivated, knowledgeable, & able to decide
    Competent, autonomous, and confident
    Dissent: expected, allowed, and channeled
    Not all teams reach this stage
  • 57. 42
    Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
    What leaders should do
    Celebrate success
    Virtually this is done via power of you awards
    Awards page complete with photos and awards
    Hand written letters delivered by post-mail
    Make progress transparent
    Publish the GANTT chart
    Publicly congratulate milestones
    Encourage others to congratulate (reward)
    Release members from local tasks
  • 58. 43
    Stages: Performing (team + goal + efficient + cooperative)
    How trust fits in
    Integrity gives way to benevolence:
    Relationships are built, a sense of care develops
    We have a relationship, you will help me
    Go on holiday, I will finish for you over the weekend
    What if you don’t have benevolence?
    Transactional Relationships (that’s not my job)
    Examine your relationships with your team
    Provide a foundation for understanding
  • 59. VT: Why do they do what they do?
    Add text here
    • VT: Understand why they do that?
    • 60. Mediterranean example live with SAP
    • 61. Don’t follow job aids, always late
    • 62. S. Plate: why do they do what they do?
    • 63. No process or the process does not work.
    • 64. French example in Longjumeau
    • 65. Taking forever to get to resolution
    • 66. Descartes – the process, not the resolution
  • 45
    Summary: Trust on Virtual Teams
    Forming
    Swift Trust: Introduce people, virtual intro exercise
    Storming
    Ability: Showcase talent, encourage peer feedback,
    Norming
    Integrity: “I trust you”, model personal connections
    Performing
    Is “Benevolence” in your culture?
  • 67. 46
    Objective
    Map stages of team development & Trust
    How to develop trust in VT during stages
    Share a few stories I picked up
    My Ask: help develop a skill…
  • 68. 47
    Questions?
  • 69. 48
    The End!
  • 70. Sources:
    “Creating & sustaining trust in Virtual teams” Penelope Sue Greenberg, Ralph H. Greenberg, Yvonne LedererAntonucci. Kelly School of Business 2007
    “Communicating in Virtual Project Teams” Harvard Management Communication Letter, 2000
    “The Art of Managing Virtual Teams: Eight Lessons” Charles Wardell, Harvard Management Update, 1998
    “How will you make your team a team?” Paul Michelman, Harvard Business School Publishing 2004
    “Trust Makes A Team Go ‘Round” Judith A Ross, Business School Publishing, 2006
    “Long-Distance Relationship Troubles” Michael O’Brien, HRExecutive.com, 2009
    “Frontline Leadership” Lt. Colonel Diane Ryan, Harvard Business Review Voices, 2009
    “How the Right Measures Help Teams Excel” Christopher Meyer, Harvard Business Review, 1994
    “Managing Multicultural Teams” Jeanne Brett, Kristen Behfar, & Mary C. Kern, Harvard Business Review, 2006
    “Why Some Teams Succeed (and So Many Don’t)” Harvard Management Update, 2008
    49