SIGN SYMBOL LOGO (Intro to GD, Wk 3)

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Week 3, Sign Symbol Logo

Presentation from Introduction to Graphic Design, Columbia College Chicago. Much of the content taken from readings, including the textbooks: Timothy Samara's "Design Elements" and "Design Evolution." Other references cited in presentation. Please note: many slides are intended for class discussion and might not make sense out of context.

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SIGN SYMBOL LOGO (Intro to GD, Wk 3)

  1. 1. SIGN SYMBOL LOGO
  2. 2. Semiotics
  3. 3. Semiotics The theory of signs. From the Greek semeiotikos, which means “an interpreter of signs.” Signing is vital to human existence because it underlies all forms of communication. Within semiotics, anything that is used for human communication is defined as a sign: gestures, facial expressions, poetry, rituals, clothes, food, music, morse code, marketing, commercials, film, etc.
  4. 4. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves.
  5. 5. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves. Stop means Stop
  6. 6. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves. Stop means Stop Apple means Apple
  7. 7. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves. Stop means Stop Apple means Apple Crown means Crown
  8. 8. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves. Stop means Stop Apple means Apple Crown means Crown Stop means Danger
  9. 9. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves. Stop means Stop Apple means Apple Crown means Crown Stop means Danger Apple means Healthy
  10. 10. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves. Stop means Stop Apple means Apple Crown means Crown Stop means Danger Apple means Healthy Crown means King
  11. 11. The interpretation of a sign is dependent on the context in which it is used, its relationship to other signs, and its environment.
  12. 12. Tunsia Niger China S. Korea Mexico Canada Malasia
  13. 13. There are numerous relationships that can exist between signifier and signified. We can have the same signifier with different signifieds and different signifiers with the same signified.
  14. 14. There are numerous relationships that can exist between signifier and signified. We can have the same signifier with different signifieds and different signifiers with the same signified. Signifier Signified Apple Temptation Apple Healthy Apple Fruit
  15. 15. There are numerous relationships that can exist between signifier and signified. We can have the same signifier with different signifieds and different signifiers with the same signified. Signifier Signified Signifier Signified Apple Temptation Apple Apple Apple Healthy Pomme Apple Apple Fruit Apfel Apple
  16. 16. Types of Signs
  17. 17. Icon
  18. 18. Icon Index
  19. 19. Icon Index Symbol CAT
  20. 20. Icon The signifier is perceived as resembling or imitating the signified. A pictoral representation, a photograph, an architect’s model of a building, or a star chart are all icons because they imitate or copy aspects of their subject.
  21. 21. Index An index had a factual or casual connection that points towards its object. Wet streets are a sign that it has rained recently. Smoke signifies fire. A nest image is an icon of a nest but also an index of a bird.
  22. 22. Symbol A symbol has an arbitrary relationship between the signifier and the signified. The interpreter understands the symbol through previous knowledge and experience—it must be learned and agreed upon. Spoken or written words are symbols. There is no reason that the word CAT should represent a cat instead of a tree. CAT
  23. 23. Metasymbol A symbol whose meaning transcends the tangible realm of simple one-to-one relationships. History, culture, and tradition all play a role in creating metasymbols, such as the dove with an olive brach as a symbol for peace. For certain audiences, religious and magical sugns and symbols take on these properties.
  24. 24. Denotation & Connotation
  25. 25. Almost every graphic form has a dual existence: it is an optical phenomenon with visual properties, and it is a communicative signal that functions with other signals to form a message.
  26. 26. In addition to their optical and perceptual life, graphic forms have symbolic life as signs, symbols, and images that combine with one another to convey a message to the viewer.
  27. 27. Denotation Denotation is the direct meaning of a word, sign, or image. Denotation is the first order of signification: the signifier is the image itself and the signified the idea or concept--–what it is a picture of. CAT
  28. 28. Connotation A second level of meaning, conveyed or suggested in addition to the denotation. Connotation is a second-order signifying system that uses the first sign, (signifier and signified), as its signifier and attaches an additional meaning, another signified, to it.
  29. 29. ONE DOLLAR
  30. 30. At the denotative level this is a photograph of the movie star Marilyn Monroe. At a connotative level we associate this photograph with Marilyn Monroe's star qualities of glamour, sexuality, beauty - if this is an early photograph - but also with her depression, drug-taking and untimely death if it is one of her last photographs.
  31. 31. At a mythic level we understand this sign as activating the myth of Hollywood: the dream factory that produces glamour in the form of the stars it constructs, but also the dream machine that can crush them - all with a view to profit and expediency. (Hayward 1996, 310)
  32. 32. Metaphor
  33. 33. With a metaphor there is an implied comparison between two similar or dissimilar things that share a certain quality. With a simile we say x is like y, while with a metaphor we say that x is y. By drawing attention to the ways in which a familiar thing, x, can be seen in terms of an unfamiliar thing, y, we help to show that the qualities of the first thing are more like the second thing than we had initially thought.
  34. 34. Signifier Linking Notion Signified Abstract concepts Person Object (beauty, elegance, exclusive) =
  35. 35. =
  36. 36. =
  37. 37. Mixed Messages
  38. 38. “...the reason new forms usually don’t emerge from the design activity ... is that design is in many ways a vernacular language. Design-related work assumes that the audience addressed has an a priori understanding of the vocabulary.” —Milton Glaser
  39. 39. The ability of the audience to decode and understand a graphic design becomes a major limitation governing its form and content. (From Meggs, Type & Image)
  40. 40. CAT
  41. 41. LOGO, LOGOTYPE, MARK
  42. 42. logo
  43. 43. logotype
  44. 44. mark
  45. 45. Criteria for a Successful Logo from by Gregory Thomas
  46. 46. Visibility
  47. 47. Application
  48. 48. Distinctiveness
  49. 49. Simplicity/Universality
  50. 50. Retention
  51. 51. Color
  52. 52. Descriptiveness
  53. 53. Timelessness
  54. 54. Modularity
  55. 55. Equity
  56. 56. Equity
  57. 57. Evolution of a Logo
  58. 58. A Few Conventions & Trends
  59. 59. Unified shape
  60. 60. Mark within logotype
  61. 61. Mark outside of logotype
  62. 62. Big mark, little logotype
  63. 63. Big logotype, little mark
  64. 64. Shape containers
  65. 65. Underline/overline
  66. 66. Descriptive
  67. 67. Symbolic .svg.svg
  68. 68. Typographic

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