•Write down as many ideas as you can
about your topic.
• Do not erase anything.
•Then go back later and eliminate
things that do not seem to fit just right.
•Think to yourself:
Who will hear my speech and why?
• Organize your ideas and write a rough,
Peer editing, sharing and conferencing!
Be sure to add new ideas and information,
Check for CONTENT and
then for grammar, sound quality, etc…
Check for excellence!
A copy of your speech, or note cards are necessary.
Sizing Up Your Audience
To determine which approach you will take in your presentation. Different
group attitudes require different methods of presentation!
• What is the size of your audience?
• Will they have a sense of humor?
• Do they want to hear what you have to say?
• Different people
learn in different
ways and have
well as different
The Audience—Rules for Feedback
-Describe the speaker's mistakes; do not get personal.
-Offer specific comments.
-Only comment on things that the speaker has control over,
such as tone, content or speed.
The Audience as Evaluators
-Share feelings and thoughts with the speaker.
-Make quot;Iquot; statements quot;I think your speech wasquot; or
quot;I feel you need toquot;)
-Be constructive, not destructive.
-Remember that each speaker is unique.
-Comment only on the speech - not on the
-Do not project your own biases onto the speech.
The Audience as Listeners
-Do not judge the person by his or her speech.
Be genuine and sincere.
-Do not practice or think about your comments,
or presentation while the person is speaking.
-Try to understand the speaker from his or her
point of view.
Experiential Learning and
• After each speech the teacher and audience should
assess your efforts so that you can take an honest
look at your presentation, help you decide what you
did well and what you need to improve.
• While speaking experiences will help you to become
accustomed to public speaking, processing your
efforts with your peers will help you to develop the
confidence to communicate!
The group must be careful to avoid hidden agendas
in its critiques. A hidden agenda is a message or a
purpose beneath the message being communicated
to the speaker. An example of this might be if
someone in the group is madly in love with the
speaker, his or her critique might be overly kind, even
if a more terse critique was due.
A Sad Fact
People do not always listen closely
enough to the words of a speech so
that only approximately 10% - 15% of
what you know and you learn comes
from what you hear.
Now…can anyone repeat what I
So, If you happen to NOT be
Try to show-off by listing
trivial concerns or
• Drift off to nit-pick.
during the speech
and then pretend
to have all of the
right comments Make comments
directed at speaker's
• Let someone quot;get awayquot; with a flawed speech.
Basic Speech Organization Skills
quot;Tell 'em what you're going to tell, 'em; tell 'em;
and then tell 'em what you told 'em.quot;
The body The conclusion
(tell 'em what
(tell 'em what
you are going to (tell 'em) you told 'em)
(tell 'em what you are going to tell 'em)
The Introduction has three major roles:
1. to catch the listener's interest
2. to move the topic from general
3. and to deliver the
Speech Focusing Statement
Whatever you do, do not
start your speech by
merely stating your topic!
Catching the Listeners' Interest
You could ask a rhetorical
question (Is humankind really
heading towards disaster?).
Or, you could start with a short
story that will pull the listener
in, such time you were in a
really great establishment.
It really does not matter what technique you use to
attract the listener as long as you follow two basic rules:
1) The story or question you choose is
specific to your topic
2) You finish the story or answer your
question in your conclusion
Moving Down the Funnel
Think of the process like a funnel sitting on a bottle. You start
with a wide discussion at the top, and then constrict your
discussion sliding down to the specifics of your topic. By the
time you hit the neck of the funnel, the audience knows exactly
where you are heading and what the elements of your topic will
Finally, once you are sliding down the neck of the funnel and
have announced the specifics of your speech, you deliver your
Speech Focusing Statement. The Speech Focusing
Statement is your quot;tell 'em what you're going to tell 'em.quot;
The body (tell 'em)
• After you have your introduction, you have
to move along to the quot;meatquot; of your speech
- the body. The body tells
• all of the facts and explains all the
details of your Speech Focusing
Statement. If you tell your listeners that
you are going to discuss issues A, B and C
in your introduction, then you must discuss
A, B, C, not B, C, A or C, B, A, etc.
• While the order of your topics is an
important issue, the logical design and
construction you employ is equally as
important. In other words, what reasoning
did you use for ordering your speech? Are
you showing how something developed
over time? Are you explaining why
something happened the way it did? Are
you detailing how to do something?
Methods of Presentation
Once you have decided on the logical development of your
topic, you can consider some of the various methods to
present the order of your ideas:
Cause to effect - order - the time -Anti-climax order
show how your order in which - work from the
topic was the events took most to least
result of place important
Climax order - work from
the least important
information to the most Spatial order - describe the
important. physical setup of your topic.
(tell 'em what you told 'em)
To begin, never say, quot;in conclusion,quot; or quot;at last,quot;
in your speech. This gives the listener
permission to tune you out. It is a much better
idea to simply restate your introduction and tell
the audience why it was important that they
listened, and what you want them to do or to get
out of the presentation.
Nerves: Fight vs. Flight
Standing before a group and delivering a speech can be one
of the most intimidating experiences of your life. Your heart
starts to race, the blood leaves your fingers and toes, your
throat goes dry, you shake, and you really wonder why in the
world you are doing this. Well, don't worry. This is quite
normal. Your body is undergoing what is known as a
psychosomatic or psychological stress.
One Way to Plan Out Your Speech
3 ideas to be discussed
Copy whole chart.
Now to the Assignment
Develop a 5-minute speech with a visual
presenting your business to the class. Each
student will deliver their speech in front of the
class while the rest of the students assess the
speaker and provide feedback on the speech.
CREATIVITY IS ALWAYS ENCOURAGED!!!
There are several important aspects of
presentation to keep in mind.
1) Body language - make sure that you
have proper posture. If your shoulders are
sagging, you will not appear as sincere.
You MUST stand and deliver!!!
2) Articulation – You need to speak loud and clear.
3) Pronunciation - Pronounce each word,
and do not
4) Pitch –
pitch refers to
the highs and
lows of the
do, you must
5) Speed - the speed, or pace, is an important
variable to control. Try not to speak too fast or
6) Pause - When you
want to emphasize
a certain word, pause
for one second before;
this highlights the
word. If you really
want to punch it,
pause before and
after the word!
7) Volume – If you scream all the way through your
speech, people will become accustomed to it and it
will lose its effectiveness. On the other hand, a few
well-timed shouts can liven up the speech! You must
try to quot;projectquot; or throw your voice out over the entire
class - or speak to the last row.
8) Quality - Quality of voice is the net caliber of
your voice, its character and attributes. You
must try to keep the vocal quality high; it is what
separates your voice from everyone else's.
9) Variance – Let your words speak for themselves. If
you use the word quot;strangle,quot; say it with a hint of
menace in your voice. If you say quot;heave,quot; let the class
feel the onomatopoeic force behind it. If you say
quot;bulldozer,quot; make it sound like a titan earthmover, not
like a baby with a shovel.. .
How you say something and how you physically
present yourself are just as important
as what you say.
Don’t be afraid to be expressive and show
Let’s decide as a group how we will
evaluate each other!!!
• Using the notes, discussions, and activities that we have done so
far, decide on a scale of 0-3 what is good and what is not for the
4. Visual Aids
5. Body Language
6. Voice Quality (articulation,
pronunciation, pause, variance)
7. Voice Quality
(pitch, speed, volume)
• We will all use this rubric when evaluating each of the speakers.
Aspect Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs Improvement 0
3 2 1
Enthusiasm Facial expression and Facial expression Facial expression Apparent disinterest in the
body language and body and body topic
convey strong language language seem
enthusiasm and sometimes convey contrived
interest strong enthusiasm