Behavioural disorders s spencePresentation Transcript
Behavioural Disorders By: Shawna Spence
What’s Normal & What’s Not? It is important to understand that every child has bouts of misbehaviour on occasion or they may act out due to stressors in their life. Reassurance and care will help a child through those stressful times. However, if the behaviour lasts over several months or is extreme, then we must seek professional assistance.
Definitions: There is no single definition for Emotional or Behavioural Disorders (EBD). However, some commonalities include: - Extreme behaviour that is significantly different from the norm. - Chronic behaviour problem that does not quickly disappear. - Behaviour that is unacceptable due to cultural and social expectations. - Behaviour that affects academic performance. - Behaviour that cannot be explained by health, sensory, or social difficulties. “Students with behaviour problems are ones who, after receiving supportive educational services and counselling assistance available to all students, still exhibit consistent and severe behavioural disabilities that consequently interfere with their productive learning processes as well as those of others. The inability of these students to achieve adequate academic and satisfactory interpersonal relationships cannot be attributed to physical, sensory, or intellectual deficits.” (160)
Classification: Classification system that was developed by Quay and Peterson consists of 6 major subgroups: 1. Conduct Disorder: attention seekers, disruptive, may act out, aggressive behaviour towards others. 2. Socialized aggression: students who exhibit this are likely to join a “subcultural group” of peers who disrespect their peers, teachers, and parents. This group exhibits delinquency, truancy, and other “gang” behaviours 3. Attention problems – immaturity: attention deficits, easily distracted, poor concentration. Students may be impulsive and may act without thinking of consequences. 4. Anxiety/withdrawal– self-conscious, and unsure of themselves. Low self-concepts which cause them to “retreat” from immediate activities. Anxious and frequently depressed. 5. Psychotic behaviour – hallucinations, fantasy world, speak gibberish, bizarre behaviours 6. Motor excess – hyperactive, difficulties sitting, listening, and keeping attention focused. Hypertalkative.
Conduct disorder: Conduct Disorder (CD) is a severe psychiatric disorder where a child or adolescent often displays behaviour that is extreme, destructive, and/or socially/culturally inappropriate. Causes:genetic factors, physical or emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, brain damage, parental mental illness, domestic violence, divorce, poverty, and/ or traumatic experiences. Prevalence:2 – 4 % of school-aged children are diagnosed with CD. More common in boys than in girls. (up to 10x more). Urban rather than rural. Symptoms/indicators: Aggression to people and animals bullies, threatens or intimidates others often initiates physical fights has used a weapon that could cause serious physical harm to others (e.g. a bat, brick, broken bottle, knife or gun) is physically cruel to people or animals steals from a victim while confronting them (e.g. assault) forces someone into sexual activity
Cont’d Destruction of Property deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention to cause damage deliberately destroys other's property Deceitfulness, lying, or stealing has broken into someone else's building, house, or car lies to obtain goods, or favors or to avoid obligations steals items without confronting a victim (e.g. shoplifting, but without breaking and entering) Serious violations of rules often stays out at night despite parental objections runs away from home often truant from school Strategies: - Keep in contact with the student’s support team and parents. - One on one attention is important - Avoid the triangle game, power struggles, and situations for debates - Avoid power struggles - Provide choices that you made and that have limits - Provide a structured environment with clear, consistent routines and expectations - Keep work periods manageable, keep down time “busy” - Do not take things personally, try not to show any signs of anger, hurt or frustration. - Teach Social skills
Treatment: - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy - Psychotherapy - Medication Note: CD may coexist with other disorders such as: mood disorders, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, ADHD, and/or learning problems. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)is a disorder where the child or adolescent feels a sense of power or control when they upset others by being defiant, uncooperative, or showing hostile behaviour towards authority figures. ODD seriously interferes with day to day functioning and relationships. Causes: living environments (domestic violence, neglect, poor parenting, death, divorce, and/or substance abuse), biological and psychological factors may play a role as well. Prevalence: 5 to 15% of school-aged children and adolescents may be diagnosed with ODD. More boys than girls. Occurs more in an urban setting rather than rural.
Symptoms/Indicators: - Unprovoked anger, frequent temper tantrums - Deliberately attempts to be annoying - Shifts blame toward others - Defiance & argumentative, especially toward adults’ rules or requests - Irritability - Resentfulness - Revengefulness - Poor social skills, poor peer relationships - Mean and hateful talking when upset Strategies: - Decide what behaviours are most significant and focus on those first - Create a Behavioural Intervention Plan - Consistency, Structure, and Routine - Clear and non-negotiable rules and expectations - Try to keep student fully occupied and avoid “down” time - Daily schedule may be helpful - Instruction and work time should be manageable - Avoid timed-tests and assignments - Give choices with limits - Try to give student sense of ownership or connection by giving them errands or classroom responsibility. - A reward system
Treatment: - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy - Focus on other conditions the child may have - Family Therapy - Social Skills Training Note: ODD may occur with other disorders such as: ADHD, learning disability, mood disorders, and/or anxiety disorders.
Resources: Edmunds, Alan; Edmunds, Gail. (2008). Special Education in Canada. (1st Edition). Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. Smith, Tom E.C.; PollowayEdward A.; Patton James R.; Dowdy Carol A.; McIntyre LaureenJ.; Francis Garnett C. (2010). Teaching Students With Special Needs In An Inclusive Setting. (3rd Canadian Edition). Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada. Symons, Cam. (2010). The Exceptional Teacher’s Casebook. (2nd Edition). Brandon, MB: Brandon University Professional Development Unit. http://www.kidsmentalhealth.ca - Children’s Mental Health Ontario http://aacap.org – American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry