PSY285 Chapter 2

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  • 1. 1
    A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for
    Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e
    Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.
    John H. Riskind, Ph.D.
    Margaret B. Manos
    Developed by Joseph A. Davis, Ph.D.
    McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2005. This McGraw-Hill multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • 2. 2
    Chapter 2
    Diagnosis and Assessment
  • 3. 3
    Chapter Main Points
    Diagnosis and Assessment: The Issues
    Methods of Assessment
    Cultural Bias in Assessment
  • 4. 4
    Diagnosis and Assessment
    Psychological Assessment:
    The collection, organization, and interpretation of information about a person and his or her situation
  • 5. 5
    Why Assessment?
    Description:
    The rendering of an accurate portrait of personality, cognitive functioning, mood, and behavior
    Prediction:
    Predict future behavior based on present functioning
  • 6. 6
    Diagnosis of Mental Disorders
    Diagnosis:
    The person’s problem is classified within one of a set of recognized categories of abnormal behavior and is labeled accordingly
  • 7. 7
    Diagnosis of Mental Disorders
    The Classification of Abnormal Behavior
    The Practice of Diagnosis
    Prognosis
    Criticisms of Diagnosis
  • 8. 8
    Diagnosis of Mental Disorders
    Categorical Classification:
    Sorting of patients into diagnostic categories
    Dimensional Classification:
    Based on dimensions of pathology
  • 9. 9
    The DSM-IV System
    Specific Diagnostic Criteria:
    Essential features
    Associated features
    Diagnostic criteria
    Differential diagnosis
  • 10. 10
    The DSM-IV System
    DSM Five Axes of Diagnosis
    Axis I - Clinical syndrome
    Axis II - Personality disorders
    Axis III - General medical disorders
    Axis IV - Psychosocial/environmental problems
    Axis V - Global assessment of functioning
  • 11. 11
    The DSM-IV System
  • 12. 12
    The DSM-IV System
    Unspecified Cause:
    Avoids any suggestion as to the cause of a disorder unless the cause has been definitely established
  • 13. 13
    Reliability
    Reliability:
    The degree to which findings can stand the test of repeated measurements
    Criteria for Reliability:
    Internal consistency
    Test-retest reliability
    Interjudge (interrater) reliability
  • 14. 14
    Validity
    Validity:
    Extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
    Descriptive Validity:
    Degree to which an assessment device provides significant information about the current behavior of the people being assessed
  • 15. 15
    Validity
    Predictive Validity:
    Degree to which an assessment answers questions about cause, prognosis, and treatment
  • 16. 16
    Problems in Assessment
    Problems in Assessment:
    Manner in which assessor conducts interview
    Manner in which assessor interprets the evidence
    Pragmatic considerations that interfere with accurate evaluation
  • 17. 17
    The Interview
    The Interview:
    A face-to-face conversation between subject and examiner
    Mental Status Exam (MSE):
    a very broad examination aimed at turning up any sign of disorder
  • 18. 18
    Psychological Tests
    Psychological Test:
    A standard procedure in which persons are presented with a series of stimuli to which they are asked to respond
    Psychometric Approach:
    Psychometrists attempt to locate stable underlying characteristics, or traits, that presumably exist in differing degrees in everyone
  • 19. 19
    Psychological Tests
    Intelligence Testing:
    Concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
    WAIS-R, Stanford-Binet, K-ABC, Other
    Projective Personality Testing:
    Rorschach Psychodiagnostic Inkblot Test
    Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    Sentence Completion Test
  • 20. 20
    Psychological Tests: Intelligence
    (questions similar to Wechsler)
    General Information
    - How many wings does a bird have?
    General Comprehension
    - What is the advantage of keeping money in a bank?
    Arithmetic
    - If an apple costs $0.10, how much should a dozen apples cost?
    Similarities
    - In what ways are a lion and a tiger alike?
    Vocabulary
    - What does ______ mean? (wide range of difficulty)
  • 21. 21
    Psychological Tests: Projective
  • 22. 22
    Psychological Tests
    Self-report Personality Inventories:
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)
    The L (Lie) Scale
    The K (Subtle Defensiveness) Scale
    The F (infrequency) Scale
    Test Response Sets
    Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III)
    Millon Personality Scales
  • 23. 23
  • 24. 24
    Psychological Tests for Organicity
    The Bender-Gestalt Test for Organic Screening
  • 25. 25
    Laboratory Tests
    Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    Polygraph Examination
    Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
    Electromyogram (EMG)
    Polysomnography
  • 26. 26
    Observation in Natural Settings
    Situational Variables:
    Environmental stimuli that precede and follow any given action
    Person Variables:
    The person’s stable traits
  • 27. 27
    Recapping the Main Points
    Diagnosis and Assessment: The Issues
    Methods of Assessment
    Cultural Bias in Assessment
  • 28. 28
    End of Chapter 2
    Diagnosis and Assessment