1<br />A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for<br />Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e<br />Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.<br />Jo...
2<br />Chapter 17<br />Mental Retardation and Autism<br />
3<br />Chapter Main Points<br />Mental Retardation<br />Autism<br />Society and People with Developmental Disorders<br />P...
4<br />Mental Retardation<br />Criteria for Mental Retardation:<br />Significantly sub-average general intellectual functi...
5<br />Levels of Mental Retardation<br />Mild Retardation:<br />IQ of 50-55 to 70<br />Moderate Retardation:<br />IQ of 35...
6<br />Genetic Factors<br />Fragile X Syndrome:<br />The X chromosome shows a weak spot, where it appears to be bent or br...
7<br />Genetic Factors<br />Down Syndrome:<br />Trisomy 21 - an extra chromosome in pair 21<br />Amniocentesis:<br />A cli...
8<br />Genetic Factors<br />Metabolic Disturbances:<br />Phenylketonuria (PKU):<br />Inability to metabolize the amino aci...
9<br />Environmental Factors<br />Prenatal Environment:<br />Drugs and other Teratogens:<br />Exposure to damaging chemica...
10<br />Environmental Factors<br />Postnatal Environment:<br />Toxins<br />Physical trauma<br />The effects of deprivation...
11<br />Mental Retardation in Adults<br />Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease<br />Mental Retardation and Other Mental D...
12<br />Autism<br />Early Infantile Autism:<br />The inability to relate to anyone outside of oneself<br />
13<br />Symptoms of Autism<br />Social Isolation<br />Mental retardation<br />Language Deficits<br />Echolalia<br />Stereo...
14<br />Theories of Autism<br />The Biological Perspective:<br />Genetic research<br />Chromosome studies<br />Biochemical...
15<br />Theories of Autism<br />
16<br />Theories of Autism<br />The Cognitive Perspective:<br />Executive function<br />Categorization and memory<br />Soc...
17<br />Society and People with Developmental Disabilities<br />Public Policy:<br />Free and appropriate education<br />in...
18<br />Society and People with Developmental Disabilities<br />Community integration<br />Quality of life<br />Support fo...
19<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Primary Prevention:<br />Genetic analysis and counseling<br />Secondary Prevention:<br...
20<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Behavior Therapy:<br />Self-help and adaptive skills<br />Language and communication s...
21<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Cognitive Therapy:<br />Self-instructional training<br />Correspondence training<br />...
22<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Pharmacological Therapy:<br />Drug Therapies:<br />Psychotropic drugs - manage disrupt...
23<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Psychotherapy:<br />Supportive psychotherapy<br />Group psychotherapy<br />Family ther...
24<br />Recapping the Main Points<br />Mental Retardation<br />Autism<br />Society and People Developmental Disorders<br /...
25<br />End of Chapter 17<br />Mental Retardation and Autism<br />
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PSY285 Chapter 17

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PSY285 Chapter 17

  1. 1. 1<br />A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for<br />Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e<br />Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.<br />John H. Riskind, Ph.D.<br />Margaret B. Manos<br />Developed by Joseph A. Davis, Ph.D.<br />McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2005. This McGraw-Hill multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Chapter 17<br />Mental Retardation and Autism<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Chapter Main Points<br />Mental Retardation<br />Autism<br />Society and People with Developmental Disorders<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Mental Retardation<br />Criteria for Mental Retardation:<br />Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning<br />Significant limitations in adaptive functioning<br />Onset before 18 years of age<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Levels of Mental Retardation<br />Mild Retardation:<br />IQ of 50-55 to 70<br />Moderate Retardation:<br />IQ of 35-40 to 50-55<br />Severe Retardation:<br />IQ of 20-25 to 35-40<br />Profound Retardation:<br />IQ of 20-25 and below<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Genetic Factors<br />Fragile X Syndrome:<br />The X chromosome shows a weak spot, where it appears to be bent or broken<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Genetic Factors<br />Down Syndrome:<br />Trisomy 21 - an extra chromosome in pair 21<br />Amniocentesis:<br />A clinical procedure that involves extracting and analyzing a portion of the amniotic fluid in which the fetus is growing<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Genetic Factors<br />Metabolic Disturbances:<br />Phenylketonuria (PKU):<br />Inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine<br />Tay-sachs disease:<br />A defect of lipid metabolism due to the absence of the enzyme hexosominidase<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Environmental Factors<br />Prenatal Environment:<br />Drugs and other Teratogens:<br />Exposure to damaging chemicals<br />Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)<br />Malnutrition:<br />Severe lack of one or more biological building blocks<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Environmental Factors<br />Postnatal Environment:<br />Toxins<br />Physical trauma<br />The effects of deprivation<br />Teenage mothers<br />Institutionalization<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Mental Retardation in Adults<br />Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease<br />Mental Retardation and Other Mental Disorders<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Autism<br />Early Infantile Autism:<br />The inability to relate to anyone outside of oneself<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Symptoms of Autism<br />Social Isolation<br />Mental retardation<br />Language Deficits<br />Echolalia<br />Stereotyped behavior<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Theories of Autism<br />The Biological Perspective:<br />Genetic research<br />Chromosome studies<br />Biochemical studies<br />Congenital disorders and birth complications<br />Neurological research<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Theories of Autism<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Theories of Autism<br />The Cognitive Perspective:<br />Executive function<br />Categorization and memory<br />Social understanding<br />Theory of the mind<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Society and People with Developmental Disabilities<br />Public Policy:<br />Free and appropriate education<br />individualization<br />Timely progress reviews<br />Community integration<br />Human rights<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Society and People with Developmental Disabilities<br />Community integration<br />Quality of life<br />Support for the family<br />Employment<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Primary Prevention:<br />Genetic analysis and counseling<br />Secondary Prevention:<br />Early intervention often minimizes severity<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Behavior Therapy:<br />Self-help and adaptive skills<br />Language and communication skills<br />Leisure and community skills<br />Replacement of maladaptive behaviors<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Cognitive Therapy:<br />Self-instructional training<br />Correspondence training<br />Self-management and self-monitoring<br />Self-control<br />Problem solving<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Pharmacological Therapy:<br />Drug Therapies:<br />Psychotropic drugs - manage disruptive or aggressive behavior<br />Anticonvulsive drugs - control seizures<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />Psychotherapy:<br />Supportive psychotherapy<br />Group psychotherapy<br />Family therapy<br />Client-centered therapy<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Recapping the Main Points<br />Mental Retardation<br />Autism<br />Society and People Developmental Disorders<br />Prevention and Therapy<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />End of Chapter 17<br />Mental Retardation and Autism<br />

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