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  • 1. 1
    A PowerPoint™ Slide Presentation for
    Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition 9/e
    Lauren B. Alloy, Ph.D.
    John H. Riskind, Ph.D.
    Margaret B. Manos
    Developed by Joseph A. Davis, Ph.D.
    McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2005. This McGraw-Hill multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • 2. 2
    Chapter 17
    Mental Retardation and Autism
  • 3. 3
    Chapter Main Points
    Mental Retardation
    Autism
    Society and People with Developmental Disorders
    Prevention and Therapy
  • 4. 4
    Mental Retardation
    Criteria for Mental Retardation:
    Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning
    Significant limitations in adaptive functioning
    Onset before 18 years of age
  • 5. 5
    Levels of Mental Retardation
    Mild Retardation:
    IQ of 50-55 to 70
    Moderate Retardation:
    IQ of 35-40 to 50-55
    Severe Retardation:
    IQ of 20-25 to 35-40
    Profound Retardation:
    IQ of 20-25 and below
  • 6. 6
    Genetic Factors
    Fragile X Syndrome:
    The X chromosome shows a weak spot, where it appears to be bent or broken
  • 7. 7
    Genetic Factors
    Down Syndrome:
    Trisomy 21 - an extra chromosome in pair 21
    Amniocentesis:
    A clinical procedure that involves extracting and analyzing a portion of the amniotic fluid in which the fetus is growing
  • 8. 8
    Genetic Factors
    Metabolic Disturbances:
    Phenylketonuria (PKU):
    Inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
    Tay-sachs disease:
    A defect of lipid metabolism due to the absence of the enzyme hexosominidase
  • 9. 9
    Environmental Factors
    Prenatal Environment:
    Drugs and other Teratogens:
    Exposure to damaging chemicals
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    Malnutrition:
    Severe lack of one or more biological building blocks
  • 10. 10
    Environmental Factors
    Postnatal Environment:
    Toxins
    Physical trauma
    The effects of deprivation
    Teenage mothers
    Institutionalization
  • 11. 11
    Mental Retardation in Adults
    Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease
    Mental Retardation and Other Mental Disorders
  • 12. 12
    Autism
    Early Infantile Autism:
    The inability to relate to anyone outside of oneself
  • 13. 13
    Symptoms of Autism
    Social Isolation
    Mental retardation
    Language Deficits
    Echolalia
    Stereotyped behavior
  • 14. 14
    Theories of Autism
    The Biological Perspective:
    Genetic research
    Chromosome studies
    Biochemical studies
    Congenital disorders and birth complications
    Neurological research
  • 15. 15
    Theories of Autism
  • 16. 16
    Theories of Autism
    The Cognitive Perspective:
    Executive function
    Categorization and memory
    Social understanding
    Theory of the mind
  • 17. 17
    Society and People with Developmental Disabilities
    Public Policy:
    Free and appropriate education
    individualization
    Timely progress reviews
    Community integration
    Human rights
  • 18. 18
    Society and People with Developmental Disabilities
    Community integration
    Quality of life
    Support for the family
    Employment
  • 19. 19
    Prevention and Therapy
    Primary Prevention:
    Genetic analysis and counseling
    Secondary Prevention:
    Early intervention often minimizes severity
  • 20. 20
    Prevention and Therapy
    Behavior Therapy:
    Self-help and adaptive skills
    Language and communication skills
    Leisure and community skills
    Replacement of maladaptive behaviors
  • 21. 21
    Prevention and Therapy
    Cognitive Therapy:
    Self-instructional training
    Correspondence training
    Self-management and self-monitoring
    Self-control
    Problem solving
  • 22. 22
    Prevention and Therapy
    Pharmacological Therapy:
    Drug Therapies:
    Psychotropic drugs - manage disruptive or aggressive behavior
    Anticonvulsive drugs - control seizures
  • 23. 23
    Prevention and Therapy
    Psychotherapy:
    Supportive psychotherapy
    Group psychotherapy
    Family therapy
    Client-centered therapy
  • 24. 24
    Recapping the Main Points
    Mental Retardation
    Autism
    Society and People Developmental Disorders
    Prevention and Therapy
  • 25. 25
    End of Chapter 17
    Mental Retardation and Autism