Asthma attack cause the muscles of the air passages
to go into spasm, making it very difficult for the
asthmatic breathe, particularly to exhale. Attacks may
be triggered by an allergy or by stress; for example,
being involved in an accident.
Signs and Symptoms:
• History of the condition
• Difficulty in breathing (particularly breathing out)
• Wheezing or otherwise noisy breathing
• Inability to speak
• Pale skin and potential blueness particularly
around the lips, caused by lack of oxygen
• Distress, dizziness, and confusion as it becomes
harder to get oxygen into the body
• Unconsciousness and then breathing stop
• Reassure the victim as this will have a positive
effect on his breathing.
• Help the victim into a sitting position, leaning
slightly forward, as most people with asthma
find this an easier position for breathing.
• If the victim has medication, enable him to
use it. Inhalers are the main for of treatment
Using an Inhaler
• Inhaler- is a device that administers a
measured dose of drugs inhaled directly into
the lungs, where it will have a near-instant
Is an interruption of normal brain activity. It
can happen suddenly or gradually.
Unconsciousness can be caused by a range
of injuries and medical conditions, as well as
by a number of different drugs. An
unconscious person may still have some
reactions to pain or to commands, or may
have no reactions at all.
Potential cause of unconsciousness
• Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
• Epileptic fit
• Head injury
• Heart attack
• Poisoning or drugs
Immediate emergency treatment:
• Assess whether the person is unconscious by
gently squeezing the shoulders and asking a
• Open the airway by lifting the chin, clearing the
mouth, and tilting the head.
• Check the breathing and be prepared to
resuscitate if necessary
• If breathing, check for life-threatening conditions
and then turn into the recovery position.
• Call for emergency help.
ASSESS THE LEVEL OF RESPONSE
• EYES do they:
– Open without you having to ask the person to
– Open on command?
– Open if you cause the person pain (this is often
done by pinching the earlobe
– Remain closed?
• MOVEMENTS does the person:
–Understand and follow sensible
–Move only in response to pain?
–Not move at all?
• SPEECH does the person:
—Answer questions sensibly?
—Answers questions in a confused way?
—Make sounds that cannot be
—Make no noise
*DO THE CHECKS OF EYES,MOVEMENT, AND SPEECH EVERY 10
MONITOR & RECORD PULSE RATE
• Pulse rate is measured by counting the
numbers of beats at the pulse at either the
neck or the wrist for 1 minute.
MONITOR & RECORD BREATHING
• Breathing is measured by counting the
number of breaths in 1 minute (one breath
one rise and fall of the chest)
TO CHECK FOR PULSE:
• The easiest way to find the pulse is to press
the hollow between the windpipe and large
neck muscle with two fingers. (carotid artery)
• A pulse can be found at the wrist, although
this can be more difficult to locate. (radial
A faint is a brief loss of
consciousness. Shock is one of the
potential causes of fainting but other
causes include lack of food, a
reaction to emotional news, or long
periods of inactivity (ex. Prolong
standing in a sunny day)
Treatment who has fainted:
• Open the airway and check for breathing.
• If the person is breathing and there is no sign
of injury, then the best treatment is to lie her
on her back with her legs raised.(This puts
maximum oxygen back to the brain and
speeds up recovery from a faint.)
• If she has not begun to come around in 3
minutes, or if breathing becomes difficult, put
her into the recovery position and call for