1.
Chapter 2 Kinematics of particles
Particle motion
physical dimensions are so
small compared with the
radius of curvature of its path
The motion of particle may
be treated as that of a point
Ex: the motion of airplane, car
2/2 Rectilinear motion
t=0
−
t
t+Δt
+
The change in the position
coordinate during the interval
time Δt is called the
displacement Δs
2.
Velocity and Acceleration (1)
−v
+v
The average velocity
vav = Δs / Δt
Instantaneous velocity
v = lim
Δs
Δt → 0 Δt
v=
ds
&
=s
dt
Similarly
Instantaneous acceleration
dv
&
a=
=v
dt
Speeding up: +a
Slowing down: −a (decelerating)
or
d 2s
a = 2 = &&
s
dt
3.
Velocity and Acceleration (2)
Another relation
By chain rule
v=
ds ds dv
ds
= ⋅ =a
dt dv dt
dv
vdv = ads
Graphical interpretations
s-t graph
ds
&
= s = v (velocity)
• Slope =
dt
4.
Graphical interpretations (1)
v-t graph
dv
&
= v = a (acceleration)
• Slope =
dt
• Area under v-t curve
ds
=v
dt
s2
t2
s1
t1
A = ∫ ds = ∫ vdt
ds = vdt = dA
t2
A = s2 − s1 = ∫ vdt
t1
Area under v-t graph between t1 and t2 is the net displacement
during that interval
5.
Graphical interpretations (2)
a-t graph
• Area under a-t curve
dv
=a
dt
v2
t2
v1
t1
A = ∫ dv = ∫ adt
dv = adt = dA
t2
A = v2 − v1 = ∫ adt
t1
Area under a-t graph between t1 and t2 is the net change in
velocity between t1 and t2
6.
Graphical interpretations (3)
θ
θ
v2
s2
v1
s1
A = ∫ vdv = ∫ ads
A=
vdv = ads
dv a CB
= =
ds v
v
s2
1 2
2
(v2 − v1 ) = ∫ ads
2
s1
Acceleration can be found
from distance CB (s axis)
7.
Analytical integration (1)
Constant acceleration
dv
a=
dt
v
t
∫ dv = ∫ adt = a ∫ dt
v0
0
v
vdv = ads
Basic
relation
v = v0 + at
0
s
s
∫ vdv = ∫ ads = a ∫ ds
v 2 = v0 + 2a ( s − s0 )
s
1 2
s = s0 + v0t + at
2
v0
ds
v=
dt
t
s0
t
s0
t
∫ ds = ∫ vdt = ∫ (v
0
s0
0
2
0
+ at )dt
8.
Analytical integration (2)
Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
dv
a=
dt
v
t
t
v0
0
0
∫ dv = ∫ adt = ∫ f (t )dt
t
v = v0 + ∫ f (t )dt
0
v = g (t )
vdv = ads
ds
v=
dt
Basic
relation
s
t
s0
0
∫ ds = ∫ vdt
t
s = s0 + ∫ vdt
0
Or by solving the differential equation && = a = f (t )
s
9.
Analytical integration (3)
Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)
dv
a=
dt
t
v
s
vdv = ads
ds
v=
dt
Basic
relation
v
1
1
∫ dt = v∫ a dv = v∫ f (v) dv
0
0
0
v
v
v
v
∫ ds = v∫ a dv = v∫ f (v) dv
s0
0
0
v
s = s0 + ∫
v0
v
dv
f (v )
10.
Analytical integration (4)
Acceleration given as a function of displacement, a = f(s)
dv
a=
dt
v
vdv = ads
s
∫ vdv = ∫ ads = ∫ f (s)ds
v0
ds
v=
dt
Basic
relation
s
t
s0
s0
s
s
1
1
∫ dt = s∫ v ds =s∫ g (s) ds
0
0
0
s
v 2 = v0 + 2 ∫ f ( s )ds
2
s0
v = g (s )
11.
Sample 1
The position coordinate of a particle which is confined to move
along a straight line is given by s = 2t 3 − 24t + 6, where s is
measured in meters from a convenient origin and t is in seconds.
Determine (a) the time required for the particle to reach a velocity
of 72 m/s from its initial condition at t = 0, (b) the acceleration of
the particle when v = 30 m/s, and (c) the net displacement of the
particle during the interval from t = 1 s to t = 4 s.
13.
Sample 2
A particle moves along the x-axis with an initial velocity vx = 50
m/s at the origin when t = 0. For the first 4 seconds it has no
acceleration, and thereafter it is acted on by a retarding force which
gives it a constant acceleration ax = −10 m/s2. Calculate the
velocity and the x-coordinate of the particle for the conditions of t
= 8 s and t = 12 s and find the maximum positive x-coordinate
reached by the particle.
14.
Sample 3
The spring-mounted slider moves in the horizontal guide with
negligible friction and has a velocity v0 in the s-direction as it
crosses the mid-position where s = 0 and t = 0. The two springs
together exert a retarding force to the motion of the slider, which
gives it an acceleration proportional to the displacement but
oppositely directed and equal to a = −k2s, where k is constant.
Determine the expressions for the displacement s and velocity v as
functions of the time t.
15.
Sample 4
The car is traveling at a constant speed v0 = 100 km/h on the level
portion of the road. When the 6-percent (tanθ = 6/100) incline is
encountered, the driver does not change the throttle setting and
consequently the car decelerates at the constant rate gsinθ.
Determine the speed of the car (a) 10 seconds after passing point A
and (b) when s = 100 m.
16.
Sample 5
A motorcycle patrolman starts from rest at A two seconds after a
car, speeding at the constant rate of 120 km/h, passes point A. If the
patrolman accelerates at the rate of 6 m/s2 until he reaches his
maximum permissible speed of 150 km/h, which he maintains,
calculate the distance s from point A to the point at which he
overtakes the car.
17.
Sample 5
t2
A
v = 120 km/h
t = -2
t1
a = 6 m/s2
v = 150 km/h
t=0
s1
s2
s=?
18.
Sample 6
A particle starts from rest at x = -2 m and moves along the x-axis
with the velocity history shown. Plot the corresponding
acceleration and the displacement histories for the 2 seconds. Find
the time t when the particle crosses the origin.
19.
Sample 7
When the effect of aerodynamic drag is included, the y-acceleration
of a baseball moving vertically upward is au = – g – kv2, while the
acceleration when the ball moving downward is ad = – g + kv2,
where k is a positive constant and v is the speed in meters per
second. If the ball is thrown upward at 30 m/s from essentially
ground level, compute its maximum height h and its speed vf upon
impact with the ground. Take k to be 0.006 m-1 and measure that g
is constant.
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