1. Thank you to OUP for sponsoring this eventthrough the provision of the platform to host this workshop.
2. Mind the gapDesigning materials and activities for cross-cultural trainingSimon Greenallsimon.firstname.lastname@example.org@simongreenall
3. Overview 1 Why do socio-cultural/ intercultural training? 2 Six personal characteristics of cross-cultural sensitivity 3 Teachers’ concerns • Monocultural classes • Socio-cultural awareness at low levels • Coverage of intercultural syllabus • Types of materials • Meanings of ‘culture’ • Teachers’ responsibility to teach socio-cultural awareness 4 Six conclusions
4. Why do socio-cultural/intercultural training?
5. Why do socio-cultural/intercultural training? In the classroom: Integral part of communicative competence Essential learning objective Source of motivating material In real life Finding out about other cultures Finding out about your own culture Importance of intercultural awareness in business, finance, government, ent ertainment, broadcasting, the internet, education – the world- wide English speaking community
6. So where do westart?
7. So where do westart?
8. Teachers’ concerns
9. Teachers’ concerns 1 „It‟s easy if you have a multi-cultural group. But what can we do in monocultural classes like ours?‟ 2 „How can I teach socio-cultural awareness at low levels?‟ 3 „What does an intercultural syllabus cover?‟
10. Teachers’ concerns 4 „What types of materials and activities can you use?‟ 5 „What do you mean by culture?‟ 6 „Is it really my job as a language teacher to teach intercultural awareness?‟
11. Intercultural training– general issues
12. Intercultural training Integrating– general issues intercultural training into a language course design Monocultural and multicultural groups Teaching at low levels The role of anecdotes Teacher‟s responsibility Generalisation, stereo typing and prejudice
13. Cultural taboosin textbooks P A R S N I P
14. Cultural taboosin textbooks Politics A R S N I P
15. Cultural taboosin textbooks Politics Alcohol R S N I P
16. Cultural taboosin textbooks Politics Alcohol Religion S N I P
17. Cultural taboosin textbooks Politics Alcohol Religion Sex N I P
18. Cultural taboosin textbooks Politics Alcohol Religion Sex Narcotics I P
19. Cultural taboosin textbooks Politics Alcohol Religion Sex Narcotics Isms P
20. Cultural taboosin textbooks Politics Alcohol Religion Sex Narcotics Isms Pork
21. Six personal characteristicsof cross-cultural sensitivity• Tolerance of ambiguity• Behavioural flexibility• Communicative awareness• Knowledge discovery• Respect for otherness• EmpathyINCA project, CILT (National centre forLanguages, UK 2004)
22. The reculturalisation of English
23. The reculturalisation of EnglishPeriods of studying English: where the USA/UK/Australia etc were target cultures where the cultural origins of the language were ignored where the link between language and culture is recognised and sample cultures are explored
24. Teachers’concerns1 „It‟s easy if you have a multi-cultural group. But what can wedo in monocultural classes likeours?‟
25. Missing you already!
26. Missing you What do you already! miss when you‟re away from home? What do you look forward to when you return?
27. Missing you already!„My cat.‟ „The sense of humour.‟„The crossword‟ „The radio cricket„The Sunday papers.‟ commentary.‟„A nice cup of tea.‟ „Manageably sized insects‟„Baked beans/ sausages/Marmite‟ „My own bathroom.‟ „My bed.‟
28. Missing you What do you already! miss when you‟re away from home? What do you look forward to when you return?
29. Teachers’concerns2 ‘How can I teach socio-cultural awareness at lowlevels?’
30. Desert Island words Think of eight favourite words to take to your desert island, and one phrase or saying.
31. Desert Island words1 family
32. 2 Oxford
33. 3 book
34. 4 television 4 televisio
35. 5 mountain
36. 6 Venice
37. 7 beer
38. 8 another
39. Favourite sentence It‟s out of the question!
40. Desert Island words Think of eight favourite words to take to your desert island, and one phrase or saying.
41. See the rest ofyour familyGo out withfriendsGo shoppingGet somephysical exerciseRead a bookTalk aboutpolitics
42. Teachers’ concerns3 „What exactly does anintercultural syllabus cover?‟
43. THE CULTURAL ICEBERGBeyond Culture (1976) Edward T Hall
44. What’s missing from the iceberg? Effective and meaningful intercultural communication requires: Language Non-verbal communication Communication style Awareness of one‟s cultural identity
45. Common European Framework22.214.171.124 Sociocultural knowledgeStrictly speaking, knowledge of the societyand culture of the community orcommunities in which a language is spokenis one aspect of knowledge of the world. Itis, however, of sufficient importance to thelanguage learner to merit specialattention, especially since unlike manyother aspects of knowledge it is likely to lieoutside the learner‟s previous experienceand may well be distorted by stereotypes.p103
46. Common European Framework126.96.36.199 Intercultural awarenessKnowledge, awareness and understanding of the relation(similarities and distinctive differences) between the„world of origin‟ and the „world of the target community‟produce an intercultural awareness. It is, of course,important to note that intercultural awareness includes anawareness of regional and social diversity in both worlds.It is also enriched by awareness of a wider range ofcultures than those carried by the learner‟s L1 and L2.This wider awareness helps to place both in context. Inaddition to objective knowledge, intercultural awarenesscovers an awareness of how each community appearsfrom the perspective of the other, often in the form ofnational stereotypes.
47. Linguistic, non- linguistic and social conventions and rituals Customs and traditions Attitudes and beliefs
48. 1 Linguistic, non-linguistic andsocial conventions and rituals
49. 1 Linguistic, non-linguistic and social conventions and rituals Greetings Gestures Reciprocal Appearance speech Personal space Silence Smiling Eye contact
51. Linguistic conventions: functions
52. Linguistic conventions: functions Greetings and making introductions Thanking Apologising Complaining Giving opinions Making compliments Expressing feelings Expressing ability Back channelling
56. Customs and Talk about these questions. You‟re invited to someone‟straditions home for dinner. What time do you expect to be invited? What time do you arrive? Do you take a gift? If so, what? When do you expect to eat? What do you say before you start eating? In which hand do you hold your fork? Do you compliment your host? Can you smoke during the meal? How do you know when to leave?
57. 3 Attitudes and beliefs
58. 3 Attitudes and beliefs Superstitions Face Men and women Ancestors Networking Time
61. Teachers‟ concerns4 „What types of materials and activities can you use?
62. Materials and activitytypes
63. Materials and activitytypes Cultural self awareness Cognitive training C2 comparison Experiential training Critical incidents Cultural resonance L1 interference
64. Cultural self awareness: macro andmicrocultureHere is a list of furniture and features of a house.Which ones do you expect to see in a typicalhome in your country?balcony , garden , bath, stairs shower, separatebathroom and toilet, dining room, living room,large kitchenFind out which items youre likely to use todescribe an English home.
65. Cognitive training:information about C2
66. C2 comparison
67. Experiential training
68. Experiential training: cultural bumpsRead the conversation and decide if thereis anything which surprises you.Julia Hi Scott! How are you? Do come in! It’sgreat to see you. You’ve put on weight.Scott Thanks, great to see you too.Julia And who are you?Scott Julia, I’d like you to meet Helen.Julia Hi Helen, how do you do? I’ve heard somuch about you.Helen How do you do, Julia? Nice to meetyou.
69. Julia I really like your coat. Let me take it for you.Helen Oh, this old thing? Thanks.Julia How much did it cost?Helen It was incredibly expensive.Julia Do come in and make yourself at home.Scott Hey! It looks like a swell party!Listen and cross out anything you don’t hear.
70. Experiential training
71. Critical incidents
72. Critical incidents: face“I invited a friend to adinner party at myapartment lastThursday. She replied,„Yes, I‟d love to come,but it might bedifficult.‟ I didn‟t hearfrom her so I expectedher to come. But shedidn‟t. Why didn‟t shecall me and let meknow?”
73. Critical incidents
74. Cultural icons, symbols and resonance
75. Cultural resonanceWhat ideas do you associate with thesecolours?green white yellow blue redWhat are the qualities of these animals?sheep goat donkey dog frogWhat words do you associate with these ideas?home book beach New Year school English
76. L1 interference: trap words and absencesYes/noIt certainly is! (emphatic agreement)Please/Thank youGrazie – prego, Dankeschn –bitteschon, xie xie – bu ke qi... You‟rewelcome?SorryHave a nice day!
77. Teachers’ concerns5 What do you mean by culture?
78. Types of culture: sample and target cultureTarget culture Sample cultureCognitive information Cognitive informationabout a specific or experiential training‘target’ culture, where using non-specificthe speaker intends to ‘sample’ cultures forlive, work or study cross-cultural comparison
79. Surface culture Deep cultureFactual, objective Impressionistic, subjdictionary/ ectiveencyclopediadefinitio Cultural resonance nDenotational Connotational meaning meaning
80. Types of culture:surface and deep cultureSurface culture:weather forecast
81. Cultural resonance: deep cultureDogger, Rockall, Malin, Irish Sea:Green, swift upsurges, North Atlantic fluxConjured by that strong, gale-warning voice,Collapse into a sibilant penumbra … … It was marvellousAnd actual, I said out loud, „A haven,‟The word deepening, clearing, like the skyElsewhere on Minches, Cromarty, The Faroes. Seamus Heaney Glanmore Sonnets
82. Types of culture: Say which of thesemacro and microculture food items people in your country usually buy each week. rice oranges potatoes fish sausage beer water flour noodles eggs tea coffee oil butter yoghurt shrimp bread sugar cheese Which items do you (or your family) usually, sometimes or never buy each week?
83. Macroculture Microculture… based to national, … based onregional, ethnic origin age, gender, socio- economic(The Americans, the background, socio-Italians, the West v the professionalEast) background, climate local or family customs, individual preferences and behaviour
84. Teachers’ concerns6 „Is it really my job as a languageteacher to teach cross-culturalawareness?‟
85. From cultural bump to culture shockPerpetrator Recipient Recognition of difference in behaviour Mild interest Amusement Surprise Culture shock Recognition/ignorance Perception of of offence of offence Communication breakdown Confusion Incomprehension Embarrassment Irritation Shame/anger Anger
86. Six conclusions 1The key to an awareness of other cultures is an awareness of your own. .
87. Six conclusions 1The key to an awareness of other cultures is an awareness of your own. 2 Intercultural training can be integrated with the grammatical, functional syllabuses and skills syllabuses.
88. Six conclusions3 Intercultural training is notan option. Its absence cancompromise effectivecommunication.4 Cross cultural awarenessdoes not imply assimilationor mimicry but theunderstanding andappreciation of differentvalues.
89. Six conclusions5 We cannot give our learners specific information about every culture, but we can make them aware of the possibility of differences.6 Effective communication = Linguistic competence and intercultural competence
90. Designing materials and activities for cross-cultural training Intercultural training in the classroom should lead to the enjoyment of recognising similarities between cultures, and to the celebration of difference.
91. Designing materials and activities forintercultural training in the classroom „Strangers are only friends you haven‟t made yet.‟ Irish saying
93. Thank you to OUP for sponsoring this eventthrough the provision of the platform to host this workshop.