CELL
The human organism presents about 200 different cell
types, all derived from the zygote, the single cell formed
by fertili...
CELLULAR FUNCTIONS IN SOME SPECIALIZED
CELLS.


The cell is composed of two basic parts:
Cytoplasm and
Nucleus.



Individual cytoplasmic components are usually not c...
Membranous
organelle

Non-Membranous
organelle

Rough & Smooth
Endoplasmic reticulum

Ribosomes

Mitochondria

Centrioles
...
PLASMA MEMBRANE


The outermost component of the cell, separating the
cytoplasm from its extracellular environment, is the
Plasma membran...


With electron microscopy, the plasmalemma and, all other organellar
membranes appears a trilaminar structure after fixa...


Cholesterol molecules insert among the close packed the phospholipid
fatty acids nearly a 1:1 ratio , restricting their...


Proteins, are major molecular constituent of membranes, can be
divided into two groups.

Integral proteins :
o Incorpor...








With freeze-fracture electron microscope studies of membranes
show that many integral proteins are only partia...










Integration of the proteins within the lipid bilayer is mainly the
result of hydrophobic interactions betwe...
Functions of plasmalemma :


A selective barrier.



To keep constant the ion content of cytoplasm.



Specific recogni...
GLYCOCALYX










With the EM the external surface of the cell shows a fuzzy
carbohydrate-rich region called the g...
ENDOCYTOSIS


Bulk uptake of material also occurs across the plasma membrane in
a general process called endocytosis, whi...
Phagocytosis :
o

o

o

Certain white blood cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, are
specialized for engulfing and ...
PHAGOCYTOSIS
Fluid-phase Endocytosis :


In fluid-phase pinocytosis , smaller invaginations of the cell
membrane form and entrap extra...
PINOCYTOSIS
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis :
 Receptors for many substances, such as low-density
lipoproteins and protein hormones, ar...
RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
In endocytotic processes, the vesicles or vacuoles
produced quickly enter and fuse with the endosomal
compartment, a dynam...
While phagosomes and pinocytotic vesicles soon fuse with
lysosomes, molecules penetrating the endosomal
compartment after ...
EXOCYTOSIS
In exocytosis a membrane-limited cytoplasmic vesicle
fuses with the plasma membrane, resulting in the release
o...


During endocytosis, portions of the cell membrane
become endocytotic vesicles; during exocytosis, the
membrane is retur...
SIGNAL RECEPTION AND
TRANSDUCTION


Cells in a multicellular organism need to communicate with one
another to regulate th...
Signaling can take different routes:
Endocrine signaling:
 the signal molecules (called hormones) are carried in the bloo...










Hydrophilic signaling molecules :
including most hormones, local chemical mediators (paracrine
signals), an...
MEDICAL APPLICATION
Several diseases have been caused by defective receptors.
 Pseudohypoparathyroidism and a type of Dwa...
Hydrophobic signaling molecules :
such as small steroid and thyroid hormones, bind
reversibly to carrier proteins in the p...
NUCLEUS
The nucleus contains a blueprint for all cell structures
and activities encoded in the DNA of the chromosomes .
 Nucleus ...
Nuclear envelope :


The nuclear envelope is a double membrane
containing pores that are approximately 90 nm in
diameter....
Nuclear Lamina :


The nuclear lamina is a latticelike network of
proteins that include lamins.



Lamins attach chromat...
Nuclear Lamina
Functions:
Maintenance of nuclear shape
Spatial organization of nuclear pores within nuclear membrane
Regul...
Lamina

bio.winona.msus.edu/.../ Lec-note/16-new.htm
Nucleolus :


The nucleolus is responsible for ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) synthesis and ribosome assembly.



It contains thre...
Nucleolus :


The nucleolus is responsible for ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) synthesis and ribosome assembly.



It contains thre...
Chromatin :
Chromatin is a complex of DNA, histone proteins, and nonhistone
proteins.
• DNA—a double-stranded helical mole...
Chromatin

6 nucleosomes
become coiled
around an axis,
forming a solenoid.
Nucleosome, Solenoid model of chromatin, and chromosome

Nucleosome
Forms of Chromatin :
• Heterochromatin :
highly condensed and transcriptionally inactive.
 In a typical eukaryotic cell, ...
CYTOPLASM
RIBOSOMES
Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and protein. They
consist of large (60S) and small (40S) subunits.
 Ribosomes ar...
Forms of Ribosomes :
Ribosomes exist in two forms:
• Free polysomes : are the site of synthesis for
proteins destined for ...
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
The endoplasmic reticulum exists in two forms, rough
endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplas...
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum :


SER is a network of membranous sacs, vesicles, and
tubules continuous with the RER, but ...
Functions of SER :
o

o
o
o

Detoxification Reactions :
Hydroxylation.
Conjugation.
Glycogen Degradation and Gluconeogenes...
GOLGI APPARATUS
GOLGI APPARATUS


The Golgi apparatus consists of disc-shaped smooth
cisternae that are assembled in stacks (dictyosomes)...
Functions of the Golgi Apparatus :
Proteins and Lipids
 The Golgi apparatus is the site of post trauslational
modificatio...
MEDICAL APPLICATION
Hyperprolnsulinemia :
Hyperprolnsulinemia is characterized by elevated levels of
proinsulin in the ser...
LYSOSOMES


Lysosomes are spherical membrane-enclosed organelles
that are contain enzymes required for intracellular
dige...


•

Lysosomes contain approximately 60 hydrolytic
enzymes.
All lysosomal enzymes are acid hvdrolases, with
optimal activ...
MEDICAL APPLICATION
Glycogen-Storage Disease Type II (Pompe Disease) :
 an autosomal recessive disorder that results from...
RESIDUAL BODIES
•Lysosomes containing
indigestible compounds
are called residual
bodies.
•The indigestible
compounds are u...
RESIDUAL BODIES IN LUNG CELLS
AUTOPHAGOSOMES
Primary Liposomes fuse
with membrane-bound
organelles or a portion
of cytoplasm to form
autophagosomes.


...
PEROXISOMES


Peroxisomes are a heterogeneous group of small,
spherical organelles with a single membrane.

Functions:
Sy...
PEROXISOMES (MICROBODIES )
MEDICAL APPLICATION
Peroxisome Deficiency :
Several genetic diseases are associated with the impairment
or absence of pero...
MITOCHONDRIA
MITOCHONDRIA
Mitochondria have two membranes , They synthesize
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), contain their own doublestran...
Inner Membrane
 The inner membrane is inpermiable to most small ions (Na,
K*, H*) and small molecules (ATP, adenosine dip...
Mitochondria

Two types of cristae: tubular-like and plate-like.
Most cells contain mitochondria with plate-like cristae. ...
Mitochondria

Internal membrane
contains enzymes for:
Oxidative Phosphorylation

•electron transport system
•oxidative pho...
Intermembrane Compartment :
 The intermembrane compartment is the space between
the inner and outermembranes.
 It contai...
Mitochondria
Citric acid cycle
Matrix contains enzymes for:
•Citric acid cycle for generation
of ATP
•Dehydrogenases
A double-stranded circular DNA genome—encodes a
few of the mitochondrial proteins.
 Mitochondrial DNA is always inherited...
CYTOSKELETON
CYTOSKELETON


Network-like structure.



Provides the shape of the cell.



Participates in transportation of large mo...
Cytoskeleton

Cells contain 3 categories of cytoskeletal elements
•Microfilaments (actin filaments)
•Intermediate filament...
MICROTUBULES


Small hollow cylindrical unbranched tubules 25 nm in
diameter with a 5nm thick wall.



Made of 13 tubuli...
Microtubules play a role in:
Chromosomal movement during meiosis and mitosis.
 Microtubule assembly is an important event...
The heterodimer, the subunit
of microtubule,is composed of
α and β tubulin molecules.


It is organized into a spiral
dur...
Microtubule
•Microtubule formation generally occurs more rapidly at
one end of existing microtubules.
• This end is called the plus (+...
Transportation in microtubules is under control of special
proteins called motor proteins (dynein and kinesin)
Kinesins:
Motor protein responsible for
moving vesicles and organelles
away from cell center.
Dyneins:
Responsible for mov...
•Microtubule formation directed by microtubule organizing
center.
•Is under control of concentration of Ca 2+ & microtubul...
Microtubule

Microtubule
organizing center
CHEDIAK - HIGASHI SYNDROME :


Defect in microtubule polymerization .



is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency diso...
Centrioles

A pair of cylindrical structures with
their long axis perpendicular to each
other.
Each is composed of 9 sets ...
CENTRIOLE
Functions of centrioles

Non-dividing cells:
•Polymerization of long single microtubules that radiate throughout
the cytop...
Microfilaments

Actin filaments
Microfilaments
•Made up of polymers of the protein actin
•Actin present as globular form (G-actin) & filamentous form
(F-a...
Microfilaments (Ankyrin)

Integral protein

Ankyrin

Ankyrin anchors
actin-filamentsto the
integralproteins of
The plasma ...
Microfilaments (Myosin)

Most microfilament-related
Movement depends upon the
interaction between actin
and another protei...
Microfilaments (Dystrophin)

Dystrophin

Transmembrane protein
that links:
Short actin filaments
beneath plasma membrane

...
Microfilaments
(Dystrophin & muscular dystrophy)

Genetic disorder due to
mutation in gene coding for
the Actin binding pr...
Intermediate filaments
•

Vimentin : in cells of mesenchymal origin; may
contribute to position the nucleus in the cell; p...
Intermediate filaments
(Epidermolysis bullosa)

Genetic disorder due to
mutation in gene coding for
keratin.
Results in in...
cell membrane
Apical cell membrane:
Regulation of nutrient and water intake
Regulated secretion
Protection
Lateral cell me...
Junctional complexes of epithelial cells.
Junctional complexes:
•
•
•
•

Barrier to fluid flow
Maintain apical/basolateral polarity in cells
Maintain cell shape
Cel...
Tight Junction (Zonula Occludens) :


The tight junction is formed by the fusion of opposed
cell membranes. These ridges ...
Zonula Adherens :


A zonula adherens (adherent junction) often lies
basal to the zonula occludens.



It is a bandlike ...
(Macula Adherens) Desmsomes
Desmosome
 The desmosome (macula adherens) is formed by the
juxtaposition of two disk-shaped plaques contained within the...
GAP JUNCTIONS
Gap Junction :
 The gap junction is an area of communication between
adjacent cells that allows the passage of very small...
BASEMENT MEMBRANE


The basement membrane is a sheet like structure that
underlies virtually all epithelia.

It consists ...
Hemidesmsomes

Points of contact between cell and the extracellular matrix.
Intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton are...
APICAL (FREE) SURFACE
SPECIALIZATIONS
Microvilli :
 Microvilli are apical cell surface evaginations of cell
membranes tha...
Cilia :
 Cilia are apical cell surface projections of cell membrane
that contain microtubules
 They are inserted on cent...
Cilia
Movement of Cilia :
 A pair of Dynein arms is attached to each A subtubule.
The arms bind to ATP and rearrange themselves...
FLAGELLA
TYPES OF CELLS

1.

Labile

2.

Stable

3.

Permanent


Labile cells :

are dividing all the time--always in the cell cycle.
Examples : cells in the Digestive tract,
Skin,
Res...
STABLE CELLS


Also known as quiescent cells



Normally they have a low level of
replication



Can rapidly divide in ...
PERMANENT CELLS


Unable to divide



Can increase in size and
accelerate their function



Examples:
Brain
Renal corpu...
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  • Membrane structure :
    (a): A TEM of a sectioned cell surface shows the trilaminar unit membrane with two dark (electron—dense) lines enclosing a clear (electron—lucent) band.
    These three layers of the unit membrane correspond to reduced osmium deposited on the hydrophilic phosphate groups present on each side of the internal bilayer of fatty acids where osmium is not deposited.
    The “fuzzy” material on the outer surface of the membrane represents the glycocalyx of oligosaccharides attached to phospholipids and proteins.
    Components of the glycocalyx are important for cell—cell recognition in many biological processes and for adsorption and uptake of many molecules by cells.
    (b): Schematic drawing depicts the trilaminar ultrastructure (left) and molecular organization (right) of the lipid bilayer in a cell membrane.
    The shaded bands at left represent the two dense layers observed in the TEM caused by the deposit of osmium in the hydrophilic portions of the phospholipid molecules.
    The right side of the diagram shows the orientation of the phospholipids that form the bilayer of biological membranes.
    The hydrophilic polar heads of the phospholipids are directed toward each surface of the membrane, in direct contact with water, and the hydrophobic nonpolar fatty acid chains of the phospholipids are buried in the middle, away from water.
    Cholesterol molecules are interspersed throughout the lipid bilayer, affecting the packing and fluidity of the fatty acid chains.
  • The fluid mosaic model of membrane structure :
    (a): The fluid mosaic model emphasizes that a membrane consisting of a phospholipid bilayer also contains proteins inserted in it or bound to the cytoplasmic surface (peripheral proteins) and that many of these proteins move within the fluid lipid phase.
    Integral proteins are firmly embedded in the lipid layers. Other proteins completely span the bilayer and are called transmembrane proteins.
    Hydrophobic amino acids of the integral membrane protein interact with the hydrophobic fatty acid portions of the membrane.
    Both the proteins and lipids may have externally exposed oligosaccharide chains.
    When cells are frozen and fractured (cryofracture), the lipid bilayer of membranes is often cleaved along the hydrophobic center.
  • Membrane proteins :
    plasma membrane structure shows a globular peripheral protein on the external face of the membrane and two integral transmembrane proteins.
    One—pass transmembrane proteins have single hydrophobic regions along the length of amino acids and for maximal stability this becomes buried in the internal region of the lipid bilayer.
    Multipass transmembrane proteins have several hydrophobic amino acid sequences all buried in the bilayer, with terminal and intervening hydrophilic sequences exposed at either the external or cytoplasmic face of the membrane.
    Many physiologically important membrane proteins, including ion pumps and channels, are multipass proteins.
  • Formation and maturation of cell membrane proteins :
    Membrane proteins of the plasmalemma are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and then move in transport vesicles to a Golgi apparatus, another cytoplasmic structure with several flattened membrane saccules or cisternae.
    While in the Golgi apparatus, the oligosaccharide chains are added (glycosylation) to many membrane proteins by enzymes in the Golgi saccules.
    When glycosylation and other posttranslational modifications are complete, the mature membrane proteins are isolated within vesicles that leave the Golgi apparatus.
    These vesicles move to the cell membrane and fuse with it, thus incorporating the new membrane proteins (along with the lipid bilayer of the vesicle) into the cell membrane.
  • Endocytosis and membrane trafficking :
    Ligands, such as hormones and growth factors, are internalized by receptor—mediated endocytosis, which is mediated by the cytoplasmic peripheral membrane protein clathrin or other proteins which promote invagination and temporarily coat the newly formed vesicles.
    Such coated vesicles can be identified by TEM.
    After detachment of the coating molecules, the vesicle fuses with one or more vesicles of the endosomal compartment, where the ligands detach from their receptors and are sorted into other vesicles.
    Vesicles of membrane with empty receptors return to the cell surface and after fusion the receptors are ready for reuse.
    Vesicles containing the free ligands typically fuse with lysosomes, as discussed below.
    The cytoskeleton with associated motor proteins is responsible for all such directional movements of vesicles.
  • Internalization of low—density lipoproteins :
    Endocytosis of low—density lipoproteins (LDL) is an important mechanism that keeps the concentration of LDL in extracellular body fluids low and is a well—studied example of endocytosis and membrane trafficking. LDL, which is often rich in cholesterol, binds with high affinity to its specific receptors in the cell membranes.
    This binding activates the formation of clathrin—coated endocytotic pits that form coated vesicles.
    The vesicles soon lose their coat proteins, which return to the inner surface of the plasmalemma.
    The uncoated vesicles fuse with endosomes and the free LDL and the receptors are sorted into separate vesicles.
    Receptors are returned to the cell surface and the LDL is transferred to lysosomes for digestion and separation of their components to be utilized by the cell.
  • G proteins and initiation of signal transduction :
    When a hormone or other signal binds to a membrane receptor, the hormone can begin to cause changes in the cell’s activities after a signal transduction process initiated by the bound receptor.
    The first step in receptor signaling often involves G proteins which bind guanosine diphosphate (GDP) when inactive and are activated when GDP is exchanged for GTP.
    A simplified version of G protein activity is shown here.
    Conformational changes occur in the receptor when it binds its ligand and the changed receptor activates the G protein–GDP complex.
    A GDP—GTP exchange releases the α subunit of the G protein, which then moves laterally to bind with a transmembrane effector protein, activating it to propagate the signal further by various mechanisms.
    The α subunit GTP is rapidly converted back to GDP, allowing the polypeptide to reassociate with the rest of the G protein complex, ready to be activated again when the receptor is again bound by hormone.
  • Nuclei of large, active cells :
    Liver cells (hepatocytes) have large, well—stained nuclei located in the center of the cytoplasm.
    One or more nucleoli are seen inside each nucleus, indicating intense protein synthesis by these cells.
    Most of the chromatin is light—staining or euchromatic, with small areas of more darkly stained heterochromatin scattered throughout the nucleus and just inside the nuclear envelope.
    This superficial heterochromatin allows the boundary of the organelle to be seen more easily by light microscopy.
    One cell here has two nuclei, which is fairly common in the liver. Pararosaniline– toluidine blue.
  • Nuclear pores :
    TEM micrographs show nuclear envelopes and nuclear pores between nucleus (N) and cytoplasm (C).
    (a): Section through the nuclear envelope and the two—membrane structure of the nuclear envelope clearly.
    The electron—dense proteins that make up the nuclear pore complexes can also be seen (arrows).
    Immediately beneath the nuclear envelope is the nuclear lamina and heterochromatin, material that is not present however at the nuclear pores.
    (b): Tangential section through a nuclear envelope shows the electron—dense nuclear pore complexes (arrows) and the electron—lucent patches in the peripheral heterochromatin which represent the areas just inside the pores.
  • Nuclear pores :
    TEM micrographs show nuclear envelopes and nuclear pores between nucleus (N) and cytoplasm (C).
    (a): Section through the nuclear envelope and the two—membrane structure of the nuclear envelope clearly.
    The electron—dense proteins that make up the nuclear pore complexes can also be seen (arrows).
    Immediately beneath the nuclear envelope is the nuclear lamina and heterochromatin, material that is not present however at the nuclear pores.
    (b): Tangential section through a nuclear envelope shows the electron—dense nuclear pore complexes (arrows) and the electron—lucent patches in the peripheral heterochromatin which represent the areas just inside the pores.
  • Cryofracture of nuclear envelop showing nuclear pores :
    Electron micrograph obtained by freeze—fracture of an intestinal cell shows the two components of the nuclear envelope and the nuclear pores.
    The fracture plane occurs partly between the two nuclear envelope membranes (left) but mostly just inside the envelope with the chromatin falling away.
    The size and distribution of the nuclear pore complexes are clearly seen.
    The same nuclear pore complexes can mediate both the import and export of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm using tightly controlled processes in each direction.
  • Relationship of nuclear envelope to the rough ER :
    Three—dimensional representation of a cell nucleus shows a single large nucleolus and the distribution of the nuclear pores in the envelope.
    The number of nuclear pores varies greatly from cell to cell, increasing in cells actively involved in protein synthesis.
  • Structural components of the nucleus :
    (a): TEM of a typical cell nucleus clearly shows the electron—dense heterochromatin (HC) and the more diffuse euchromatin (EC).
    The arrows indicate the nucleolus—associated heterochromatin around the nucleolus (NU).
    Arrowheads indicate areas where the perinuclear space between the two membranes of the nuclear envelope is clearly seen.
    Just inside the nuclear envelope is a thin electron—dense region containing the nuclear lamina and more heterochromatin. X26,000.
    (b): Schematic representation of a cell nucleus shows that the nuclear envelope is made of two membranes separated by the perinuclear space.
    The outer membrane has ribosomes bound to it and is continuous with the ER. The two membranes fuse at many places to form nuclear pores.
    Heterochromatin clumps (HC) are associated with the meshwork of the nuclear lamina just inside the nuclear envelope, whereas the euchromatin (EC) appears dispersed in the interior of the nucleus.
    The nucleolus contains distinct regions called the pars granulosa (G) and the pars fibrosa (F).
  • Nuclear lamina :
    The nuclear lamina is formed from a class of intermediate filaments proteins, the lamins, which assemble as a lattice adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane.
    When the nuclear envelope disperses during early prophase of cell division, at least some lamin proteins remain attached to the membrane fragments and reassembly of the nuclear lamina immediately after cell division facilitates re—formation of the nuclear envelopes of the two new nuclei.
    The nuclear lamina also contains binding sites for chromatin, helping to organize this material in the nucleus.
    Chromatin is not present at the openings through the nuclear envelope called nuclear pore complexes.
  • Nucleoli :
    Primary oocytes are very large cells with very large round euchromatic nuclei.
    The cells are actively increasing in volume, synthesizing much protein and many ribosomes, and each nucleus has one well—developed, intensely basophilic nucleolus.
    The strong basophilia reflects the high concentration of rRNA being processes in this small region of nucleoplasm.
    Other cells may each have one large nucleolus or a few smaller nucleoli.
    All are involved in transcription and processing of rRNA.
    Primary oocytes arrest for a prolonged period during prophase of the first meiotic division, when the chromosomes have already begun to condense.
    Parts of the condensed chromosomes are seen as the stained material in the sectioned nuclei shown here.
    Meiosis in oocytes will proceed just before they are ovulated (extruded from the ovary; see Chapter 22).
  • Components of a nucleosome :
    Nucleosome is a structure that produces the initial organization of free double—stranded DNA into chromatin.
    Each nucleosome has an octomeric core complex made up of four types of histones, two copies each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Around this core is wound DNA approximately 150 base pairs in length.
    One H1 histone is located outside the DNA on the surface of each nucleosome.
    DNA associated with nucleosomes in vivo thus resembles a long string of beads.
    Nucleosomes are very dynamic structures, with H1 loosening and DNA unwrapping at least once every second to allow other proteins, including transcription factors and enzymes, access to the DNA.
  • Structural components of the nucleus :
    (a): TEM of a typical cell nucleus clearly shows the electron—dense heterochromatin (HC) and the more diffuse euchromatin (EC).
    The arrows indicate the nucleolus—associated heterochromatin around the nucleolus (NU).
    Arrowheads indicate areas where the perinuclear space between the two membranes of the nuclear envelope is clearly seen.
    Just inside the nuclear envelope is a thin electron—dense region containing the nuclear lamina and more heterochromatin. X26,000.
    (b): Schematic representation of a cell nucleus shows that the nuclear envelope is made of two membranes separated by the perinuclear space.
    The outer membrane has ribosomes bound to it and is continuous with the ER.
    The two membranes fuse at many places to form nuclear pores.
    Heterochromatin clumps (HC) are associated with the meshwork of the nuclear lamina just inside the nuclear envelope, whereas the euchromatin (EC) appears dispersed in the interior of the nucleus.
    The nucleolus contains distinct regions called the pars granulosa (G) and the pars fibrosa (F).
  • Golgi apparatus :
    Though only snapshots of this highly dynamic organelle, electron micrographs of the Golgi apparatus provided early evidence about how this organelle functions, evidence that has now been strengthened by biochemical and other studies.
    To the right is a cisterna (arrow) of the rough ER containing granular material.
    Close to it are small vesicles containing apparently similar material.
    These are very close to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus.
    In the center are the characteristic flattened, curved, and stacked medial cisternae of the complex.
    Dilatations (upper left arrow) are seen extending from the ends of the cisternae.
    Similar dilatations gradually detach themselves from the cisternae and fuse at the trans face, forming the secretory granules
  • Summary of Golgi apparatus structure and function :
    Summary of the main events occurring during protein trafficking and sorting from the rough ER through the Golgi complex. Numbered at the left are the main molecular processes that take place in the compartments shown.
    In the trans Golgi network, the proteins and glycoproteins combine with specific receptors that guide them to the next stages toward their destinations.
    On the left side of the drawing is the returning flux of membrane, from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney, and endocrine glands
  • 1. cell

    1. 1. CELL
    2. 2. The human organism presents about 200 different cell types, all derived from the zygote, the single cell formed by fertilization of an oocyte with a spermatozoon.  During their specialization process, called cell differentiation, the cells synthesize specific proteins, change their shape, and become very efficient in specialized functions.  The body's cells can experience both normal and pathological conditions and the same cell type can exhibit different characteristics and behaviors in different regions and circumstances 
    3. 3. CELLULAR FUNCTIONS IN SOME SPECIALIZED CELLS.
    4. 4.  The cell is composed of two basic parts: Cytoplasm and Nucleus.  Individual cytoplasmic components are usually not clearly distinguishable in common hematoxylin-and-eosin–stained preparations.  The nucleus, appears intensely stained dark blue or black.  The cytoplasm is composed of a fluid component, or cytosol, which containes metabolically active structures, the organelles, which can be membranous (such as mitochondria) or non-membranous protein complexes (such as ribosomes and proteasomes).
    5. 5. Membranous organelle Non-Membranous organelle Rough & Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Mitochondria Centrioles Golgi apparatus Microtubules Peroxisomes Inclusions Lysosomes Cilia - Flagella Vacuoles & vesicles Microvilli
    6. 6. PLASMA MEMBRANE
    7. 7.  The outermost component of the cell, separating the cytoplasm from its extracellular environment, is the Plasma membrane or Plasmalemma.  All eukaryotic cells are enveloped by a limiting membrane composed of phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and chains of oligosaccharides covalently linked to phospholipid and protein molecules.  Membranes range from 7.5 to 10 nm in thickness and visible only in the electron microscope.
    8. 8.  With electron microscopy, the plasmalemma and, all other organellar membranes appears a trilaminar structure after fixation in osmium tetroxide.  Because all membranes have this appearance, the 3-layered structure was designated the unit membrane.  Membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), consist of two non-polar (hydrophobic or water-repelling) long-chain fatty acids linked to a charged polar (hydrophilic or water-attracting) head group.  Membrane phospholipids are most stable when organized into a double layer (bilayer) with their hydrophobic fatty acid chains directed toward the middle away from water and their hydrophilic polar heads directed outward to contact water on both sides.
    9. 9.  Cholesterol molecules insert among the close packed the phospholipid fatty acids nearly a 1:1 ratio , restricting their movement, and thus modulate the fluidity and movement of all membrane components.  The lipid composition of each half of the bilayer is different.  In red blood cells phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are more abundant in the outer half of the membrane, whereas phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine are more concentrated in the inner half.  Some of the lipids, known as glycolipids, possess oligosaccharide chains that extend outward from the surface of the cell membrane and thus contribute to the lipid asymmetry.
    10. 10.  Proteins, are major molecular constituent of membranes, can be divided into two groups. Integral proteins : o Incorporated within the lipid bilayer. o Some integral proteins span the membrane one or more times, from one side to the other, they are called one-pass or multipass transmembrane proteins. Peripheral proteins : exhibit a looser association with one of the two membrane surfaces.
    11. 11.     With freeze-fracture electron microscope studies of membranes show that many integral proteins are only partially embedded in the lipid bilayer and protrude from either the outer or inner surface. Transmembrane proteins are large enough to extend across the two lipid layers and may protrude from both membrane surfaces. The carbohydrate moieties of the glycoproteins and glycolipids project from the external surface of the plasma membrane; they are important components of specific molecules called receptors that participate in important interactions such as cell adhesion, recognition, and response to protein hormones. As with lipids, the distribution of membrane proteins is different in the two surfaces of the cell membranes. Therefore, all membranes in the cell are asymmetric.
    12. 12.      Integration of the proteins within the lipid bilayer is mainly the result of hydrophobic interactions between the lipids and nonpolar amino acids present on the outer region of the proteins. Some membrane proteins are not bound rigidly in place and are able to move within the plane of the cell membrane. unlike lipids, most membrane proteins are restricted in their lateral diffusion by attachment to cytoskeletal components. In most epithelial cells, tight junctions also restrict lateral diffusion of unattached transmembrane proteins and outer layer lipids to specific membrane domains. The mosaic disposition of membrane proteins and the fluid nature of the lipid bilayer and led to the well-established fluid mosaic model for membrane structure.
    13. 13. Functions of plasmalemma :  A selective barrier.  To keep constant the ion content of cytoplasm.  Specific recognition and regulatory functions.
    14. 14. GLYCOCALYX      With the EM the external surface of the cell shows a fuzzy carbohydrate-rich region called the glycocalyx. This layer is made of carbohydrate chains linked to membrane proteins and lipids and of cell-secreted glycoproteins and proteoglycans. The glycocalyx has a role in cell recognition and attachment to other cells and to extracellular molecules. Some ions, such as Na+, K+, and Ca2+, cross the cell membrane by passing through integral membrane proteins. This can involve passive diffusion through ion channels or active transport via ion pumps using energy from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
    15. 15. ENDOCYTOSIS  Bulk uptake of material also occurs across the plasma membrane in a general process called endocytosis, which involves folding and fusion of this membrane to form vesicles which enclose the material transported.  Cells show three general types of endocytosis. 1. Phagocytosis 2. Fluid-phase Endocytosis 3.Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
    16. 16. Phagocytosis : o o o Certain white blood cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, are specialized for engulfing and removing particulate matter such as bacteria, protozoa, dead cells, and unneeded extracellular constituents. When a bacterium becomes bound to the surface of a neutrophil, cytoplasmic processes of the cell are extended and ultimately surround the bacterium. The membranes of these processes meet and fuse, enclosing the bacterium in an intracellular vacuole, a phagosome.
    17. 17. PHAGOCYTOSIS
    18. 18. Fluid-phase Endocytosis :  In fluid-phase pinocytosis , smaller invaginations of the cell membrane form and entrap extracellular fluid and anything it has in solution.  Pinocytotic vesicles (about 80 nm in diameter) pinch off inwardly from the cell surface.  In most cells such vesicles usually fuse with lysosomes.
    19. 19. PINOCYTOSIS
    20. 20. Receptor-mediated Endocytosis :  Receptors for many substances, such as low-density lipoproteins and protein hormones, are integral proteins of the cell membrane.  Binding of the ligand (a molecule with high affinity for a receptor) to its receptor causes widely dispersed receptors to aggregate in special membrane regions called coated pits.  The electron-dense coating on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane is composed of several polypeptides, the major one being Clathrin.  In a developing coated pit clathrin molecules, forming that region of cell membrane into a cage-like invagination that is pinched off into the cytoplasm, forming a coated vesicle carrying the ligand and its receptor.
    21. 21. RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
    22. 22. In endocytotic processes, the vesicles or vacuoles produced quickly enter and fuse with the endosomal compartment, a dynamic system of membranous vesicles and tubules located in the cytoplasm near the cell surface (early endosomes) or deeper in the cytoplasm (late endosomes).  The clathrin molecules separated from the coated vesicles recycle to the cell membrane to participate in the formation of new coated pits.  The membrane of endosomes contains ATP-driven H+ pumps that acidify their interior. 
    23. 23. While phagosomes and pinocytotic vesicles soon fuse with lysosomes, molecules penetrating the endosomal compartment after receptor-mediated endocytosis may take more than one pathway.  The acidic pH of early endosomes causes many ligands to uncouple from their receptors, after which the two molecules are sorted into separate vesicles.  The receptors may be returned to the cell membrane to be reused.  The ligands typically are transferred to late endosomes.  Some ligands are returned to the extracellular milieu with their receptors and both are used again.  Late endosomes most commonly fuse with lysosomes for degradation of their contents. 
    24. 24. EXOCYTOSIS In exocytosis a membrane-limited cytoplasmic vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, resulting in the release of its contents into the extracellular space without compromising the integrity of the plasma membrane.  Often exocytosis of stored products from epithelial cells occurs specifically at the apical domains of cells, such as in the exocrine pancreas and the salivary glands.  The fusion of membranes during exocytosis is a highly regulated process involving interactions between several specific membrane proteins.  Exocytosis is triggered in many cells by transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+. 
    25. 25.  During endocytosis, portions of the cell membrane become endocytotic vesicles; during exocytosis, the membrane is returned to the cell surface.  This process of membrane movement and recycling is called membrane trafficking.  Trafficking and sorting of membrane components occur continuously in most cells and are not only crucial for cell maintenance but also physiologically important in processes such as reducing blood lipid levels.
    26. 26. SIGNAL RECEPTION AND TRANSDUCTION  Cells in a multicellular organism need to communicate with one another to regulate their development into tissues, to control their growth and division, and to coordinate their functions.  Soluble extracellular signaling molecules bind receptor proteins only found on their target cells.  Each cell type in the body contains a distinctive set of receptor proteins that enable it to respond to a complementary set of signaling molecules in a specific, programmed way.
    27. 27. Signaling can take different routes: Endocrine signaling:  the signal molecules (called hormones) are carried in the blood to target cells throughout the body. Paracrine signaling :  the chemical mediators are rapidly metabolized so that they act only on local cells very close to the source. Synaptic signaling :  a special kind of paracrine interaction, neurotransmitters act only on adjacent cells through special contact areas called synapses. Autocrine signaling :  signals bind receptors on the same cell type that produced the messenger molecule.
    28. 28.      Hydrophilic signaling molecules : including most hormones, local chemical mediators (paracrine signals), and neurotransmitters activate receptor proteins on the surface of target cells. These receptors, often transmembrane proteins, relay information to a series of intracellular intermediaries that ultimately pass the signal (first messenger) to its final destination in either the cytoplasm or the nucleus in a process called Signal transduction. One of the intermediary proteins, the G proteins, binds guanine nucleotides and acts on other membrane-bound intermediaries called effectors which propagate the signal further into the cell. Effector proteins are usually ion channels or enzymes that generate large quantities of small second messenger molecules, such as 1,2diacyglycerol (DAG), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). The ions or second messengers diffuse through the cytoplasm, amplifying the first signal and triggering a cascade of molecular reactions that lead to changes in gene expression or cell behavior.
    29. 29. MEDICAL APPLICATION Several diseases have been caused by defective receptors.  Pseudohypoparathyroidism and a type of Dwarfism are caused by nonfunctioning parathyroid and growth hormone receptors.  In these two conditions the glands produce the respective hormones, but the target cells do not respond because they lack normal receptors. 
    30. 30. Hydrophobic signaling molecules : such as small steroid and thyroid hormones, bind reversibly to carrier proteins in the plasma for transport through the body.  Such hormones are lipophilic and once released from their carrier proteins, they diffuse directly through the plasma membrane lipid bilayer of the target cell and bind to specific intracellular receptor proteins.  With many steroid hormones, receptor binding activates that protein, enabling the complex to move into the nucleus and bind with high affinity to specific DNA sequences.  This generally increases the level of transcription from specific genes. 
    31. 31. NUCLEUS
    32. 32. The nucleus contains a blueprint for all cell structures and activities encoded in the DNA of the chromosomes .  Nucleus is the site of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and transcription of DNA into precursor ribonucleic acid (RNA)molecules.  It contains all of the enzymes required for replication and repair of newly synthesized DNA, as well as for transcription and processing of precursor RNA molecules.  It is enclosed by the nuclear envelope and contains the nuclear lamina, nucleolus, and chromatin 
    33. 33. Nuclear envelope :  The nuclear envelope is a double membrane containing pores that are approximately 90 nm in diameter.  The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
    34. 34. Nuclear Lamina :  The nuclear lamina is a latticelike network of proteins that include lamins.  Lamins attach chromatin to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and participate in the breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope during the cell cycle.  Phosphorylation of the lamins, (by lamin kinase) during prophase of mitosis initiates nuclear disassembly into small vesicles.
    35. 35. Nuclear Lamina Functions: Maintenance of nuclear shape Spatial organization of nuclear pores within nuclear membrane Regulation of transcription Anchoring of interphase heterochromatin DNA replication.
    36. 36. Lamina bio.winona.msus.edu/.../ Lec-note/16-new.htm
    37. 37. Nucleolus :  The nucleolus is responsible for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and ribosome assembly.  It contains three morphologically distinct zones: • Granular zone—found at the periphery; contains ribosomal precursor particles in various stages of assembly. • Fibrillar zone—centrally located; contains ribonuclear protein fibrils. • Fibrillar center—contains DNA that is not being transcribed.
    38. 38. Nucleolus :  The nucleolus is responsible for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and ribosome assembly.  It contains three morphologically distinct zones: • Granular zone—found at the periphery; contains ribosomal precursor particles in various stages of assembly. • Fibrillar zone—centrally located; contains ribonuclear protein fibrils. • Fibrillar center—contains DNA that is not being transcribed.
    39. 39. Chromatin : Chromatin is a complex of DNA, histone proteins, and nonhistone proteins. • DNA—a double-stranded helical molecule that carries the genetic information of the cell.  It exists in three conformations: B DNA, Z DNA, and A DNA. • Histone proteins—positively charged proteins enriched with lysine and arginine residues.  They are important in forming two types of structures in chromatin: nucleosomes and solenoid fibers.  The nucleosomes are the basic repeating units of the chromatin fiber, having a diameter of approximately 10 nm. • Nonhistone proteins—include enzymes involved in nuclear functions such as replication, transcription, DNA repair, and regulation of chromatin function.  They are acidic or neutral proteins.
    40. 40. Chromatin 6 nucleosomes become coiled around an axis, forming a solenoid.
    41. 41. Nucleosome, Solenoid model of chromatin, and chromosome Nucleosome
    42. 42. Forms of Chromatin : • Heterochromatin : highly condensed and transcriptionally inactive.  In a typical eukaryotic cell, approximately 10% of the chromatin is heterochromatin. • Euchromatin : a more extended form of DNA, which is potentially transcriptionally active.  In a typical cell, euchromatin accounts for approximate 90%of the total chromatin, although only about 10% is being actively transcribed.
    43. 43. CYTOPLASM
    44. 44. RIBOSOMES Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and protein. They consist of large (60S) and small (40S) subunits.  Ribosomes are assembled in the nucleus and transported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pores.  The large ribosomal subunits are synthesized in the nucleolus, whereas the small subunits are synthesized in the nucleus. Polysomes :  Ribosomes often form polysomes, which consist of a single messenger RNA (mRNA) that is being translated by several ribosomes at the same time.  The ribosomes move on the mRNA from the 5' end towards 3' end.  The two ribosomal subunits associate on the mRNA, with the small subunit binding first 
    45. 45. Forms of Ribosomes : Ribosomes exist in two forms: • Free polysomes : are the site of synthesis for proteins destined for the nucleus, peroxisomes, or mitochondria. • Membrane-associated polysomes : are the site of synthesis of secretory proteins, membrane proteins, and lysosomal enzymes.
    46. 46. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM The endoplasmic reticulum exists in two forms, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum :  RER is a single, lipid bilayer continuous with the outer nuclear membrane.  It is organized into stacks of large flattened sacs called cisternae that are studded with ribosomes on the cytoplasmic side.  RER snthesize poteins that are destined for the Golgi apparatus, secretion, the plasma membrane, and lysosomes.  RER is very prominent in cells that are specialized in the synthesis of proteins destined for secretion (eg : pancreatic acinar cells). 
    47. 47. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
    48. 48. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
    49. 49. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum :  SER is a network of membranous sacs, vesicles, and tubules continuous with the RER, but lacking ribosomes.  SER contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, triglycerides, and sterols
    50. 50. Functions of SER : o o o o Detoxification Reactions : Hydroxylation. Conjugation. Glycogen Degradation and Gluconeogenesis Reactions in Lipid Metabolism Sequestration and Release of Calcium Ions
    51. 51. GOLGI APPARATUS
    52. 52. GOLGI APPARATUS  The Golgi apparatus consists of disc-shaped smooth cisternae that are assembled in stacks (dictyosomes), and associated with numerous small membrane-bound vesicles.  The Golgi apparatus has two distinct faces: • The cis (forming) face is associated with the RER. • The trans (maturing) face is often oriented toward the plasma membrane.  Important in glycosylation, phosphorylation, sulfation, etc. Takes part in synthesis, concentration & storage of secretory products. 
    53. 53. Functions of the Golgi Apparatus : Proteins and Lipids  The Golgi apparatus is the site of post trauslational modification and sorting of newly synthesized proteins and lipids. Glycoproteins  Further modification of the carbohydrate moiety of glycoproteins produces complex and hybrid oligosaccharide chains.  This determines which proteins remain in the Golgi apparatus or leave the Golgi apparatus to become secretory proteins, lysosomal proteins, or part of the plasma membrane.  Two diseases are caused by a breakdown in this process, I-cell disease and hyperproinsulinemia
    54. 54. MEDICAL APPLICATION Hyperprolnsulinemia : Hyperprolnsulinemia is characterized by elevated levels of proinsulin in the serum resulting from the failure of a peptidase to cleave proinsulin to insulin and C-peptide in the golgi apparatus. I-Cell Disease : Phosphorylation of mannose in glycoproteins targets proteins to lysosomes.  Phosphate is added in a two-step sequence of reactions that are catalyzed by N-acetylglucosamine-phosphotransferase and N-acetylglucosaminidases.  A deficiency in N-acetylglucosamine-phosphotransferase results In I-cell dieease .
    55. 55. LYSOSOMES  Lysosomes are spherical membrane-enclosed organelles that are contain enzymes required for intracellular digestion. Lysosomes consist of two forms : •Primary lysosomes have not yet acquired the materials to be digested.  They are formed by budding from the trans side of the Golgi apparatus. •Secondary lysosomes are formed by the fusion of the primary lysosome with the substrate to be degraded and have contents that are in various stages of degradation 
    56. 56.  • Lysosomes contain approximately 60 hydrolytic enzymes. All lysosomal enzymes are acid hvdrolases, with optimal activity at a pH of approximately 5.0. The synthesis of the lysosomal hydrolases occurs in RER.  All hydrolasea are transferred to the Golgi apparatus where they are modified and packaged into lysosomes. 
    57. 57. MEDICAL APPLICATION Glycogen-Storage Disease Type II (Pompe Disease) :  an autosomal recessive disorder that results from the deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase, a lysosomal hydrolase , is required for the degradation of a small percentage (1-3%) of cellular glycogen.  Because the main pathway for glycogen degradation is not deficient in glycogen-storage disease type II disease, energy production is not impaired, and hypoglycemia does not occur.  However, the deficiency of this enzymatic activity results in the accumulation of structurally normal glycogen in lysosomes and cytoplasm in affected individuals.  Excessive glycogen storage within lysosomes may interrupt normal functioning of other organelles and leads to cellular injury. In turn, this leads to enlargement and dysfunction of the entire organ involved (eg, cardiomyopathy).
    58. 58. RESIDUAL BODIES •Lysosomes containing indigestible compounds are called residual bodies. •The indigestible compounds are usually exocytosed. •The unreleased indigestible compounds in long-living cells appear as lipofuscins or aging pigments.
    59. 59. RESIDUAL BODIES IN LUNG CELLS
    60. 60. AUTOPHAGOSOMES Primary Liposomes fuse with membrane-bound organelles or a portion of cytoplasm to form autophagosomes.  Autolysis occurs when lysosomes rupture and destroy the cell itself. 
    61. 61. PEROXISOMES  Peroxisomes are a heterogeneous group of small, spherical organelles with a single membrane. Functions: Synthesis and degradation of hydrogen peroxide.  Oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (> C24).  Phospholipid exchange.  Bile acid synthesis. 
    62. 62. PEROXISOMES (MICROBODIES )
    63. 63. MEDICAL APPLICATION Peroxisome Deficiency : Several genetic diseases are associated with the impairment or absence of peroxisomes.  These patients fail to oxidize very long chain fatty acids and accumulate bile acid precursors.   The four most common disorders are: • Zellweger (cerebrohepatorenal) syndrome • Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy • Infantile Refsum disease • Hyperlipopecolaternia
    64. 64. MITOCHONDRIA
    65. 65. MITOCHONDRIA Mitochondria have two membranes , They synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP), contain their own doublestranded circular DNA, and make some of their own proteins.  Mitochondria have several compartments : Outer Membrane  The outer membrane is smooth, continuous, and highly permeable.  It contains an abundance of porins, an integral membrane protein that forms channels in the outer membrane through which molecules of less than 10 kD can pass. 
    66. 66. Inner Membrane  The inner membrane is inpermiable to most small ions (Na, K*, H*) and small molecules (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, pyruvate).  The impermeability is likely related to the high content of the lipid cardiolipin.  The inner membrane has numerous infoldings, called cristae.  The cristae greatly increase the total surface area. They contain, enzymes for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.  The number of mitochondria arid the number of cristae per mitochondrion are proportional to the metabolic activity of the cells in which they reside.
    67. 67. Mitochondria Two types of cristae: tubular-like and plate-like. Most cells contain mitochondria with plate-like cristae. Steroid secreting cells (eg. Adrenal, gonadal cells) have tubular cristae
    68. 68. Mitochondria Internal membrane contains enzymes for: Oxidative Phosphorylation •electron transport system •oxidative phophorylation systems
    69. 69. Intermembrane Compartment :  The intermembrane compartment is the space between the inner and outermembranes.  It contains enzymes that use ATP to phosphorylate other nucleotides (creatine phosphokinase and adenylate kinase). Matrix :  The matrix is enclosed by the inner membrane and contains: Dehydrogenases : oxidize many of the substrates in the cell (pyruvate, amino acids, fatty acids), generating reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH,) for use by the electron transport chain and energy generation.
    70. 70. Mitochondria Citric acid cycle Matrix contains enzymes for: •Citric acid cycle for generation of ATP •Dehydrogenases
    71. 71. A double-stranded circular DNA genome—encodes a few of the mitochondrial proteins.  Mitochondrial DNA is always inherited from the mother, resulting in transmission of diseases of enery metabolism.  RNA, proteins and ribosomes—although there is some protein synthesis, most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and are transferred into the mitochondria. Intramitochondrial granule : contain calcium and magnesium. Their function is not known, but it is believed that they may represent a storage site for Calcium. 
    72. 72. CYTOSKELETON
    73. 73. CYTOSKELETON  Network-like structure.  Provides the shape of the cell.  Participates in transportation of large molecules.  Can even move the entire cell
    74. 74. Cytoskeleton Cells contain 3 categories of cytoskeletal elements •Microfilaments (actin filaments) •Intermediate filaments •Microtubules
    75. 75. MICROTUBULES  Small hollow cylindrical unbranched tubules 25 nm in diameter with a 5nm thick wall.  Made of 13 tubulin protofilaments arranged side by side around a central core
    76. 76. Microtubules play a role in: Chromosomal movement during meiosis and mitosis.  Microtubule assembly is an important event in spindle formation.  Intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. Two specific microtubuledependent ATPases, kinesin and dynein, are involved in generating the force that drives transport, with the rnicrotubular structure playing a more passive role in intracellular transport.  Ciliary and flagellar movement. 
    77. 77. The heterodimer, the subunit of microtubule,is composed of α and β tubulin molecules.  It is organized into a spiral during polymerization.  A total of 13 units are present in one complete turn of the spiral. 
    78. 78. Microtubule
    79. 79. •Microtubule formation generally occurs more rapidly at one end of existing microtubules. • This end is called the plus (+) end, and the other end as the minus (-) end.
    80. 80. Transportation in microtubules is under control of special proteins called motor proteins (dynein and kinesin)
    81. 81. Kinesins: Motor protein responsible for moving vesicles and organelles away from cell center. Dyneins: Responsible for movement on microtubule towards the cell center.
    82. 82. •Microtubule formation directed by microtubule organizing center. •Is under control of concentration of Ca 2+ & microtubule associated proteins (MAPs).
    83. 83. Microtubule Microtubule organizing center
    84. 84. CHEDIAK - HIGASHI SYNDROME :  Defect in microtubule polymerization .  is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular protein transport.  Leads to delayed fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes in leukocytes
    85. 85. Centrioles A pair of cylindrical structures with their long axis perpendicular to each other. Each is composed of 9 sets of Microtubule triplets arranged in the fashion of pinwheel.
    86. 86. CENTRIOLE
    87. 87. Functions of centrioles Non-dividing cells: •Polymerization of long single microtubules that radiate throughout the cytoplasm •Maintain cell shape •Transportation of substances Dividing cells: •Form mitotic spindles
    88. 88. Microfilaments Actin filaments
    89. 89. Microfilaments •Made up of polymers of the protein actin •Actin present as globular form (G-actin) & filamentous form (F-actin). •F-actin polymerizes forming helically entwined actin chains •These chains easily dissociate &reassemble with changes in levels of Ca 2+ & cAMP change.
    90. 90. Microfilaments (Ankyrin) Integral protein Ankyrin Ankyrin anchors actin-filamentsto the integralproteins of The plasma membrane
    91. 91. Microfilaments (Myosin) Most microfilament-related Movement depends upon the interaction between actin and another protein – myosin Actin-myosin interaction results in contraction or relaxation of muscle fibers.
    92. 92. Microfilaments (Dystrophin) Dystrophin Transmembrane protein that links: Short actin filaments beneath plasma membrane Dystrophin Extends across plasma membrane to bind to extracellular matrix
    93. 93. Microfilaments (Dystrophin & muscular dystrophy) Genetic disorder due to mutation in gene coding for the Actin binding protein, dystrophin
    94. 94. Intermediate filaments • Vimentin : in cells of mesenchymal origin; may contribute to position the nucleus in the cell; polymerize with other intermediate filaments • Desmin : Z-disks of skeletal muscle cells, where they link actin filaments of adjacent sarcomeres, ensure uniform tension distribution • Glial fibrillary acid protein : characteristic of the cytoplasm of glial cells (astrocytes) • Neurofilaments : formed by three distinct proteins, they are present in the cytoplasm of neurons • Keratins : in cells of the skin for resistance to friction & cell to cell adhesion
    95. 95. Intermediate filaments (Epidermolysis bullosa) Genetic disorder due to mutation in gene coding for keratin. Results in increased skin fragility & blister formation
    96. 96. cell membrane Apical cell membrane: Regulation of nutrient and water intake Regulated secretion Protection Lateral cell membrane: Desmosomes or macula adherens Cell contact and adhesion Cell communication Basal cell membrane: Cell substratum contact Generation of ion gradients Type IV collagen ,glycoproteins
    97. 97. Junctional complexes of epithelial cells.
    98. 98. Junctional complexes: • • • • Barrier to fluid flow Maintain apical/basolateral polarity in cells Maintain cell shape Cell to cell communication
    99. 99. Tight Junction (Zonula Occludens) :  The tight junction is formed by the fusion of opposed cell membranes. These ridges of fusion present as "sealing strands" seen in freeze-fracture replicas.  It extends completely around the apical cell borders to seal the underlying intercellular clefts from contact with the outside environment.  It constitutes the anatomic component of many barriers in the body.
    100. 100. Zonula Adherens :  A zonula adherens (adherent junction) often lies basal to the zonula occludens.  It is a bandlike junction that serves in the attachment of adjacent epithelial cells.
    101. 101. (Macula Adherens) Desmsomes
    102. 102. Desmosome  The desmosome (macula adherens) is formed by the juxtaposition of two disk-shaped plaques contained within the cytoplasm of each adjacent cell  Intermediate filaments (tonofilaments) radiate away from the plaques.  These intermediate filaments are anchored by desmoplakins (plaques) that also bind to transmembrane linker proteins, linking adjacent cells.  Cadherin molecules form actual anchor by attaching to cytoplasmic plaque, extending through the membrane and binding strongly to cadherins coming through the membrane of adjacent cell.  Desmosomes are most common in lining membranes, are subject to wear and tear, and are considered spot welds that hold cells together.
    103. 103. GAP JUNCTIONS
    104. 104. Gap Junction :  The gap junction is an area of communication between adjacent cells that allows the passage of very small particles an ions across a small intercellular gap within the junction .  The gap junction consists of a hexagonal lattice of tubular protein subunits called connexons, which form hydrophilic channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.  This permits the direct passage of ions and small molecules between cells to conduct electrical impulses.
    105. 105. BASEMENT MEMBRANE  The basement membrane is a sheet like structure that underlies virtually all epithelia. It consists of  Basal lamina—composed of type IV collagen, glycoproteins (e.g.,laminin), and proteoglycans (e.g., heparan sulfate).  Reticular lamina—composed of delicate reticular fibers.
    106. 106. Hemidesmsomes Points of contact between cell and the extracellular matrix. Intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton are inserted into disc shaped electron dense attachment plaque on the inside of the cell membrane.
    107. 107. APICAL (FREE) SURFACE SPECIALIZATIONS Microvilli :  Microvilli are apical cell surface evaginations of cell membranes that function to increase the cell surface area available for absorption.  A thick glycocalyx coat covers them. The core of each microvillus contains actin microfilaments.  It is anchored in the apical cell cytoplasm to the terminal web, which itself is anchored to the zonula adherens of the cell membrane.
    108. 108. Cilia :  Cilia are apical cell surface projections of cell membrane that contain microtubules  They are inserted on centriole-like basal bodies present below the membrane surface at the apical pole.  Cilia contain two central microtubules surrounded by a circle of nine peripheral microtubule doublets.  The peripheral doublets are fused so that they share a common tubule wall and form two subtubules, A and B.  Adjacent doublets are connected to one another by nexin links
    109. 109. Cilia
    110. 110. Movement of Cilia :  A pair of Dynein arms is attached to each A subtubule. The arms bind to ATP and rearrange themselves so that a binding site for the B subtubule in the tip of the arm is exposed.  The B tubule interacts with the binding site, causing the arm to snap back and movement to occur.  Each cycle of a single dynein arm slides adjacent doublets 10 nm past each other.  Cilia move back and forth to propel fluid and particles in one direction.  They are important in clearing mucous from the respiratory tract.
    111. 111. FLAGELLA
    112. 112. TYPES OF CELLS 1. Labile 2. Stable 3. Permanent
    113. 113.  Labile cells : are dividing all the time--always in the cell cycle. Examples : cells in the Digestive tract, Skin, Respiratory tract, and Stem cells in the bone marrow producing blood cells.
    114. 114. STABLE CELLS  Also known as quiescent cells  Normally they have a low level of replication  Can rapidly divide in response to stimuli  Cells that make up glandular organs is an example of stable cells pancreatic cells During those periods of high mitotic rate, they are vulnerable to mutation & consequent malignancies
    115. 115. PERMANENT CELLS  Unable to divide  Can increase in size and accelerate their function  Examples: Brain Renal corpuscles Cardiac muscle cardiac muscle Very resistant to neoplasia!

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