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NAEA MARCH 2012
Helping Students Reach Their PotentialPresenting:CREATIVE/CRITICALTHINKING: SAY WHAT?
WHO ARE WE? Dr. Peter Vietgen Associate Professor Ms. Shauna DaleyM.Ed. Graduate Student Faculty of Education Brock University St. Catharines, ON Canada
Giving Students the Chance to Shine Creativity Enhances the Mind…. Fostering creativity helps to create critical and divergent thinkers……..
“All children are artists. The problem is how to remain an artist once he grows up.” ~ Pablo Picasso ~
Why Are We Here? Critical/Creative Thinking: Say What?This presentation focuses on how pre-service teacher educationcandidates are encouraged to develop deep abstract thinkingwithin themselves in order to teach and facilitate these skills intheir future students, not only in the art room but across thecurriculum.How successful are our pre-service programs in achieving thisgoal?
“As art teachers, we work continuously on the development of criticalskills…………..”“Emphasize learning skills, such as thinking and problem-solving skills;critical thinking and systems thinking; problem identification,formulation and solution: and creativity and intellectual curiosity.” Davis: Art Education Advocacy Guide – August 09/10
Bachelor of Education Program Structure• Ontario – One year B. Ed. program(Pre-requisite: B.A. or B.Sc.)• Brock University, Faculty of Education -Primary/Junior -Junior/ Intermediate(one compulsory Arts credit for P/J & J/I)• 20 weeks of coursework & 11 weeks practicum• Arts credit: 6 wks Visual Arts, 6 wks Music, 6 wks Drama + 2 weeks Integrated Arts = 20 weeks
A Perspective from Ontario, CanadaThe following slides highlight the creative and critical thinkingprocesses as outlined in the Visual Arts Ministry of Education Curriculum Documents for Ontario, Canada (2009)
The Creative Process The creative process provides students with the foundations of creativity building. By using these steps, students and teachers are successful at fostering creative inclinations.
The Critical Analysis Process When students employ the critical analysis process in their learning they are honing their problem solving skills and engaging metacognition.
Strategies to Organize Looking at Art:Retelling, Relating, ReflectingRetell:*I notice….*In this artwork…*The thing that catches my attention is…Relate:*It makes me think of…*This painting makes me feel…*This compares to…Reflect:*I wonder how…*Why did the artist…*What would happen if...Based on Retelling, Relating, Reflecting: Beyond the 3 Rs (Swatrz and Bone, 1990)
Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS)Asking the questions:1) What is going on in this picture?2) What do you see that makes you say that?3) What else can you find? Abigail Housen & Philip Yenawine Visual Understanding in Education (2001)
Critical and Creative Thinking ROTE TEACHING??????In my teacher education, these concepts wereintroduced and important to memorize. Theywere not seen as key elements of/for learning ineveryday, cross-disciplinary practice.
The Thinker’s Guide to The Nature and Functions of Critical and Creative Thinking By: Dr. Richard Paul & Dr. Linda Elder “A careful examination of the history of creative people, we believe, supports ourcentral claim that critical and creative thought are intimately related. Each without the other is of limited use. Creativity without criticality is mere novelty. Criticality without creativity is bare negativity.” (p. 21) 2005 Foundation for Critical Thinking
Nancy Lampert,Studies in Art Education (Spring 2006, (47(3))Quantitative StudyCritical Thinking Dispositions as an Outcome of Art Education“Critical thinking skills and dispositions are generally considereddesirable outcomes of the educational process.”Study compared critical thinking dispositions of arts and non-artsundergraduate students.Results indicated:“All arts students scored significantly higher than all non-artsstudents on three of the sub-scales:Truth-seeking, critical-thinking maturity and open-mindedness.”
Enrich thinking.What tool can foster ongoing creative opportunities?
Can Drawing Assist the Critical and Creative Thinking Processes?
People that are experts at this:Young children use drawing to convey their thoughts, to problem solve andto access elements of imagination.
And…….SOME adults use drawing as a means to enhance thinking, facilitatedivergent thinking or to consolidate their thinking.
Research ResourcesKen Robinson Out of our Minds (2001, P. 111)“There are many misconceptions about creativity. Creativity is not aseparate faculty that some people have and others not. It is afunction of intelligence………Creativity is possible in any activity inwhich human intelligence is actively engaged.”
Research ResourcesDaniel Goleman, Paul Kaufman, Michael Ray The Creative Spirit(1992, P. 65)
Promoting creative and critical thinking in the classroom…..FOUR TOOLS for developing creativity andcritical thinking
FAITH in own creativityStudents (people) need to be able to rely on their creativity and know it is always there.
ABSENCE of judgmentStudents (people) need to be able to silence that inner self-critical voice that censors ideas before their fruition
PRECISE observationStudents need to engage in everything around them with a refreshed awareness.
PENETRATING questionsEncourage students to wonder and ask questions. “The only dumb question is the one not asked.”
Learning THE PROCESSES OF CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING IS IMPLICIT IN BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
PUTTING IT INTO PRACTICECan any of you remember the moment that you realizedyou could creatively and critically think?Was there a defining moment?ACTIVITY: Drawing! (& Thinking!)
BibliographyGoleman, D., Kaufman, P., Ray, M. The Creative Spirit. Penguin Books: New York, NewYork. 1992Studies in Art Education SPRING 2006 Vol. 47 (3)Paul, R., & Elder, L. The Thinkers Guide to: The Nature and Functions of Critical andCreative Thinking. 2005Robinson, K. Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative. 2001Ministry of Ontario Curriculum Documents 2009Images:Frida Kahlo, “Roots”URL: https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-bPJRors-VsE/TWmMM5pXFXI/AAAAAAAABR0/Sc_qNt6QQcE/Frida+Kahlo+-+Roots.jpgElizabeth Peyton, “The Dorchester 1972 (David Bowie)” (2001)URL: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_TLlWX-z9s7U/SlyYDWB33uI/AAAAAAAACC4/w5t7fmr0-1w/s400/EP702.jpgEdward Hopper, “Nighthawks” (1942)URL: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Wki2bDkYIRM/THZ0TSnFZTI/AAAAAAAAAA8/9d4Zm2GIfIs/s1600/Nighthawks.jpg