MEANING OF CURRICULUM
– is a structured set
of learning outcomes or task
that educators usually call goals
and objectives. (Howell and
Curriculum – is the “what” of
teaching. Curriculum – listings
of subjects to be
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHANGE
must be purposeful
Change must be planned
Change must be progressive
SEVEN MAJOR STEPS IN CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT( HILDA TABA)
Diagnosis of learner needs and expectations of larger
Formulation of learning objectives
Selection of learning content
Organization of learning content
Selection of learning experiences
Organization of learning experiences
Determination of what to evaluate and the means of
CYCLE OF CURRICULUM
To underscore the
thrusts of quality
Operationalizing - to address the thrust of
Institutionalizing-to ensure the thrust of
1. CONCEPTUALIZING PHASE
useful way of looking at a school is
to view it as a production system. In the
production system, we usually begin
with a conception of the output,
defining its specifications or identifying
characteristics. Only when these are
clearly spelled out in a production
blueprint can the whole production
2. CONTEXTUALIZING PHASE
This involves fitting the
conceptual framework that is ,
the production model, in the
context of the school. It has
(1) planning, (2) implementing,
“Where do we want to go?”
“How do we get
“How do we know if we
are getting there?”
P-I-E Management Process
The planning phase lays the foundation
for all of the curriculum development
steps. The steps in this phase include:
Form Curriculum Development Team
Conduct Needs Assessment and
Develop new curriculum
Obtain pilot materials
Plan and provide professional development relating to curriculum and
Pilot new curriculum and/or instructional practices
Evaluate materials/practices/curriculum informally
Provide and update budget implications to principals to assure funding for
pilots and for implementation
Determine data and assessments needed to evaluate program effectiveness
Identify ways to integrate technology with curriculum and instructional
Decide which curriculum and instructional practices to recommend to the
Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction for system wide
Finalize the evaluation of all pilot programs and materials
Communicate all curriculum decisions to faculty, making materials
available and providing necessary staff development
teams to share the work; inclusion is
Set ground rules
Provide voice to others
Agree to disagree on matters
Decisions should be made on general agreement
realistic target dates
Meet frequently, communicate
Evaluation / Maintenance
In the implementation phase, the schools conduct the course and carry
out a plan to evaluate how well your methods and materials work in
It may be necessary to go back and modify the output from the
development phase, based on the results of the evaluation study.
The curriculum director and curriculum steering committee will
Work with principals to purchase necessary resources to implement the
Plan of Action in an orderly and thoughtful, recognizing that spending
may have to be spread over several years
Confer with curriculum directors on interdisciplinary opportunities
Continue to monitor and evaluate curriculum and instruction
Gather data and assessment to evaluate program effectiveness
Conduct an internal program evaluation as the final activity in this
Budget priority will be given to curriculum programs in this
Provide necessary technical support to conduct surveys of parents,
teachers, and students
Form teams to share the work; inclusion is key
Agree/commit to following game plan
Meet frequently, communicate
Avoid making significant changes if something does
not immediately work! ! !
In the evaluation plan, the schools specify how they will
determine whether or not the course and its components
The evaluation plan addresses both the course as a whole
and the individual lessons and units within the course.
The point of the evaluation study is to compare the
expectations for the course and the reality from teaching it.
Plan and coordinate a visit by an outside evaluation team
Review and revise the Plan of Action using the input of
the outside evaluation team
Share evaluation results with staff and administration
Present completed Plan of Action to School Committee
Budget for stipends for outside evaluation team
Provide any necessary clerical assistance
The plan addresses:
• Class achievement.
• Validity and reliability of evaluation instruments.
• Student feedback.
• Instructor feedback.
For each of these the plans:
1. Define expectations: What will be acceptable? Unacceptable?
2. Specify data collection methods; develop collection instruments.
3. Specify data analysis methods.
4. Specify actions for unacceptable elements.
For each unit in the course, the schools considered the following questions:
How well has the class done?
Did a majority of the students successfully complete each part of the unit?
Did parts of the unit pose particular problems for the class or a group of
students within the class?
Did students who did not perform well on the unit have common traits or
When implementing a course, students are your
immediate customers. It makes sense to find
out what they think of the course. This will be
true every time the course is presented, but
student feedback is even more important for
the first iteration of a course.
Questionnaires for student feedback focus on the students’ perception of the
content and conduct of the course:
• Were the learning objectives clear?
• Was there sufficient time to meet the learning objectives?
• Did the students understand the purpose of the
• Were study aids sufficient? Useful?
• Was the material too hard? Too easy?
• Were audiovisual materials useful?
• Were the instructors knowledgeable? Helpful? Clear?
OUTPUTS FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
Outputs from this phase included:
• Summary of student achievement.
• Summary of student input.
• Summary of instructor input.
• Reliability data, summary analysis for test instruments
• Summary of adjustments made during implementation.
List of recommended changes from validation process.
Ongoing need to evaluate and maintain integrity
Ongoing need to evaluate concepts and exemplars –
update as needed
Develop comprehensive evaluation plan
3. OPERATIONALIZING PHASE
Preparation of School Staff
Clarifying/Defining School Vision and Mission
Setting up Subject Area Tasks Forces
Allocating Subject Matter for Instruction
Preparing the Unit/Sessions Plans
Piloting or Field Testing
Evaluating and Revisiting Draft Documents
Going into the 3-Year Development Cycle
Year one of the curriculum cycle focuses on research and
investigation. It is expected that the curriculum team will,
review current literature in subject area; create at least 10
core concepts in every subject area; review current scope
and sequence of a curriculum; review standardized student
test scores; determine what students should know and be
able to do; determine current strengths and weaknesses of
the program; determine current overlapping or gapping in
program; decide when concepts should be introduced,
developed and mastered; analyze vertical and horizontal
articulation in program; analyze current implementation of
cultural awareness, technology and career awareness in
current curriculum; visit other programs; and develop
Year two is the writing and approval phase of the
curriculum cycle. During this year the coordinator is
responsible to oversee the writing of the curriculum which
includes; write curriculum; choose new materials; choose
new textbooks; design and implement new staff
development programs; provide feedback sessions for
faculty; refine evaluation criteria from standards; and
construct instructional activities to support students in the
learning process. The coordinator must make sure that all
the required due dates are met. It is suggested that the
coordinator begin this process as early as possible. In this
year the curriculum must be approved prior to textbook
three is the implementation of the approved
curriculum phase. The coordinator is responsible
to lead teachers in: total articulation in classroom;
develop staff development activities for support;
time for corrections and additions; refine student
assessment; track student achievement; and
monitor standardized testing results. The
coordinator shall remind the teachers, at least
monthly, to monitor the success or weakness of the
approved curriculum. The coordinator shall also
recommend possible future in-service programs.
Year four is when the coordinator will
lead teachers through monitoring and
assessing the implemented curriculum.
This year includes: evaluate student
successes and failures, explore extending
curriculum into other subject areas;
review new supplemental materials;
evaluate teaching strategies; and evaluate
delivery of curriculum.
4. INSTITUTIONALIZING PHASE
effort comes full
cycle after three
years but the word
continues with a
series of 3 year
ad infinitum in the
You are expected to oversee the entire monitoring and assessment,
research and investigation, revision and development, and
implementation process. Each subject area is assigned a coordinator
for the total four-year cycle.
Responsibility to see that these activities are completed by year’s
responsible to lead the teachers through the curriculum approval
process, textbook selection process, and meeting all time line
requirements. While the task appears to be large, it requires time
management and, at a minimum, monthly communication among the
must make sure that all the required due dates are met. It is suggested
that the administrator/coordinator begin this process as early as
BASIC TASKS OF CURRICULUM
Delivery to Student
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF
LEARNING CONTENT AND LEARNING
Learning content is also called
subject matter, a component of the
CDS curriculum scheme. This includes
accumulated by man in the fund of
knowledge which have been organized,
simplified, and encapsulized in the
different disciplines or subject areas in
the school curriculum.
The Learning Content is the
medium through which the objectives
In dealing with learning content we
have to contend with the so called
“knowledge explosion” phenomenon.
Knowledge has accumulated so fast it is
no longer just difficult but simply
impossible to cram our curriculum
even with summaries of all existing
SELECTION OF LEARNING CONTENT
It is not feasible nor is it
desirable to include the full content
of a particular science or discipline in
the school curriculum due to
considerations. Therefore, there is a
need to make a wise and systematic
selection of appropriate content for
learners at a given levels of schooling.
STEPS IN FILTERING THE PROCESS OF SELECTING
Selection of a discipline to be included in the curriculum
which specifies a particular field of inquiry or learning.
Use of a device to narrow the discipline for school use.
Application of selection screens or criteria to determine the
specific content that is representative of the subject area for
a particular level of schooling , in this case general
Selection of Representative Content
Topics (RCTs) from the content clusters
that have been subjected to the criteria
Delineation of the accepted RCTs
instructional purposes in the Scope
and Sequence of the subject area.
KEY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING LEARNING
Usefulness in contributing to the attainment of concept,
process, skills and effective objectives.
Relevance to significant human experiences, problems,
and issues and frequency and criticality of use.
Reliability, Authoritativeness, validity and up-to-dateness
Adaptability in terms of learners’ abilities and
5.Usefulness in planning and organizing instruction, in
generating questions and learning activities, and making
applications in a variety of situations
6.Usefulness in developing skills and modes, methods , and
processes of inquiry
7.Usefulness in explaining a wide variety of phenomena and
developing a sense of structure of the field of study
8. Usefulness in developing competence in clarifying values,
attitudes, and value-laden issues and problems with social
9. Availability of textbooks, AV resources and other
ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING CONTENT
Curriculum design refers to how
the curriculum content is organized
and laid out for purpose of
instruction. This is intended to
accomplish orderly and meaningful
coverage of content so as to bring
about the cumulative effect of
education in terms of residual or
This refers to the equitable and
fair distribution of content among
the different levels of instruction to
ensure that no level is unduly
overburdened or underburdened.
This refers to provisions for
establishing the vertical linkage
from level to level. This way we
can avoid the glaring gaps and
wasteful overlaps in subject
matter and ensure an unbroken
chair of learning.
This term is used to describe
the sequential and graded
arrangement of subject matter.
It refers to a deepening and
broadening of content as it is
taken up on the higher levels
horizontal link of content
in related subject areas.
This refers to a constant and consistent
repetition, review and reinforcement of major
learning elements to bring about mastery or executive
control of the subject matter. Learning is not a one
shot activity and requires continuing application of
the new knowledge, skill or attitude or value to
ensure habitual use in daily living.
Learning experience is a
situation or condition in the
teaching-learning sequence that
has been purposely set up to
elicit certain desired responses
from the learner in line with the
CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF LEARNING
Can experience bring optimum benefit to the
Does the experience help meet the evident needs of
Are the learners to be interested in the experience ?
Does the experience stimulate the learners to
engage in higher levels of thinking and reasoning?
Does the experience encourage the learners to
6. Does the experience involve the use of different senses and
7. Does experience approximate real life situations?
8. Is the experience in accord with the life patterns of the
9. How contemporary is the experience? Is it timely and
10. How fundamental to mastery of total learning is the
11. Do the major experieces provide for the attainment of a
range of instructional objectives?
12. Do the experiences provide opportunities for both broad
and deep study?
“EVERYTHING IS CREATED TWICE,
FIRST IN THE MIND THEN IN ITS
Thank You so Much!
MAED - EM