Phases of Administering the Curriculum


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ED 202 Curriculum Engineering

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Phases of Administering the Curriculum

  1. 1. Phases of Administering the CURRICULUM
  2. 2. MEANING OF CURRICULUM – is a structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually call goals and objectives. (Howell and Evans 1995) Curriculum – is the “what” of teaching. Curriculum – listings of subjects to be taught in Curriculum
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHANGE Change must be purposeful  Change must be planned  Change must be progressive
  4. 4. SEVEN MAJOR STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT( HILDA TABA) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Diagnosis of learner needs and expectations of larger society Formulation of learning objectives Selection of learning content Organization of learning content Selection of learning experiences Organization of learning experiences Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
  5. 5. Curriculum Component (End) Learnin g content Learning Objectiv es Instructional Component (Means) Learnin g Experiences Feedback Loop Evaluatio n of Learning Outcome s
  6. 6. CYCLE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 1. 2. 3. To underscore the thrusts of quality and accountability Conceptualizing Contextualizing Operationalizing - to address the thrust of unity 4. Institutionalizing-to ensure the thrust of continuity
  7. 7. 1. CONCEPTUALIZING PHASE  One useful way of looking at a school is to view it as a production system. In the production system, we usually begin with a conception of the output, defining its specifications or identifying characteristics. Only when these are clearly spelled out in a production blueprint can the whole production process begin.
  8. 8. 2. CONTEXTUALIZING PHASE This involves fitting the conceptual framework that is , the production model, in the context of the school. It has three processes: (1) planning, (2) implementing, and (3) evaluating
  9. 9. PLANNING “Where do we want to go?” IMPLEMENTING “How do we get there?” EVALUATING “How do we know if we are getting there?” P-I-E Management Process
  10. 10. PLANNING The planning phase lays the foundation for all of the curriculum development steps. The steps in this phase include: Identify Issue/Problem/Need Form Curriculum Development Team Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis
  11. 11. •State Intended Outcomes •Select Content Design Experiential Methods •
  12. 12. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES…            Develop new curriculum Obtain pilot materials Plan and provide professional development relating to curriculum and instruction needs Pilot new curriculum and/or instructional practices Evaluate materials/practices/curriculum informally Provide and update budget implications to principals to assure funding for pilots and for implementation Determine data and assessments needed to evaluate program effectiveness Identify ways to integrate technology with curriculum and instructional practices Decide which curriculum and instructional practices to recommend to the Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction for system wide implementation Finalize the evaluation of all pilot programs and materials Communicate all curriculum decisions to faculty, making materials available and providing necessary staff development
  13. 13. TIPS…  Form teams to share the work; inclusion is key  Set ground rules Provide voice to others  Agree to disagree on matters  Decisions should be made on general agreement   Set realistic target dates  Meet frequently, communicate  Celebrate accomplishments
  14. 14. IMPLIMENTATION •Produce Curriculum Product •Test and Revise Curriculum •Recruit and Train Facilitators •Implement Curriculum
  15. 15. Analysis IMPLEMENTATION Design Development Implementation Evaluation / Maintenance  In the implementation phase, the schools conduct the course and carry out a plan to evaluate how well your methods and materials work in practice.  It may be necessary to go back and modify the output from the development phase, based on the results of the evaluation study.
  16. 16. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES… The curriculum director and curriculum steering committee will  Work with principals to purchase necessary resources to implement the Plan of Action in an orderly and thoughtful, recognizing that spending may have to be spread over several years  Confer with curriculum directors on interdisciplinary opportunities  Continue to monitor and evaluate curriculum and instruction initiatives  Gather data and assessment to evaluate program effectiveness  Conduct an internal program evaluation as the final activity in this phase Resources/Support  Budget priority will be given to curriculum programs in this implementation phase  Provide necessary technical support to conduct surveys of parents, teachers, and students
  17. 17. TIPS… Form teams to share the work; inclusion is key  Agree/commit to following game plan  Meet frequently, communicate  Avoid making significant changes if something does not immediately work! ! !  Celebrate accomplishments 
  18. 18. •Design EVALUATION Evaluation Strategies •Reporting and Securing Resources
  19. 19. Evaluation Plan Expectation Reality  In the evaluation plan, the schools specify how they will determine whether or not the course and its components worked.  The evaluation plan addresses both the course as a whole and the individual lessons and units within the course.  The point of the evaluation study is to compare the expectations for the course and the reality from teaching it.
  20. 20. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES… Plan and coordinate a visit by an outside evaluation team  Review and revise the Plan of Action using the input of the outside evaluation team  Share evaluation results with staff and administration  Present completed Plan of Action to School Committee Resources/Supports  Budget for stipends for outside evaluation team  Provide any necessary clerical assistance 
  21. 21. Evaluation Plan The plan addresses: Expectation • Class achievement. • Validity and reliability of evaluation instruments. • Student feedback. • Instructor feedback. For each of these the plans: 1. Define expectations: What will be acceptable? Unacceptable? 2. Specify data collection methods; develop collection instruments. 3. Specify data analysis methods. 4. Specify actions for unacceptable elements. Reality
  22. 22. CLASS ACHIEVEMENT Expectation Reality For each unit in the course, the schools considered the following questions: How well has the class done? Did a majority of the students successfully complete each part of the unit? Did parts of the unit pose particular problems for the class or a group of students within the class? Did students who did not perform well on the unit have common traits or backgrounds?
  23. 23. STUDENT FEEDBACK When implementing a course, students are your immediate customers. It makes sense to find out what they think of the course. This will be true every time the course is presented, but student feedback is even more important for the first iteration of a course. Expectation Reality Questionnaires for student feedback focus on the students’ perception of the content and conduct of the course: • Were the learning objectives clear? • Was there sufficient time to meet the learning objectives? • Did the students understand the purpose of the lesson/unit/module? • Were study aids sufficient? Useful? • Was the material too hard? Too easy? • Were audiovisual materials useful? • Were the instructors knowledgeable? Helpful? Clear?
  24. 24. OUTPUTS FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Outputs from this phase included: Validation Report • Summary of student achievement. • Summary of student input. • Summary of instructor input. • Reliability data, summary analysis for test instruments and items. • Summary of adjustments made during implementation. List of recommended changes from validation process.
  25. 25. TIPS… Team approach  Ongoing need to evaluate and maintain integrity  Ongoing need to evaluate concepts and exemplars – update as needed  Develop comprehensive evaluation plan   Formative  Summative
  26. 26. 3. OPERATIONALIZING PHASE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Preparation of School Staff Clarifying/Defining School Vision and Mission Setting up Subject Area Tasks Forces Allocating Subject Matter for Instruction Preparing the Unit/Sessions Plans Piloting or Field Testing Evaluating and Revisiting Draft Documents Going into the 3-Year Development Cycle
  27. 27.  Year one of the curriculum cycle focuses on research and investigation. It is expected that the curriculum team will, review current literature in subject area; create at least 10 core concepts in every subject area; review current scope and sequence of a curriculum; review standardized student test scores; determine what students should know and be able to do; determine current strengths and weaknesses of the program; determine current overlapping or gapping in program; decide when concepts should be introduced, developed and mastered; analyze vertical and horizontal articulation in program; analyze current implementation of cultural awareness, technology and career awareness in current curriculum; visit other programs; and develop evaluation criteria.
  28. 28.  Year two is the writing and approval phase of the curriculum cycle. During this year the coordinator is responsible to oversee the writing of the curriculum which includes; write curriculum; choose new materials; choose new textbooks; design and implement new staff development programs; provide feedback sessions for faculty; refine evaluation criteria from standards; and construct instructional activities to support students in the learning process. The coordinator must make sure that all the required due dates are met. It is suggested that the coordinator begin this process as early as possible. In this year the curriculum must be approved prior to textbook selection.
  29. 29.  Year three is the implementation of the approved curriculum phase. The coordinator is responsible to lead teachers in: total articulation in classroom; develop staff development activities for support; time for corrections and additions; refine student assessment; track student achievement; and monitor standardized testing results. The coordinator shall remind the teachers, at least monthly, to monitor the success or weakness of the approved curriculum. The coordinator shall also recommend possible future in-service programs.
  30. 30. Year four is when the coordinator will lead teachers through monitoring and assessing the implemented curriculum. This year includes: evaluate student successes and failures, explore extending curriculum into other subject areas; review new supplemental materials; evaluate teaching strategies; and evaluate delivery of curriculum.
  31. 31. 4. INSTITUTIONALIZING PHASE The development effort comes full cycle after three years but the word of improvement continues with a series of 3 year development cycles ad infinitum in the never-ending process of curriculum development.
  32. 32. AS ADMINISTRATORS…     You are expected to oversee the entire monitoring and assessment, research and investigation, revision and development, and implementation process. Each subject area is assigned a coordinator for the total four-year cycle. Responsibility to see that these activities are completed by year’s end. responsible to lead the teachers through the curriculum approval process, textbook selection process, and meeting all time line requirements. While the task appears to be large, it requires time management and, at a minimum, monthly communication among the curriculum team. must make sure that all the required due dates are met. It is suggested that the administrator/coordinator begin this process as early as possible.
  33. 33. BASIC TASKS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Purpose Goals Objectives Needs focusing Curriculum Alignment Delivery to Student
  35. 35. LEARNING CONTENT Learning content is also called subject matter, a component of the CDS curriculum scheme. This includes universal truths and beliefs accumulated by man in the fund of knowledge which have been organized, simplified, and encapsulized in the different disciplines or subject areas in the school curriculum.
  36. 36. The Learning Content is the medium through which the objectives are accomplished. In dealing with learning content we have to contend with the so called “knowledge explosion” phenomenon. Knowledge has accumulated so fast it is no longer just difficult but simply impossible to cram our curriculum even with summaries of all existing knowledge.
  37. 37. SELECTION OF LEARNING CONTENT It is not feasible nor is it desirable to include the full content of a particular science or discipline in the school curriculum due to practical psychological considerations. Therefore, there is a need to make a wise and systematic selection of appropriate content for learners at a given levels of schooling.
  38. 38. STEPS IN FILTERING THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. Selection of a discipline to be included in the curriculum which specifies a particular field of inquiry or learning. Use of a device to narrow the discipline for school use. Application of selection screens or criteria to determine the specific content that is representative of the subject area for a particular level of schooling , in this case general education.
  39. 39. 4. Selection of Representative Content Topics (RCTs) from the content clusters that have been subjected to the criteria screen. Delineation of the accepted RCTs into sequential order for instructional purposes in the Scope and Sequence of the subject area. 5.
  40. 40. KEY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING LEARNING CONTENT 1. 2. 3. 4. Usefulness in contributing to the attainment of concept, process, skills and effective objectives. Relevance to significant human experiences, problems, and issues and frequency and criticality of use. Reliability, Authoritativeness, validity and up-to-dateness Adaptability in terms of learners’ abilities and background
  41. 41. 5.Usefulness in planning and organizing instruction, in generating questions and learning activities, and making applications in a variety of situations 6.Usefulness in developing skills and modes, methods , and processes of inquiry 7.Usefulness in explaining a wide variety of phenomena and developing a sense of structure of the field of study 8. Usefulness in developing competence in clarifying values, attitudes, and value-laden issues and problems with social relevance 9. Availability of textbooks, AV resources and other instructional media.
  42. 42. ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING CONTENT Curriculum design refers to how the curriculum content is organized and laid out for purpose of instruction. This is intended to accomplish orderly and meaningful coverage of content so as to bring about the cumulative effect of education in terms of residual or habitual learning.
  43. 43. BASIC PRINCIPLES IN ORGANIZING LEARNING CONTENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Balance Articulation Sequence Integration Continuity
  44. 44. BALANCE This refers to the equitable and fair distribution of content among the different levels of instruction to ensure that no level is unduly overburdened or underburdened.
  45. 45. ARTICULATION This refers to provisions for establishing the vertical linkage from level to level. This way we can avoid the glaring gaps and wasteful overlaps in subject matter and ensure an unbroken chair of learning.
  46. 46. SEQUENCE This term is used to describe the sequential and graded arrangement of subject matter. It refers to a deepening and broadening of content as it is taken up on the higher levels
  47. 47. INTEGRATION This denotes the horizontal link of content in related subject areas.
  48. 48. CONTINUITY This refers to a constant and consistent repetition, review and reinforcement of major learning elements to bring about mastery or executive control of the subject matter. Learning is not a one shot activity and requires continuing application of the new knowledge, skill or attitude or value to ensure habitual use in daily living.
  50. 50. Learning experience is a situation or condition in the teaching-learning sequence that has been purposely set up to elicit certain desired responses from the learner in line with the instructional objectives.
  51. 51. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Can experience bring optimum benefit to the learners? Does the experience help meet the evident needs of the learners? Are the learners to be interested in the experience ? Does the experience stimulate the learners to engage in higher levels of thinking and reasoning? Does the experience encourage the learners to enquire further?
  52. 52. 6. Does the experience involve the use of different senses and sense perceptions? 7. Does experience approximate real life situations? 8. Is the experience in accord with the life patterns of the learners? 9. How contemporary is the experience? Is it timely and relevant? 10. How fundamental to mastery of total learning is the experience? 11. Do the major experieces provide for the attainment of a range of instructional objectives? 12. Do the experiences provide opportunities for both broad and deep study?
  54. 54. Thank You so Much! Sharonfgeroquia CURRICULUM ENGINEERING MAED - EM