SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
THE FAMILY
SOCIAL
INSTITUTIONS
 The smallest and most important social institution, with
the unique function of producing...
CLASSIFICATION OF
FAMILY
FAMILY OF
ORIENTATION
> the family into which
people are born and in
which the major part of
thei...
Family
Structure/Composition
Based on Internal Organization or Membership
Nuclear or conjugal
(based on marriage)
> a two ...
Based on Dominance of
Authority
 Patriarchal – a family in which the authority is
held by the father and makes the major
...
Based on Residence
 Patrilocal – a custom in which the married
couple lives in the household or community of
the husband’...
Based on Descent or Lineage – the way in
which kinship and lineage are traced over
generation
 Patrilineal – the father’s...
Based on Number of
Spouses
 Monogamy- consisting of only one husband
and one wife married at a time. This means
that a wi...
Choice of Mate
 All societies place some restrictions on
the choice of sexual and marriage
partners.
 Incest taboos are ...
Marriage Norms or Patterns
 endogamy – prescribes marriage within
one’s group – same social category (e.g.
race, religion...
IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS
 it increases the
chances that the
children of a union
will be exposed to
reasonably
consistent
socia...
Other Forms of Marriage
 monogamy – marriage between one man
and one woman – serial monogamy
 polygamy – marriage involv...
> reproduction and rearing of the young
> cultural transmission or enculturation
> provide the needed socialization of the...
Alternative Family Norms
(Macionis, 1998)
 one-parent families – headed by a single
mother/father
 cohabitation – the sh...
Educational Implications
 since the family is a very important institution,
education for the family life should be part ...
 enculturation being a function of the family
should pass on only worthwhile values,
customs, mores, beliefs, and traditi...
 since children are the ones who suffer
from broken homes, couples should try
hard to be reconciled and their parent,
rel...
All the educative functions mentioned above
belong to the cultural transmission or
enculturation function of the family, t...
Presented by:
SHARON F.
GEROQUIA
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Family and Education

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Family and Education

  1. 1. SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
  2. 2. THE FAMILY SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS  The smallest and most important social institution, with the unique function of producing and rearing the young.  composed of a group of interacting persons united by blood, marriage, or adoption, constituting a household, carrying a common culture and performing basic functions.  a socially sanctioned group of persons united by kinship, marriage or adoption who share a common habitat generally and interact according to well-defined social roles that maintain and protect its members and perpetuate the society. (Bertrand)  a relatively small domestic group of kin who functions as a cooperative unit for economic and other purposes (Popenoe)
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILY FAMILY OF ORIENTATION > the family into which people are born and in which the major part of their socialization takes place. FAMILY OF PROCREATION > the family that people create when they marry and have children.
  4. 4. Family Structure/Composition Based on Internal Organization or Membership Nuclear or conjugal (based on marriage) > a two generation family group which consists of a couple and their children usually living apart from other relatives; places emphasis on the husband-wife relationship. Extended or consanguine (shared blood) > a group which consists of one or more nuclear families plus other relatives; consists of the married couple, their parents, siblings, grandparen ts, uncles, aunts, and cousins; place primary emphasis on the “blood ties” with various relatives.
  5. 5. Based on Dominance of Authority  Patriarchal – a family in which the authority is held by the father and makes the major decisions  Matriarchal – authority is held by the mother  Matrifocal – the woman is the central and most important member  Matricentric – the female is the authority figure in the absence of the male at work  Equalitarian – a family structure in which the husband and the wife are equal in authority and privileges
  6. 6. Based on Residence  Patrilocal – a custom in which the married couple lives in the household or community of the husband’s parent  Matrilocal – involves a married couple living in household or community of the wife’s parents  Neolocal – the couple lives apart from either spouse’s parents or other relatives  Avunculocal – prescribes that the newly married couple resides with or near the maternal uncle (mothers’ brother) of the groom. This type of residence is very rare. The opposite is amitalocal residence.
  7. 7. Based on Descent or Lineage – the way in which kinship and lineage are traced over generation  Patrilineal – the father’s side of the family is defined as kin  Matrilineal – the mother’s side of the family is defined as kin  Bilateral – the system used in most industrial societies (e.g. U.S.), children’s kinship is tied to both sides of the family and both male and female children are entitled to inherit.  Bilineal - descent is through the father’s and mother’s line
  8. 8. Based on Number of Spouses  Monogamy- consisting of only one husband and one wife married at a time. This means that a widower or a widow can marry again.  Polygamy- one man married to two or more women at the same time.  Polyandry- one woman married to two or more men at the same time.  Cenogamy- group sex. Two or more men and two or more women having sex together at the same time one after the other.
  9. 9. Choice of Mate  All societies place some restrictions on the choice of sexual and marriage partners.  Incest taboos are powerful prohibitions, against sexual relations between close relative (e.g. between father and daughter, mother and son, brother and sister).
  10. 10. Marriage Norms or Patterns  endogamy – prescribes marriage within one’s group – same social category (e.g. race, religion, village, social class).  exagomy – the social norm that prescribes marriage outside one’s own group  homogamy – the practice of marrying people with the same social, racial, ethnic, and religious background (as most Americans do)
  11. 11. IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS  it increases the chances that the children of a union will be exposed to reasonably consistent socialization experiences.  it reduces disputes over issues other that child socialization. Although people tend to marry others much like themselves, another tendency operates and this is called… marriage gradient – the tendency of men to marry women below them in age, education, and occupation
  12. 12. Other Forms of Marriage  monogamy – marriage between one man and one woman – serial monogamy  polygamy – marriage involving more than one husband or wife; plural marriage  polygyny (Greek, meaning many women) – one man is married to two or more women at the same time  polyandry (Greek, meaning many men) – one woman is married to two or more men at the same time  cenogamy – when two or more men mate with two or more women in group marriage.
  13. 13. > reproduction and rearing of the young > cultural transmission or enculturation > provide the needed socialization of the child with respect to his role and status > provide love and affections and a sense of security for its members > provide environment for personality development and growth of self-concept in relation to others > serve as an important mechanism for social control. sexual regulation General Functions of the Family
  14. 14. Alternative Family Norms (Macionis, 1998)  one-parent families – headed by a single mother/father  cohabitation – the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple  gay and lesbian same sex couples  singlehood
  15. 15. Educational Implications  since the family is a very important institution, education for the family life should be part of the curriculum  people who intend to get married should be oriented regarding their obligations so that the marriage will be successful  in Japan, there is a school for brides. There should be a school or course, not only for the brides but also for grooms.  since the average Filipino family is big, the school should teach the advantages of small families.
  16. 16.  enculturation being a function of the family should pass on only worthwhile values, customs, mores, beliefs, and traditions. (healthful living, ethical standards, socialization, psychomotor, others skills)  sex is the propagation of the race and should therefore be engaged only by married people  it is not only the children who need an education, but also the parents  young people should not rush into marriage, but should give themselves time to find out whether they are really in love and suitable for each other.
  17. 17.  since children are the ones who suffer from broken homes, couples should try hard to be reconciled and their parent, relatives, and friends, should help them toward this end.  couples should consult marriage counselors if they often quarrel or are drifting apart so that the marriage may be saved.
  18. 18. All the educative functions mentioned above belong to the cultural transmission or enculturation function of the family, that of transmitting the knowledge, beliefs and practices of the old generation of the young generation.
  19. 19. Presented by: SHARON F. GEROQUIA
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