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molecular imaging with PET & SPECT

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  • well!
    this was my very first presentation in college.. so plz don't expect a lot haha ! umm i didn't know that it must be written as points(bullets) but people grow and learn :p
    as u may notice in the other presentations.
    regards,
    Shatha Al-Mushayt
       Reply 
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  • 1. Molecular Imaging
    with PET and SPECT
    Physics of Nuclear Medicine(RAD 311) Presentation-2009
    Done by: Shatha Jamal Al-Mushait
    1
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 2. KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
    2
    | The OUTLINE
  • 3. |INTRODUCTION
    Imaging has witnessed a rapid growth in recent decades. This
    successful development was mainly driven by notable technical
    advances in structural Imaging(i.e. CT and MRI).
    In parallel, functional imagingcame out as an important step in
    the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of patients using nuclear,
    magnetic resonance and ultrasonic techniques. More recently the
    importance of molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy has
    been recognized and MOLECULAR IMAGING(MI) introduced to
    visualize and measure these target structures.
     
    3
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 4. |WHAT is The MOLECULAR IMAGING ?
    > is the in vivo and non-invasive imaging of biological processes(functions) at the molecular and cellular level.
    In vivo  inside a living organism.
    Non-invasive  doesn't require an (invasive) incision into the body or the removal of biological tissue.
    SO, it is different from microscopy, which can also produce images at the molecular level, in that microscopy is used on sample that have been removed from the body.
    Also different from other technologies in that it primarily provides information about functions while others image physical structure(anatomy).
    > Uses biomarkers to help image various targets.
    4
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 5. | PRINCIPLE of MI
    In order to visualize molecular events non-invasively, imaging
    agents (radiotracers) need to be designed that interact specifically
    with appropriate molecular targets involved in the pathophysiology
    of disease. Once a suitable target has been defined, a ligand
    (tracer) that binds to the target with high affinity and specificity
    needs to be designed. Depending on the imaging modality, a label
    (radioisotope)has to be linked to the ligand, facilitating the sensitive
    detection of the imaging agent in a clinical setting.
    Finally, the acquired images need to be reconstructed and
    processed using computer systems.
    5
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 6. 6
  • 7. | Uses of MI in Biomedical and clinical medicine
    Has two basic applications:
    1.diagnostic imaging 2.therapy
     
    Diagnostic imaging, to determine the location and extent of targeted molecules
    for the disease being studied. Abnormalities may be detected very early, often
    before medical problems can be detected by other diagnostic tests and even
    before symptoms occur. Such early detection allows a disease to be treated
    early when there may be a more successful outcome.
     
    Therapy, to treat specific disease-target molecules by adding a therapeutic
    agent onto the radiotracer. Also contributes to improving the treatment of
    diseases such as cancer, neurological and cardiovascular diseases by
    optimizing the pre-clinical and clinical tests of new medication.
    7
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 8. 8
    In the field of Cancer, for example, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role, in particular for drug discovery and assessment of therapeutic response.
    So, instead of waiting months to determine if a treatment is working, we are watching the performance of our cancer drugs virtually in real time. This technology is designed to say is your tumor growing or is it going away?!
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 9. |IMAGING MODALITIES
    There are different modalities such as the CT, and , as well as other methods that can be used for molecular imaging.
    Each have their different strengths and weaknesses.
    The choice of imaging modality for molecular imaging depends on the kind and location of the molecular event that needs to be monitored, as well as the biological questions that need to be
    answered.
    > This technology has its roots in nuclear medicine.
    > PET & SPECT are currently considered as the foundation of nuclear medicine.
    9
    PET SPECT
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 10. SPECT
    10
    PET/CT
    Single Photon Emission
    Computed Tomography
    Positron Emission Tomography
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 11. 11
    |Mechanism of PET & SPECT
    Both measures emissions from radiotracers and uses the data gathered by the sensors to produce multicolored two or three-dimensional images of the distribution of the chemicals throughout the target.
    In PET, positron emitting radioisotope is used. Then,
    these positrons annihilate with nearby electrons, emitting
    two opposite direction photons. These photons are then
    detected by the scanner.(higher resolution)
    In SPECT, Gamma rays emitting radioisotope is used. Then, the Gamma camera rotates around the interested area and detect gamma rays.(lower resolution)
    SPECT is often chosen over PET simply as a cost issue, for less equipment is involved and fewer staff is required to perform the tests.
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 12. 12
    Maximum intensity projection (MIP) of a typical F-18 FDG whole body PET acquisition
    SPECT image (bone tracer) of a mouse
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 13. 13
    |Conclusion
    The field is still in its infancy and strong efforts need to
    continue. But it is becoming increasingly clear that it
    will bring a new perspective to our understanding of
    diseases biology and their relevance in the planning of
    radiation treatments.
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department
  • 14. 14
    |References
    Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology - Molecular Imaging II (Springer, 2008)
    http://www.answers.com/topic/molecular-imaging
    http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0031-9155/50/22/R01
    http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/opinion/33601
    http://www.molecularimagingcenter.org
    http://www.karolinska.se/templates/DepartmentPage____67570.aspx?epslanguage=EN
    EmissiionTomography: The Fundamentals of PET and SPECT
    By Miles N. Wernick, John N. Aarsvold
    http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/44/11/1341/FIG1
    http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/219/2/316
    KSU,CAMS,Raidiological Sciences Department