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  • 1. Name: Shaswata Shaha Roll: 08
  • 2. Aristotle and his Universe •The earth is composed of four elements: Earth, Water, Fire and Air •The earth does not revolve around anything else or rotate around its own axis •It is surrounded by ten concentric spheres made of a perfectly transparent substance known as "quintessence.“ •Beyond the tenth sphere is, as the words in the periphery say in Latin, "The Kingdom of Heaven, the Abode of God and of the Elect."
  • 3. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543) Copernicus busted the classical Greek theory of astronomy.The publication of Copernicus' book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, is considered a major event in the history of science. •Heavenly motions are uniform, eternal, and circular or compounded of several circles (epicycles). •The center of the universe is near the Sun. •Around the Sun, in order, are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the fixed stars. •The Earth has three motions: daily rotation, annual revolution, and annual tilting of its axis. •Retrograde motion of the planets is explained by the Earth's motion. •The distance from the Earth to the Sun is small compared to the distance to the stars.
  • 4. Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) •Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",[ the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science". •According to Stephen Hawking, Galileo probably bears more of the responsibility for the birth of modern science than anybody else, and Albert Einstein called him the father of modern science •He was a defender of coparnicus’s “Heliocentric ” theory. •The Phases of Venus one of the most observation of human history also discovered by Galileo. •He was home arrested by the church rest of his life because of defending heliocentric theory.
  • 5. Johannes Kepler (German:December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) •Johan Kepler was a German astronomer who lived between 1571-1630. He introduced three important laws of planetary motion and helped the Copernican model of the solar system gain general acceptance. •Kepler inherited Tycho Brahe's observational data on Mars following Brahe's death and showed, mathematically, that Mars followed an elliptical orbit. This new revelation contradicted the age old belief that heavenly bodies all moved in perfect circles.
  • 6. Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) •His three laws of motion -- inertia, acceleration, and action and reaction -- remain a cornerstone of modern physics. His law of universal gravitation laid forth the theory that all particles in the universe exerted some gravitational force. •In Newton's view, gravitational force was everywhere, from an apple falling from a tree to the moon being kept in orbit by its mutual attraction with Earth. While imperfect -- his law was later altered significantly by Einstein's theory of relativity -- Newton's conception of universal gravitation dominated physics for more than two centuries.
  • 7. Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) •Hubble revolutionized astronomy by showing that the universe is much larger than had been previously believed and by providing observational evidence for the theory of an expanding universe. •One of his most important findings that the more distant a galaxy, the greater is the speed at which it is moving away from the Milky Way is now known as Hubble's Law.
  • 8. Stephen Hawking (1942- ) •After Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking is probably the most famous physicist of all time. He became known for his study of certain physical characteristics of black holes, work that led to greater understanding of the origin of the universe. •Hawking's A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes (1988), which provides an overview of the origin and structure of the universe, was a best-seller.
  • 9. Sergei Korolev Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite (launched on October 4, 1957) -The world's first space passenger, the dog Laika, launched on Sputnik 2 a month later -The Luna series, the first unmanned vehicles to orbit and land softly on the moon -The Vostok series of spacecraft (launched from 1960 to 1963), which were the first manned spacecraft and featured Gagarin's first manned mission on April 12, 1961 -And the Voskhod program (1964 to 1966) the world's first multi-person spacecraft, which included the first spacewalk on March 18, 1965 Famous quotes: "I've been waiting all my life for this day!" (Upon the launch of Sputnik.) "The Soviet Union has become the seacoast of the universe."
  • 10. R-7 Semyorka •First ICBM ever launched •It’s later prototype was used to launch Sputnik, Luna, Molniya, Vostok, an d Voskhod space launchers, as well as later Soyuz variants.
  • 11. Sputnik 1 •The Sputnik 1 spacecraft was the first artificial satellite successfully placed in orbit around the Earth and was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam (370 km southwest of the small town of Baikonur) in Kazakhstan, then part of the former Soviet Union. The Russian word "Sputnik" means "companion“. •The orbit of the then inactive satellite was later observed optically to decay 92 days after launch (January 4, 1958) after having completed about 1400 orbits of the Earth over a cumulative distance traveled of 70 million kilometers.
  • 12. Sputnik 2 •Sputnik 2 was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. •But the biological subject was dead because of malfunctioning which cause the increase of temperature 4o degree centigrade.
  • 13. Vostok1 •Vostok 1 was the first spaceflight in the Vostok program and the first human spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA spacecraft was launched on April 12, 1961. •27-year-old Yuri Gagarin was the only crew member of Vostok 1. The Vostok spacecraft was designed to carry a single cosmonaut.
  • 14. Vostok 6 •Vostok 6 was the first human spaceflight mission to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space in 16 June 1963.
  • 15. Apollo 11 •Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC.
  • 16. Voyager •Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977 to study the outer Solar System. Operating for 36 years, 2 months, and 3 days as of 8 November 2013, the spacecraft communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. •The primary mission of voyager 1 ended on November 20, 1980, after encounters with the Jovian system in 1979 and the Saturnian system in 1980. •The primary mission of voyager 2 ended December 31, 1989 after encountering the Jovian system in 1979, Saturnian system in 1980, Uranian system in 1986, and the Neptunian system in 1989. It is still the only spacecraft to have visited the two outer giant planets Uranus and Neptune. The probe is now moving at a velocity of 15.428 km/s relative to the Sun
  • 17. Voyager(continues) The Voyager space probe carries a gold-plated audio-visual disc in the event that either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life forms from other planetary systems. The discs carry photos of the Earth and its lifeforms, a range of scientific information, spoken greetings from people such as the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations and the President of the United States and a medley, "Sounds of Earth," that includes the sounds of whales, a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a collection of music, including works by Mozart, Blind Willie Johnson, Chuck Berry's "Johnny B. Goode", and Valya Balkanska. Other Eastern and Western classics are included, as well as various performances of indigenous music from around the world
  • 18. Mars missions •2001 Mars Odyssey •Mars Express •MER-A Spirit •MER-B Opportunity •Rosetta •Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter •Phoenix •Dawn •MSL Curiosity •Mars Orbiter Mission
  • 19. Future exploration of universe •More and more exploration mission in mars •Set up more powerful telescope to observe the universe and findings it’s undiscovered side. •Missions to another planer other than mars and learn more about it. •Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence by using deep space network.
  • 20. Because there is endless possibility out there
  • 21. Thank you