Social Cognition <ul><li>and Online Learning Communities </li></ul>
Social Cognitive Theory We have read and discussed social cognition and social constructivism. Several heuristics for the use of these theories in practice, in the classroom, can be found on page 209 in our text. But can these techniques be transferred to an online context? (Bruning, Schraw, Norby & Ronning 2003)
Online Learning Communities <ul><li>For our purposes, we will focus on formal courses: those led by a professor, teacher, or expert, in order to teach or train students </li></ul><ul><li>We will look at two main questions: how do you create a community online, and, once you have a community, how does learning occur? </li></ul>
Creating the Community <ul><li>Face-to-face learning groups develop a community naturally. At a distance, it must be done purposefully. How? Colachico’s study of online learning found: </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion boards alone are insufficient for creating community </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of synchronous chat sessions aids in sense of community, comfort of peer discussion, mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Email, but not virtual office hours, aided in creation of social bond between professor and individual students </li></ul>(Colachico 2007)
Ownership <ul><li>Give ownership to the participants. This works as a motivational factor and increases participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that all are familiar with the technology necessary to participate. </li></ul>(Charalambos, V., Michalinos, Z., & Chamerlain, R., 2004)
What other ways might we create community and open discussions online? Think about this:
We’ve created a community: now how do we learn?
Working with Peers <ul><li>Support written peer interaction. Online communities are a safe outlet for the quiet and shy to share their ideas and have others respond and discuss them. </li></ul>(Bruning et al 2003, Charalambos et al 2004)
Different Discussion Modes <ul><li>In the CSILE knowledge building community, differing forms of discourse (face-to-face AND written) are combined. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we replace the oral, face-to-face component promoted by CSILE in an online learning community? </li></ul>(Bruning et al 2003)
Interact with Others’ Ideas <ul><li>An online learning community should be flexible, searchable, and archived, so that students can organize and find their own and other students’ work </li></ul>(Bruning et al 2003)
Community Learning <ul><li>The creation of community itself is a motivational factor in learning. Students must know what the group knows in order to make a contribution to it. </li></ul>(Bruning et al 2003, Collins, Brown, & Hollum 1991)
Cognitive Apprenticeship <ul><li>Modeling: teacher/expert performs a task with learners observing </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching: teacher/expert observes while learners perform a task </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding: teacher/expert supports learners as learners perform a task </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation: teacher/expert has learners verbalize their thoughts in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection: peers compare their work and thinking with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration: learners develop and decide solutions to their own problems </li></ul>(Collins et al, 1991) Can these be done online?
Can we design learning communities in which learners interact with peers in differing modes of discourse, and develop cognitive apprenticeship relationships with teachers and experts? How? Think about this:
References <ul><li>Bruning, R. H., Schraw, G.J., Norby, M.M., & Ronning, R.R. (2003). Chapter 9: Classroom Contexts for Cognitive Growth in Cognitive Psychology and Instruction . New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Charalambos, V., Michalinos, Z., & Chamberlain, R. (2004) The Design of Online Learning Communities: Critical Issues. Educational Media International , 41 (2). </li></ul><ul><li>Colachico, D. (2007). Developing a Sense of Community in an Online Environment. International Journal of Learning , 14(1), 161-165. </li></ul><ul><li>Collins, A., Brown, J.S., & Holum, A. (1991) Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Thinking Visible. American Educator . </li></ul>
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