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  • 1. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 1
  • 2. EDITOR’S PEN “WEB OS” A WEBOS can be taken as “A window manager running on the client, where apps are located in these windows as iframes. This is not really an operating system, rather a window manager, where apps are in draggable layers/windows as a part of the webpage, running JavaScripts supported by a JavaScript library and possibly by the server with a public API for that purpose. This API would have to have some limitations/restrictions or it would be plain dangerous security wise. “These are the new types of operating system where everything resides on a web browser. With WEBOS, you can have your desktop, applications and files always with you, from your home, your college, your office or your neighbour's house. Just open List of WEBOS where you can register and a web browser, connect to your WEBOS System and access your work independently of the location: personal desktop and all your stuff just like you left it last time.”If we look at conventional operating systems they can be taken as Legion Globus the interaction between hardware and software via drivers Netsolve the memory and execution of programs Globe the layout, retrieval, and modification of files on disk GOST user management, permissions, and preferences PVM higher level functionality like networking and user interface AppLesS widgets Broadway: So we can see a WEBOS as “an applications run entirely within a web browser, but have the look and feel of desktop applications. An For more information on WEBOS search in application's code and data reside remotely but are executed and “WEBOS” in your favorite search engine. Just modified locally. This model allows for a great deal of freedom. You give trial to this great emerging tool that may can edit a document at home in a text editor and then go to school make you location free computer freak. or work and instantly access the same text editor and document.” So by using these new types of logical operating systems we can SHASHWAT SHRIPARV have our own operating system wherever we go, we just need to dwivedishashwat@gmail.com have a login name and password. So Working out of internet cafes or libraries? Your desktop, applications, and data travel with you from cafe to cafe, session to session. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 2
  • 3. 1. GET INSPIRED Narayana Murthy 2. ARTICLE SECTION Self-defending network Web 2.0 & web design It is more than storage problem Can computer think like human brain 3. KNOW LANGUAGE Java -IT- Ajax Knowledge is power in the modern intellectual society 4. TROUBLESHOOTING information technology is a part of advance knowledge Why PC Crashes .Through this we gain 5. IT SCHOOLS knowledge in different field like our communicational ER&DCI-IT Profile technology, computing 6. SOURCE CODE OF THE MONTH technology, computing technology and different Locking folder without any software type of virtual reality technology. 7. TIPS AND TRICKS So today society’s life is Hibernate Option In Windows changing day by day now it is information society, Windows Firewall tomorrow it becomes 8. GAGET FREAKS knowledge society and after some time wisdom society. Morphing Mobiles IT play an 9. FROM YOUR PEN important role in each and every phase … Give Feedbacks Contacts WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 3
  • 4. GET INSPIRED NAGAVARA RAMARAO NARAYANA MURTHY Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy, better known as N. R. Narayana Murthy, is an Indian industrialist, software engineer and one of the seven founders of India‘s one of the largest IT company Infosys Technologies, a global consulting and IT services company based in India. He is currently the non-executive Chairman and Chief Mentor of Infosys. He was the CEO of the company for 21 Quotes years, from 1981 to 2002. After stepping down as CEO in 2002, he “Our assets walk out of the door each has broadened his scope of activities to social services as well as evening. We have to make sure that promoting India globally they come back the next morning.” Mr. Murthy was born into a Kannada Madhva Brahmin family in “Performance leads to recognition. Mysore, India on August 20, 1946, He graduated with a degree in Recognition brings respect. Respect electrical engineering from the National Institute of Engineering, enhances power. Humility and grace in University of Mysore in 1967 after attending government school, and received his master's degree from IIT Kanpur in 1969. one's moments of power enhances His first position was at IIM Ahmadabad as chief systems dignity of an organization,” programmer where he worked on a time-sharing system and “The real power of money is the power designed and implemented a BASIC interpreter for ECIL to give it away.” (Electronics Corporation of India Limited). After IIM Ahmadabad, he then joined Patni Computer Systems in “In God we trust, everybody else bring Pune. Before moving to Mumbai, Murthy met his wife Sudha data to the table.” Murthy in Pune who at the time was an engineer working at Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co. Ltd. (Telco, now known as Tata “Progress is often equal to the Motors) in Pune. In 1981, he founded Infosys with six other difference between mind and mindset.” software professionals. He served as president of the National Association of Software and Service Companies, India from 1992 “I want Infosys to be a place where to 1994. people of different genders, Murthy served as the founder CEO of Infosys for 21 years, and was nationalities, races and religious beliefs succeeded by co-founder Nandan Nilekani in March 2002. He is the work together in an environment of chairman of the governing body of the International Institute of intense competition but utmost Information Technology - Bangalore, and was the Chairman of the harmony, courtesy and dignity to add Governing Body of the Indian Institute of Management, more and more value to our customers Ahmadabad. day after day.” In addition he is the member of board in several national and international institutions. "Ships are safest in the harbor but they Mr. Murthy has been the recipient of numerous awards and honors are not meant to be there. They have to like Padma Shri, Padma Vibhushan. sail long and hard and face stormy seas He is a living legend and an epitome of the fact that honesty, to reach the comfort of a desirable destination" transparency, and moral integrity are not at variance with business acumen. He set new standards in corporate governance and Shashidhar Chaturvedi morality. MCA ER&DCI-IT WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 4
  • 5. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 5
  • 6. Self-Defending Networks ` THE NEXT GENERATION OF NETWORK Introducing Self-Defending Networks SECURITY • Self-defending networks differ from traditional network defenses in that self-defending • Self-Defending Networks helps networking professionals networks have the capability to provide some understand how to deploy an end-to-end, integrated network amount of automatic protection of the network security solution. It presents a clear view of the various components and end-user workstations in the components that can be used throughout the network to not only event of a network attack. monitor traffic but to allow the network itself to become more proactive in preventing and mitigating network attacks. • The layered self-defending network includes components that can protect the network Understanding Types of Network Attacks and Defenses connections in the data center, at the remote or • Categorizing Network Attacks branch location, and at the desktop. Network attacks can be categorized based upon the nature of the Self-defending network components include the attack. Categories of network attacks include the following: following: 1. Virus 2. Worm DDoS mitigation, including DDoS Guard and 3. Trojan Horse DDoS Traffic Anomaly Detector 4. Denial of service (DoS) 5. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) • Adaptive Security Appliances (ASA) 6. Spyware • Incident Control Service (ICS) 7. Phishing • Network Admission Control (NAC) • 802.1x Understanding Traditional Network Defenses • Host intrusion prevention: Cisco Security Agent (CSA) • Cisco Security Centralized management Traditional network defenses are composed of the following products: 1. Router access lists 2. Firewalls 3. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) 4. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 5. Antivirus programs WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 6
  • 7. ` Host Intrusion Prevention: CSA DDoS Mitigation CSA provides host intrusion protection for Automatic or self-defending DDoS mitigation users or hosts on the network. CSA can be involves the automatic rerouting of the DDoS traffic while considered the last line of the layered self- maintaining the valid network traffic connections. Cisco Guard and Detector appliances and Catalyst 6500/7600 DDoS service defending network defense because CSA can modules can provide this automatic DDoS mitigation by prevent malicious behavior on a host, including creating a baseline of normal network activity, detecting DDoS attacks such as buffer overflow. CSA can be attacks and then automatically rerouting the DDoS. traffic automatically and centrally updated with new away from the target servers by updating the routing tables. policies to help protect against new network attacks. Adaptive Security Appliance Cisco Security Centralized Management A good defense is typically a layered defense. This ASA is an integrated and extensible security appliance layered defense can be composed of router access product line from Cisco. ASA is an integration of the PIX lists and firewall service modules to protect the firewall, Network IDS/IPS system, and VPN 3000 core network and data center, ASA to protect concentrator. This ASA appliance contains many self- DMZs and the perimeter, NAC to provide secure defending characteristics including inline IPS support, network access at the perimeter, and CSAs to application layer inspection/enforcement, and SYN Cookie protect the server, workstations, and laptops. capabilities. These self-defending features can enable the ASA appliance to drop network attack connections and protect end Cisco Security Centralized management can be servers and users from attacks by monitoring, inspecting, and divided into two main functional areas: restricting the network connection attempts to target devices. Centralized configuration management Incident Control Service products, like the Cisco Security Manager, enable hundreds or thousands of routers and security Cisco also offers the ability to contain a worm infection appliances to be configured with a consistent or within the network. The Cisco Incident Control Service (ICS) coordinated security policy. Centralized is developed in partnership with Trend Micro. The Cisco ICS monitoring products, like the Cisco Security provides automatic updates of new vulnerability updates from MARS, receive monitoring events like sys log, Trend Micro. The Cisco ICS also provides the ability to SNMP Traps, IPS Secure Device Event Exchange automatically update these Outbreak Prevention Signatures on ASA, IOS router, and IPS platforms. In addition to Outbreak (SDEE), and Remote Data Exchange Protocol Prevention Signature update, Cisco ICS also provides Outbreak (RDEP) events and can create an end-to-end Prevention ACL (access list) updates, which can recommend picture of what is happening in the network based or automatically apply a new ACL to an IOS router or ASA upon the monitoring events from the devices in the device in the event that a network infection has been identified network. The Cisco centralized monitoring Cisco to the Cisco ICS. Security MARS product also adds a response or self-defending feature where Cisco Security MARS can create a recommendation on how to stop a network attack as well as enable IPS signatures on IOS routers with the Distributed Threat Mitigation (DTM) feature. VINEET PRATAP (MCA B6, ER&DCI-IT, C-DAC) WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 7
  • 8. ` WEBSITE and INTERNET DEVELOPMENT-Web 2.0 I still remember the day around the mid of June when Blogger,live I was in 5 standard, the year being 2000 when a friend of journal,wordpress,open source publishing mine with me went to a café‘ (an internet one!) to check the Wikipedia-The results of a Olympiad, just after 1 month of exam……..he revolutionary trust said‖Are you gone nuts? They take at least 2 months to Bit Torrent-The radical The user’s web compile the solutions and you are telling that they have decentralization platform ,user ‗Mailed‘ you our results RATHER than the school!(coz the Google-Open source and controls his/her school hadn‘t had any mail ID those days!),anyways I don‘t ad sense revolutionist data. know how to create a mailed leave apart using one. Now this surely must have happened to many of us, Del.icio.us and Flickr-Non taxonomy say around 5-6 years back, when visiting a café‘ was ‗suspicious‘ :P and people were doubtful as to how to surf on Social networking- Renaissance served on net, because they thought it was difficult to manage net and to internet know more about it. Features: Have you ever thought about the difference between  Now Internet users can contribute and create all types of content - from text using the Internet in the late 1990s and in 2007? (www.wikipedia.org) to pictures The most important and revolutionary change that has come (www.photobucket.com) to videos about on the net is the gradual rise of a new collaborative (www.muvee.com) to personal information Web. (www.hi5.com) to open source software (www.openoffice.org). This new Web environment has so become a part of our daily  There are also a variety of innovative and rich lives that the Time magazine named its Person of the Year for Web 2.0 applications that are being used by 2006 as 'You'. The decision was based keeping in mind the youngsters, students and almost all who seek role played by this phenomenon in changing the way people knowledge. The most prominent among them being Nuvvo (www.nuvvo.com), Schoolr use the Internet. (www.schoolr.com), Learn Without Limits According to the magazine: "The story of 2006 was a (www.learnwithoutlimits.com), and Qunu story about community and collaboration on a scale never (www.qunu.com). seen before. It's about cosmic compendium of knowledge  Another reason for the immense popularity of the Web 2.0 concept is the continuous rise in Wikipedia and the people's network YouTube and the online the number of Internet users. metropolis MySpace. It's about the many wresting power  But despite low user involvement it can be from the few and helping one another for nothing and how said that the new collaborative Web has that will not only change the world, but also change the way certainly changed the lives of Internet users the world changes."  Web 2.0, seen by many as a confluence of According to O-Reilly media, Web 2.0 refers to technology, people, and their attitudes, has second-generation of web-based services - social networking changed the way we think and use the Internet. sites, wikis, blogs, User Generated Content (UGC) - that accentuate online collaboration and sharing among users. It is an arena where the web is a dominant platform compared to the desktop. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 8
  • 9. ` WEBSITE and INTERNET DEVELOPMENT-Web 2.0 WEBSITE DESIGN Just continuing from the point I left at the starting…how Two way conversational sites:All mentioned above and frontend developer languages like many times you thought that you can have your own Email ID PHP or ASP.net developed on either C# or say around 7 years back? It seemed to be almost a difficult VB. MySQL(a database),javascript, ajax (For thing to have…but now each and every clerk has one! dynamic sites like FORUM,BLOG etc.)learn more on www.w3schools.com Similarly now many of us dream to have one‘s own website say at a very basic level, a one way conversational site but we PHP+MySQL+Apache server(php codes execute don‘t know how to make one, or don‘t have time for the on server rather than on browser) the combination of all is available in apps like easyPHP and same…….now its an everyone‘s cup of tea ill assure you! Just XAMPP (Google it to download!) follow my experience and see if you could make one for yourself……. Free hosting: There are a lot of free hosting websites on ‗the‘ internet…… www.0fees.net,  As I mentioned about web 2.0, the major advantage of it is www.110mb.com, ww w.googlepages.com open source tech and free wares and non taxonomy which means everything which is meant to be free IS free……and believe me this free outsourcing is one of the most paying businesses ;P  One way conversational sites: These just show you certain info and you just can‘t really interact with these site, non- dynamic in nature, and basically meant for just online portfolios and stuff.  Requirements: HTML/XHTML, CSS (optional), Photoshop/Corel draw. Learn them to create web sites and images for your blogs.  Photoshop/CorelDraw: Image processing and editing Amar Deep Gupta software‘s, a must for every web designer but may not be 2nd year Student that much for a novice in this field…..learn more on I.I.T. Kharagpur www.wz2k.com , www.phong.com , www.tutorialwiz.com caustic576@gmail.com  Apart from these, if you don‘t have a good hand on +91-9734428858 Photoshop and CSS for that matter, but know what attribute serves what purpose then download readymade templates from www.freecsstemplates.com and www.freecsstemplates.org and then edit the .html/.htm file and change its content to suit your purpose, also if you want to shift some settings on web page here and there study CSS a bit like what property serves what purpose and change it according to your need. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 9
  • 10. MISC ARTICLES ` It is more than storage problem Which is known as memory production framework. The theory says that ―the brain makes In today‘s fast growing Information world, all of us on this earth predictions about the world through pattern want to store our information digitally especially on Web Spaces recognition and memory, recalling event (i.e. on internet).As the number of users grow in size day-by-day sequences and their nested relationships.‖ there is a need of larger storage space arises. Today‘s most popular server Gmail has more then 1 lack of server in its First of all, the theory explains how the neo cortex works—not the entire brain. The neo cortex makes America. well I m not talking about the problem of Storage up roughly half of a human brain; it's where all Space, as it can be solved easily by spending more money in high-level thought and perception takes place. It's buying storage spaces, also the memory is less costly these days. the place where you perceive the world. And it's a type of memory system, though it's different from The problem which i m talking about is how efficiently we can that of a computer in that it is composed of a tree- retrieve our information from the rapidly growing databases....? shaped hierarchy of memory regions that store how patterns flow over time, like the notes in a Every one of us are aware of the fact, that as the number of melody. We call this Hierarchical Temporal records grow in size inside any database its performance Memory (HTM). decreases rapidly. for example: if any Query of yours gives result in 100 milliseconds in 1 million records of database, after Computers must be programmed to solve problems, but HTM systems are self-learning. By inserting 10 Billion more records in the same database ,same exposing them to patterns from sensors (just like query will give you result in 100 seconds....? Isn‘t it quiet an the neo cortex receives information from the eyes amazing figure in terms of performance issues? Well this is a and ears), HTMs can automatically build a model tested figure. of the world. With this model, an HTM can recognize familiar objects and use that data to Can u see the scenario when we use Google search engine whose predict the future. So we're not claiming to build brains here. We are building things that we think database is scattered over 1 lack servers and then also it is giving can do what half of a human brain does. any search result in 10 seconds....how this is possible...? Every popular mail server is suffering from the same problem, as no of HTMs essentially do three things. First, they email messages are increasing like Tsunami and think, if u have discover how the world works by sensing and to search something in a larger database, how will u manage...? analyzing the world around them. Second, they recognize new inputs as part of its model, which Its Obvious, by writing a program. we call pattern recognition. Finally, they make predictions of what will happen in the future. We Jeetu Raj think we can build machines that are in some sense smarter than humans, that have more Can computer think like human brain?? memory, that are faster and can process data nonstop, because they use hierarchical and temporal data to predict outcomes—the same way Answer of this question can be viewed as a reinvention in the human brain works. the development in artificial intelligence. Palm computer founder JEFF HAWKINS developed a controversial theory of how the Rajeev Ranjan brain works, and he's using it to build a new race of computers. In Silicon Valley, Hawkins is best known as the founder of Palm MCA ER&DCI-IT(CUSAT) Computing Inc. and Handspring Inc., and as the mastermind behind the Palm Pilot and Treo line of smart phones. The idea about this human computer is based on the theory developed by Hawkins, WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 10
  • 11. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 11
  • 12. Java ` Java is a high level programming developed by Sun Different versions of java Microsystems and released in 1995. Java was created by James Gosling in June 1991 for use in one of his many set top  In 1995: Introduced version 1.0 of JDK box. The language was initially called ―oak‖ after that the 8 package with 212 class named to java. It should use the OOP methodology and allow Netscape 2.0-4.0 include java 1.0 the same program to be executed on multiple Operating  In 1997: Version 1.1 Systems. 23 package with 504 class What is java technology? Improvements include better event handling Inner class Java technology is: swing package of greatly improved graphics became available during this 1. A programming language: A java programming language time but not include with core language. is use to create all kinds of applications that programmer  In 1999: Version 1.2 (Java 2 platform) could create by using conventional programming 59 package with 1520 class language. Code and tools distributed the sw 2. A development environment: A java technology provides development kit you with a large suite of tools: a compiler, an interpreter, a Java class based on swing for improved documentation generator, a class file packaging tool etc. it graphics and user interface include with is usually mentioned in the perspective of World Wide core java. Web and browser that are capable of running programs  In 2000: Version 1.3 called ―applets”. Applets are programs written in the java 76 package with 1842 class that resides on web servers, are downloaded by a browser Performance enhancement including the Virtual machine to a client‘s system and run by the browser.  In 2002: Version 1.4 3. An application environment: java applications are 135 package with 2991 class application or general-purpose programs that run on any Improved IO, XML support machine where the Java runtime environment (JRE) is  In 2004: Version 5.0 installed. 165 package over 3000 class 4. A deployment environment: there are two main using Metadata environments. First, the JRE supplied by the Java 2 Improved multithreading features software Development Kit contains the complete set of the class files for all of the java packages, which includes Distinctive feature of java basic language classes, GUI component classes, an Compiled and Interpreter: The other programming advance Collection API, and so on. Second, environment language is either compiled or interpreter but the is on your web browser. Most commercial browsers java combines both these approaches. First java supply a java technology interpreter and runtime compiler translates source code into byte code environment. Java technology is versatility, efficiency; instruction platform portability and security make it the ideal technology for network computing. Program.java javac Program.class Program.class java Byte Code WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 12
  • 13. ` Platform Independent: java is a platform Way of using independence language that means program written in the java Java java language must run any supported hw operating system program (Windows, Linux, Solaris).One should be able to write a program once, compile at once and run it anywhere. Java Object oriented programming: java is object Java c oriented which means data and function reside within objects compile and class. Java comes with an extensive set of classes r arranged in package. Applet program Application Java program Java Data Data appletviewer Interpreter (enable web browser) Method Method Output Object 1 Object 2 Communication Class Sample Code public class ASCII_code{ public static void main(String argv[]) Secure: security is the most important aspects of any { System.out.println("ValuetChartValuetChartValuetChar programming language, java is secure programming tValuetChartValuetChart"); language. The absence of pointer in java ensures that int c=1; while (c < 256) programs can‘t gain access to memory location without { proper authorization. for (int col = 0; col < 5 && c < 256; col++, c++) System.out.print(c + "t" + (char)c + "t"); Why java? System.out.println(); }}}  Write s/w on one platform run it on virtually any other platform.  Create programmers to run within a web browser and web services.  Develop server side application for online forums, stores, polls, HTML, form processing and more.  Combines application or services using the java language to create highly customized application and service. Ravindra Bohra  Develop powerful and efficient application for mobile MCA B8 ER&DCIT(CUSAT) phones, remote processing, low cost consume products and practically any other device with a digital heartbeat. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 13
  • 14. ` XHTML and CSS for presentation the Document Object Model for dynamic display of and interaction with data XML and XSLT for the interchange and manipulation of data, respectively the XMLHttpRequest object for asynchronous communication JavaScript to bring these technologies together Ajax (asynchronous JavaScript and XML), or AJAX, is a group of interrelated web development techniques used for creating interactive web applications or rich Internet applications. With Ajax, web applications can retrieve data from the server asynchronously in the background without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data is retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object or through the use of Remote Scripting in browsers that do not support it. Despite the name, the use of JavaScript, XML, or asynchrony is not required History Since then, however, there have been a number of developments in the technologies used in an Ajax While the term Ajax was coined in 2005,techniques for the application, and the definition of the term Ajax. In asynchronous loading of content date back to 1996, when particular, it has been noted that: Internet Explorer introduced the IFrame element.Microsoft's Remote Scripting, introduced in 1998, acted as a more JavaScript is not the only client-side scripting elegant replacement for these techniques, with data being language that can be used for implementing an pulled in by a Java applet with which the client side could Ajax application. Other languages such as VBScript are also capable of the required communicate using JavaScript. In 1999, Microsoft created functionality. the XMLHttpRequest object as an ActiveX control in The XMLHttpRequest object is not necessary Internet Explorer 5, and developers of Mozilla and Safari for asynchronous communication. It has been followed soon after with native versions of the object.On noted that IFrames are capable of the same April 5, 2006 the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) effect.X released the first draft specification for the object in an ML is not required for data interchange and attempt to create an official web standard therefore XSLT is not required for the manipulation of data. JavaScript Object Technologies Notation (JSON) is often used as an alternative format for data The term Ajax has come to represent a broad group of web interchange,although other formats such as technologies that can be used to implement a web application preformatted HTML or plain text can also be that communicates with a server in the background, without used. interfering with the current state of the page. In the article that coined the term Ajax, Jesse James Garrett explained that it refers specifically to these technologies: WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 14
  • 15. ` The use of Ajax can reduce connections to the server, since scripts and style sheets only have to be requested once. Reverse Ajax Reverse Ajax refers to an Ajax design pattern that uses long-lived HTTP connections to enable low-latency communication between a web server and a browser. Basically it is a way of sending data from client to server and a mechanism for pushing server data back to the browser. This server–client communication takes one of two forms: Client polling, the client repetitively queries (polls) the server and waits for an Since then, however, there have been a number of answer. developments in the technologies used in an Ajax Server pushing, a connection between a application, and the definition of the term Ajax. In particular, server and client is kept open, the server it has been noted that: sends data when available. JavaScript is not the only client-side scripting language that can be used for implementing an Ajax application. Reverse Ajax describes the implementation of Other languages such as VBScript are also capable of the any of these models, including a combination required functionality. of both. The design pattern is also known as The XMLHttpRequest object is not necessary for Ajax Push, Full Duplex Ajax and Streaming asynchronous communication. It has been noted that Ajax. IFrames are capable of the same effect. XML is not required for data interchange and therefore XSLT is not required for the manipulation of data. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is often used as an alternative format for data interchange,although other formats such as preformatted HTML or plain text can also be used. Darshana S. Dutta Advantages MCA B6,ER&DCI-IT, In many cases, the pages on a website consist of much C-DAC Campus, TVM content that is common between them. Using traditional methods, that content would have to be reloaded on every request. However, using Ajax, a web application can request only the content that needs to be updated, thus drastically reducing bandwidth usage. The use of asynchronous requests allows the client's Web browser UI to be more interactive and to respond quickly to inputs, and sections of pages can also be reloaded individually. Users may perceive the application to be faster or more responsive, even if the application has not changed on the server side. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 15
  • 16. Why PC Crashes? Fatal error: the system has become unstable or is busy," it says. "Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications." You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Mcft Windows will be familiar with this. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening? 1 Hardware conflict The number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device. For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself. If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is through the following route: * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager. Often if a device has a problem a yellow '!' appears next to its description in the Device Manager. Highlight Computer (in the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears twice, two devices may be using it. Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as 'IRQ holder for PCI steering'. This can be ignored. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it. Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good resource is www.driverguide.com. If the device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty). When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to discharge any static electricity. To be fair to Mcft, the problem with IRQ numbers is not of its making. It is a legacy problem going back to the first PC designs using the IBM 8086 chip. Initially there were only eight IRQs. Today there are 16 IRQs in a PC. It is easy to run out of them. There are plans to increase the number of IRQs in future designs. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 16
  • 17. 2 Bad Ram A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the Ram. Older EDO (extended data Ram (random-access memory) problems might out) Ram has a CAS latency of 3. Newer SDRam bring on the blue screen of death with a message has a CAS latency of 2. Setting the wrong figure can saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates cause the Ram to lock up and freeze the computer's a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may display. Mcft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ mean a part is damaged and will need replacing. numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow But a fatal error caused by Ram might be caused by Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70- the BIOS setting for Plug and Play OS is switched to nanosecond (70ns) Ram with 60ns Ram will usually 'yes' to allow Windows to do this.). force the computer to run all the Ram at the slower speed. This will often crash the machine if the Ram 4 Hard disk drives is overworked.One way around this problem is to After a few weeks, the information on a hard disk enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is of the Ram. This can make it more stable. Another a good idea to defragment the hard disk every week way to troubleshoot a suspected Ram problem is to or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen rearrange the Ram chips on the motherboard, or freeze. Go to take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Disk Ram try not to touch the gold connections, as they Defragmenter can be easily damaged. Parity error messages also This will start the procedure. You will be unable to refer to Ram. Modern Ram chips are either parity write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not to is defragmenting, so it is a good idea to schedule the mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble. procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems Scheduler. but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be The Task Scheduler should be one of the small icons due to free memory problems often linked to old on the bottom right of the Windows opening page Dos-based-programmes. (the desktop). Some lockups and screen freezes caused by hard disk problems can be solved by 3 BIOS settings reducing the read-ahead optimisation. This can be adjusted by going to Every motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System Icon- common way to access these settings is to press the Performance-File System-Hard Disk. F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too boot-up. Once inside the BIOS, great care should full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece every few months and free some space on it. Open of paper all the settings that appear on the screen. the Windows folder on the C drive and find the That way, if you change something and the Temporary Internet Files folder. computer becomes more unstable, you will know what settings to revert to. WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 17
  • 18. Deleting the contents (not the folder) can free a lot This will also slow down the computer's of space. Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free performance. If the printer is trying to print unusual more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned characters, these might not be recognised, and can crash the computer. Sometimes printers will not every week for errors or bad sectors. Go to recover from a crash because of confusion in the * Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools- buffer. A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug ScanDisk the printer for ten seconds. Booting up from a powerless state, also called a cold boot, will restore Otherwise assign the Task Scheduler to perform the printer's default settings and you may be able to this operation at night when the computer is not in carry-on. use. 7 Software 5 Viruses A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly-installed software. Often the problem can be Often the first sign of a virus infection is instability. cured by uninstalling the software and then Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, reinstalling it. Use Norton Uninstall or Uninstall making it impossible to start. This is why it is a Shield to remove an application from your system good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to properly. This will also remove references to the programme in the System Registry and leaves the * Start-Settings-Control Panel-Add/Remove way clear for a completely fresh copy. Programs 8 Overheating Here, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus Central processing units (CPUs) are usually protection requires constant vigilance. A virus equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to or if the CPU gets old it may start to overheat and be able to identify viruses. These signatures are generate a particular kind of error called a kernel stored in a DAT file. DAT files should be updated error. This is a common problem in chips that have weekly from the website of your antivirus software been overclocked to operate at higher speeds than manufacturer. An excellent antivirus programme is they are supposed to. McAfee VirusScan by Network Associates ( www.nai.com). Another is Norton AntiVirus 2000, 9 Power supply problems made by Symantec ( www.symantec.com). With all the new construction going on around the 6 Printers country the steady supply of electricity has become disrupted. A power surge or spike can crash a The action of sending a document to print creates a computer as easily as a power cut. bigger file, often called a postscript file. Printers have only a small amount of memory, For graphics related problem install graphic card called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. driver properly. Printing a document also uses a considerable Ratnakar Mishra amount of CPU power. MCA B6 ER&DCI-IT WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 18
  • 19. PROFILE OF AN IT SCHOOL Courses Offered. M.Tech in B.E/B.Tech degree in VLSI and Electronics & Embedded Communications / Systems Electronics & Instrumentation / Electrical & Electronics of a recognized University, with a minimum of 60% marks,with an aptitude and interest in electronics hardware design. Admission Forms can be obtained from the Office of ER&DCI(IT) by remitting a fee of Rs.750/-. About The Campus:- ER&DCI-IT is the manpower Master of As per the norms development and training arm of Centre for Development Computer prescribed by CUSAT. of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Thiruvananthapuram, Application Any graduate with an autonomous institution wholly owned by Department Mathematics as one of the of Information Technology, Government of India. main or subsidiary subjects or graduate in Electronics Formerly known as Electronics Research & Development /Computer Science / Centre of India (ER&DCI), the Centre is engaged in a Computer applications / variety of research, design and development activities in Engineering / Technology advanced areas of Electronics. Since its inception in 1974, with a minimum of 55% the Centre has acquired high competency, expertise and marks in all subjects other experience in the areas of VLSI - ASIC, Embedded than languages and Systems, Control & Instrumentation, Networking, humanities. Post Admission shall be based Broadcast & Communications, Power Electronics, Cyber- Graduate on the marks obtained in Forensics, language technologies, etc. with extensive on- Diploma in the qualifying examination site deployment of its technology outputs, and Transfer- Language The score obtained in the of-Technologies for manufacture of the products Technology entrance test (objective developed. The campus at Vellayambalam, in the heart of type) Thiruvananthapuram city was formally dedicated to the The Principal (Smt. Roshni V.S.) ER&DCI Institute of Technology, nation on 10th November 1980, as a National Centre of CDAC Campus, Vellayambalam, Excellence by Smt. Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of Trivandrum, Kerala – 695033 Ph: +91-471-2726106 India. ER&DCI-IT was started in 2001 with a mission to +91-471-2723333 Ext-295,250 groom and nurture internationally competitive Fax professionals, empowering them with state-of-the-art skill +91-471-2723456 +91-471-2722230 sets in Electronics, Communications and IT. www.erdciit.ac.in erdciit@cdactvm.in WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 19
  • 20. SOURCE CODE OF THE MONTH Without use any software protects cls your folder for unauthorized access. @ECHO OFF title Folder Private 1. Make a new folder (name it if EXIST "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD- as you like) 08002B30309D}" goto UNLOCK 2-Inside this folder make a if NOT EXIST Private goto MDLOCKER (TXT) file & copy the give :CONFIRM code inside it this: echo Are you sure you want to lock the folder(Y/N) 2. After u copy the set/p "cho=>" Commanding go to line (23) u if %cho%==Y goto LOCK will find this word: password if %cho%==y goto LOCK here (Change it with) any if %cho%==n goto END password u like. if %cho%==N goto END 3. After that make ‗save as‘ & echo Invalid choice. name as (locker.bat ) goto CONFIRM 4. Now back to the folder & u :LOCK will find a ( LOCKER ) ren Private "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD- commanding. 08002B30309D}" 5. Click on it & u will find a attrib +h +s "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD- new folder (Private ) 08002B30309D}" 6. Ok ,, now copy what u want in echo Folder locked it & after that go to ( locker ) goto End by click on it , it will open and :UNLOCK ask you want lock your echo Enter password to unlock folder folder? Y/N? set/p "pass=>" 7. Type Y if NOT %pass%== password here goto FAIL 8. If you want UNLOCK your attrib -h -s "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD- folder, go to (locker) & type 08002B30309D}" your pass and you will see ren "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}" your private folder. Private echo Folder Unlocked successfully goto End :FAIL echo Invalid password goto end :MDLOCKER md Private echo Private created successfully goto End :End COMPILED BY: PADMAKAR MISHRA (PATNA) mishra_padmakar@yahoo.co.in WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 20
  • 21. Tips and Tricks Hibernate Button on XP Hibernate is great because it saves the status of your Windows XP session (all the programs and documents you have open) to the hard drive,so it can automatically restore it the next time you power up. The first step to making a Hibernate shortcut is to make sure you have Hibernate turned on. Note: First read ―support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;893056‖. 1. Make Hibernate is enabled: Go start → Control Panel → click Power Options →Choose the hibernate tab → Select Enable hibernate support → click OK. 2. From the desktop right click: Choose New → Shortcut and in Type the location of the item “%windir%system32rundll32.exe PowrProf.dll,SetSuspendState”. And click Next → Type Hibernate → Finish. 3. Finally right click on your new Hibernate shortcut Select Properties from the drop-down menu → Choose change icon by browse an icon. OR Right click on desktop Click [new][shortcut] to open the shortcut wizard type "shutdown -h -t 00" without the double quotes. Click [next] and give it any name u like eg:-" hibernate" or any name. Click finish to close the wizard. FOR restart FOR shutdown type "shutdown -r -t 00" type "shutdown -s -t 00" WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 21
  • 22. Enable and Disable Windows Firewall Quickly using Command-line When testing network connectivity or when performing other troubleshooting tasks, you may need to turn off the Windows Firewall temporarily. To quickly disable or enable the Windows Firewall, you may use the Netsh.exe command-line in Windows XP and Windows Vista. Enabling Windows Firewall Click Start, Run and type:. Netsh firewall set opmode enable Disabling Windows Firewall Click Start, Run and type: Netsh firewall set opmode disable Windows Firewall status can be verified using Windows Security Center or the Windows Firewall applet. Note: In Windows Vista you need to run the above commands from an elevated Command Prompt. To open an elevated Command Prompt, click Start, click All Programs, click Accessories, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator. You may create desktop two shortcuts to enable and disable the Windows Firewall. To run the commands as administrator, right-click on the shortcut and choose Run as administrator. Or right-click the shortcut properties, click Advanced and tick the Run as administrator checkbox and click OK. Double-clicking the shortcut run the Netsh… command elevated, after you click the Continue button in the UAC confirmation dialog. Customize the shortcut icons by picking an appropriate icon from Shell32.dll, Imageres.dll or from xpsp2res.dll (for Windows XP) for easy identification. Editor’s Note: Although the netsh firewall command works fine in Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 Operating Systems, Microsoft recommends that you use the netsh advfirewall firewall command in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Ashok Kumar & Vineet ER&DCI-IT WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 22
  • 23. GAGET FREAKS Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. After some time we morph the mobile phone also .Nokia launch the first Morphing Mobile phone. The main feature of this phone * Nanotech-based fiber mesh is flexible, stretchable, transparent, and strong. * Elasticity lets it change shape. * Can be worn on wrist. * Folds up to fit in pocket; unfolds to reveal keyboard, display, touch pad. * Nano-structured surface is self-cleaning. * Repels water, dirt, fingerprints. * Small, thin, quick-charge battery. * Built-in solar absorption charges the device. * Integrated sensors inform user of pollution and chemicals. * Transparent electronics offer new aesthetic dimension. * Made of biodegradable materials. So in coming day’s we change our Electronic gadget shape like any Hollywood science friction Film so ready for revolution . WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 23
  • 24. FROM YOUR PEN Readers are requested to send their comments about the magazine and its contents. Suggestions are always welcomed. Send your mails at: infinitytechmagazine@gmail.com infinitytechmagazine@rediffmail.com infinitytechmagazine@yahoomail.com Join our communities and group at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/infinitytechmagazine infinitytechmagazine@yahoogroups.com http://www.orkut.co.in/Community.aspx?cmm=49916804 Join these groups to receive the magazine directly to your mail box. visit us at : www.infinitytech.co.nr CONTRIBUTERS Ratnakar Mishra Vineet Pratap Singh Shashidhar Chaturvedi Shashwat Shriparv WWW.INFINITYTECH.CO.NR, WWW.INFINITYSOFT.CO.CC Page 24