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1 The Database Design And Implementation Process Shashwat Shriparv firstname.lastname@example.org InfinitySoft
2 Phase 2a (continued…) Schema (view) integration For large databases with many expected users and applications, the view integration approach of designing individual schema and merging them can be used.
3 Schema integration has following subtask: 1: Identifying correspondences and conflicts among the schema: Because the schemas are individually designed, it is necessary to specify construct the schema that represent real world concept. a)Namingconflicts Two types:- 1)SYNONYMS different name same concept 2)HOMONYMS same name different concept
4 b) Type conflicts: Same concepts represented in two schemas by different modeling constructs c) Domain conflicts: An attribute may have different domains in two schemas. d) Conflicts among Constraints: Two Schemas may impose different constraints
5 2.Modifying views to conform to one another: Some schema are modified so that they conform other schema closely. Conflicts that are identified in subtask one are resolved during this step. 3.Merging views: Global scheme are created by merging individual schema. Corresponding concepts are represented once in resulting schema and mapping between the views are done. 4.Restructuring: This is an optional step and is done to avoid redundancies or unnecessary complexity.
6 Number Volume Size Title Jid Article Published_in Journal Contributed By Publisher Title name Classificationid Belongs_to Book Subject Written By Author Researcher View 1 View 2
7 Number Volume Jid Published in Size Title Journal Article Belongs to Subject Author Classificationid Name Written_by Modified View 1
8 Number Volume Publisher Title Size Jid Written_by Published in Author subject subject d Belongs to Book Article Publication Journal Classificationid Name Merged view
9 Strategies for Merging Taking into consideration the complexity of merging process and to get the exact meaning of the schema after merging, there are several strategy proposed…
10 1.Binnary ladder integration. Two schema quite similar are integrated first, then the resulting schema with another similar schema and so on…the ordering depend on the measure of similarity V5 V4 V 3 V2 V1
11 2.N-ary integration All schemas are integrated at one stretch using a single procedure after the analysis of the correspondences V5 V4 V 3 V1 V2
12 3.Binary balanced strategy: Pairs of schema are integrated first ,then the resulting schema are paired for further integration. V3 V5 V4 V1 V2
13 4.Mixed strategy: The schemas are portioned into groupsbased ontheir similarity and each group is integrated separately 4.Mixed strategy: The schemas are portioned into groupsbased ontheir similarity and each group is integrated separately V6 V6 V 3 V 3 V5 V5 V2 V4 V4 V1 V1
14 Phase 2b Transaction Design The purpose of this phase is to design the characteristics of known database transactions in a DBMS-independent way… Designers are aware of many transactions that will run, once database is implemented. Important part database design is to specify its functional characteristics of these transactions. Usually, some database transaction are known at design time; after database is implemented, newer transactions are identified and implemented.
15 Transaction are usually grouped into 3 categories. 1). Retrieval transaction. Retrieves data. 2). Update transaction. Update data. 3). Mixed transaction. mixture of retrieval and update transaction
16 Thank You Shashwat Shriparv email@example.com InfinitySoft