BRAIN DEVICE MOVES OBJECTS BY THOUGHT
Brain Device Moves Objects by
Brain Device (brain-machine interface) is a
new technology which can let human to
control electronic devices without lifting a
It simply reads brain activity.
The brain-machine interface
analyzes slight changes in the
brain's blood flow and translates
brain motion into electric signals.
By measuring blood flow in the
brain, researchers can turn thoughts into
Types of Brain-machine interface
• There are two types of brain-machine
Non-invasive Brain-machine interface
This brain-machine interface works on technology called optical topography, which
sends a small amount of infrared light through the brain's surface to map out
changes in blood flow.
A key advantage to this technology is that sensors don't have to physically enter the
A cap connects by optical fibers to a mapping device, which links working device via
a control computer
Hitachi has sold a device based on optical
topography that monitors brain activity in
paralyzed patients so they can answer
for example, by doing mental
calculations to indicate "yes" or
thinking of nothing in particular to
Size is one issue, though Hitachi has
developed a prototype compact headband
and mapping machine that together
weight only about two pounds.
Another would be to tweak the interface to
more accurately pick up on the correct
signals while ignoring background brain
With over 100 tiny metal electrodes, the
berlin brain computer interface is the
most advanced non-invasive system in
This technologies was developed by U.S.
companies like Neural Signals Inc.
required implanting a chip under the skull.
A paralysed man in the US has become the
first person to benefit from a brain chip
that reads his mind.
Matthew Nagle, 25, was left paralysed from
the neck down and confined to a
wheelchair after a knife attack in 2001.
The brain chip reads his mind and sends
the thoughts to a computer to decipher
Recently four people, two of them partly
paralysed wheelchair users, were able to
move a computer cursor while wearing a cap
with 64 electrodes that pick up brain waves.
Mr. Nagle's device, called Brain Gate, consists
of nearly 100 hair-thin electrodes implanted a
millimetre deep into part of the motor cortex
of his brain that controls movement .
A team of scientists inserted the device, called
a neuromotor prosthesis (NMP or Brain
Gate), into an area of the brain known as the
motor cortex which is responsible for
The NMP comprises an internal sensor that
detects brain cell activity, and external
processors that convert the activity into
signals that can be recognised by a
A company called Cyberkinetics
Neurotechnology Systems created the
BrainGate device. Professors and
students at Brown University formed
Cyberkinetics in two thousand one. They
based their work on research developed
in the laboratory of neuroscientist John
SEE HOW THE SYSTEM WORKS
Although the patient's spinal cord had been
severed for three years by the time of the
trial, the scientists found that brain cell
activity - or neural firing patterns - persisted
in the patient's motor cortex.
The electrodes in the NMP were able to record
this activity and send it to a computer. The
computer then translated the firing patterns
into movement commands which could drive
computer controls or artificial limbs.
BrainGate is made up of a sensor, which is
implanted in the brain and attached to
neurons. The upper left image shows the
device that attaches to the implant on the
outside of the brain. The white box is
about the size of a VHS tape and contains
software that digitizes the signals coming
from the neurons. The image labeled
"cart" depicts the computer system that
interprets the digital code.
IN THE FUTURISTIC VISION OF THE WACHOWSKI BROTHERS'
MOVIE TRILOGY "THE MATRIX," HUMANS DIVE INTO A VIRTUAL
WORLD BY CONNECTING THEIR BRAINS DIRECTLY TO A