Nationalism In India


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Nationalism In India

  1. 1. Presented by Mrs. Manjula Sharma PGT (History) KV Andrews Ganj (New Delhi)
  2. 2. <ul><li>To make the children aware of the hardships people had gone through during the struggle for freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>To make the children understand the drawbacks of foreign rule. </li></ul><ul><li>To inculcate the feeling of nationalism in the minds of children. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It is connected to the anti-colonial movement. </li></ul><ul><li>People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. </li></ul><ul><li>The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond and tried many groups together. </li></ul><ul><li>The congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together in one movement. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>War created a new economic and political situation:- </li></ul><ul><li>Huge Increase in defence expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>Prices increased </li></ul><ul><li>Forced recruitment in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Crops failed in India-Acute shortage of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza Epidemic-12-13 million people died in epidemics and famines </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in Jan 1915- novel method of Mass agitation,the idea of Satyagraha. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1916-Travelled to Champaran to inspire peasants to struggle against oppressive plantation system. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1917-Kheda District of Gujarat. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1918- Ahmedabad to organize Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Call for ‘Hartal’ by Gandhiji on 6 April1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Rallies were organized. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers went on strike in Railway workshops. </li></ul><ul><li>Shops closed down. </li></ul><ul><li>British administration clamped on nationalists. </li></ul><ul><li>Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar. </li></ul><ul><li>Mahatma Gandhi barred from entering Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>On 10 April 1919 police fired on peaceful procession. Martial Law was imposed and General Dyer took command. </li></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><li>On 13 April the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence spread after this movement- Gandhiji called off the movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhiji felt the need for a new movement:- </li></ul><ul><li>At the Calcutta session of the congress in sep1920,he convinced other leaders Non Co-Operation </li></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>Surrender of Titles. </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, school and foreign goods </li></ul><ul><li>In summers of 1920 Gandhiji and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilizing popular support for the movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Sep to Dec - Intense tussle within the congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally at the congress session at Nagpur in Dec 1920 ,Non Co- operation Movement was adopted. </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>It started with middle class participation in the cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges. </li></ul><ul><li>Headmasters and teachers resigned. </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyers gave up their legal practices. </li></ul><ul><li>The councils elections were boycotted except Madras. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign goods were boycotted, Liquor shops picketed, foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Import of foreign cloth Halved between 1921-1922,its value dropping from Rs 102 crores to 57 crores. </li></ul><ul><li>People discarded Imported clothes and started wearing only indian clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Production of Indian textile mills and handloom went up. </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Awadh- Peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra-movement was against taluqdars and landlords. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants were forced to do Begar. </li></ul><ul><li>Demands-reduction of revenue,abolition of begar,and social bycott of oppressive landlords. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions –Nai –Dhobi bandhs were organised.Jawahar Lal Nehru headed oudh Kissan Sabha,300 branches were set up. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement in 1921-The houses of Taluqdars and merchants were attacked,Bazaars were looted.grain hoards were taken over.the name of Mahatama was taken for all actions and aspirations </li></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>Causes-The colonial government had enclosed large forest areas.People were prevented to enter to graze their cattle or collect fire wood and fruits. </li></ul><ul><li>This enraged the people because their livelihood and traditional rights were being denied. </li></ul><ul><li>Government forced them to ‘Begar’ for road building and they revolted under leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju. </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>Under the inland Emigration Act of 1859,Plantation workers were not allowed to leave tea gardens without permission. </li></ul><ul><li>As they heard of NCM they headed for homes. They believed that Gandhi Raj has come and they will be given lands in their own villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Result-They never reached their destination. They were caught by police and brutally beaten up. </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Movement was turning violent. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress leaders were tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to provincial councils set up by the the Government of India Act of 1919. </li></ul><ul><li>At Chauri –Chaura a police ‘thana’ was burnt in which 22 policemen died; Gandhiji rolled back the movement. </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>How did the first World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you understand by the term ‘Satyagraha’? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non co-operation movement? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act? </li></ul>