Skeletal system provides a structure for the body. It includes a vertebrae of spine and supports upper body and head.
Types of Bones
Small bones -includes bones in legs and arms
Short bones -bones in wrist and ankles
Flat bones -In skull and protect organs like the rib cage
Irregular bones -facial bones or vertebrae bones
The Skeletal System http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/skeletalsystem.html
Joints are the point were bones meet.
Types of Joints
Ball-and-socket joints - formed when a rounded head of one bone
fits into the rounded cavity of an jointed bone.
Hinge joints -would include elbow, knee, ankle, and fingers.
Allows bone to bend and straighten
Pivot joints - allow limited rotation or turning of the head
Ellipsoidal joints - bone in wrist, and a oval shaped part that
fits in a curved space, the joints slide over each other
Saddle Joints – two directional movement; between thumb and carpal
Gliding – least moveable (side to side); between vertebrae
Care of the Skeletal System
Ways to care for the Skeletal system is to eat foods that contain calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus, they can help prevent the development of certain skeletal disorders.
Problems of the Skeletal System
Problems of the skeletal system can be a result of poor nutrition, infections, sports, and recreational injuries and poor posture. Osteoporosis and dislocation of the joints are also other problems of the Skeletal System.
Osteoporosis - is a condition in which progressive loss of bone tissue occurs
Scoliosis - a lateral, or side-to-side, curvature of the spine
Repetitive motion injury - is a damage to tissues caused by prolonged, repeated movements such as computer work
Care and Problems of the Skeleton System
Hairline fractures - is where the fracture incomplete
Transverse fracture - a fracture that is completely across the bone
Comminuted fracture - is were the bone shatters into more than two pieces.
Dislocation - is when the ligaments attached to the bone are torn or out of place
Torn cartilage - is a sharp blow or twisting of the joint
Arthritis - inflammation of the joint and is a result of natural wear and tear
Injuries to Joints and Bones
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone structure Osteoporosis is NOT a natural part of aging Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disease There is increased risk for women, post-menopausal, over age 65 All races, sexes, and ages are susceptible to Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is preventable and treatable!
If you have arthritis, you may experience:
Reduced ability to move the joint
Redness of the skin around a joint
Stiffness, especially in the morning
Warmth around a joint
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints, which results in pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited movement. There are over 100 different types of arthritis.
Backache or low-back pain
Shoulders or hips appear uneven
Spine curves abnormally to the side
Scoliosis is a curving of the spine. The spine curves away from the middle or sideways.
Kyphosis is a curving of the spine that causes a bowing of the back, which leads to a hunchback or slouching posture.
Rickets is a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones. Bone pain or tenderness Dental deformities Decreased muscle tone (loss of muscle strength) Progressive weakness Impaired growth Increased bone fractures Muscle cramps Short stature (adults less than 5 feet tall) Skeletal deformities Asymmetrical or odd-shaped skull Bowlegs Breastbone pushed forward (pigeon chest) Pelvic deformities Spine deformities
Osteosarcoma is a cancerous (malignant) bone tumor that usually develops during the period of rapid growth that occurs in adolescence, as a teenager matures into an adult.
Bone fracture (may occur after what seems like a routine movement)
Limitation of motion
Limping (if the tumor is in the leg)
Pain when lifting (if the tumor is in the arm)
Tenderness, swelling, or redness at the site of the tumor
Functions of the Muscular System
Some involuntary functions of the muscular system are muscles to help you breathe, make your heart beat, and help move food through the digestive system.
Some voluntary functions of the muscular system are like playing piano, running, playing video games, and throwing a ball.
The Muscular System
Smooth muscles - acts on the lining of passageways and internal organs.
Skeletal muscles - these are attached to the bone and cause body movements
Cardiac Muscles - is a type of striated muscle that forms the wall of the heart
Problems of the Muscle System
Bruise - is a area of discolored skin that appears after an injury.
Tendonitis - is a inflammation of the tendon, caused by injury or over use aging
Hernia - when a organ or tissue protrudes through an area of weak muscle.