Innovation in Mobile Learning: An International Perspective          Mike Sharples     Institute of Educational           ...
Open University UK•   Largest University in the UK•   260,000 students•   Modern distance learning•   Open access    – Ope...
Mobile learning“Any sort of learning that happens whenthe learner is not at a fixed, predeterminedlocation, or learning th...
Mobile Technology• User centred• Personal• Networked• Portable• Ubiquitous• Durable
Personalised Learning• Learner centred• Individualised• Collaborative• Situated• Ubiquitous• Lifelong
Mobile           Learning• User centred   • Learner centred• Personal       • Individualised• Networked      • Collaborati...
What is the difference between these mobile tablet devices?
Answer: 35 years!Dynabook 1974                 Alan Kay       iPad 2010“A personal dynamicmedium for children ofall ages”L...
1974   1997          2002                 2002                        2003                               2004             ...
First phase of mobile learningHandheld in classrooms• Lecture response systems  – since 1947• Handheld computers in  class...
Second phaseLearning across contexts•   Personal learning organisers•   Field trips•   Museum visits•   Bite sized learnin...
Third phaseAmbient learning• Augmented reality  learning• Learning enhanced  physical spacesFocus on a learning-enabled wo...
Innovations in mobile learning
From basic technology...SMS textgame for        You are in thepeer                drop-in centre.                There are...
... to advanced technology
Innovative international m-learning projects                             MyArtSpaceMobilearn                    explorator...
MOBIlearn (www.mobilearn.org)2002-2004• Funded by the European  Commission• Aim: to develop services  for mobile learning ...
Large scale project•   24 partner organizations•   €7.4 million funding ($10.8 million)•   Open web service-based system• ...
Context               In a context                                        Creating a context              “that which     ...
Context as a „shell‟ that surrounds thehuman user of technologyContext created by the constructiveinteraction between peop...
Learning in context                               Data                          filtering and                           in...
Nottingham Castle museum
CAGE system• Navigation in a conceptual  space through physical  movement• Location-based content  delivery• Ultrasound tr...
Creating contextLearning assituated socialinteraction andknowledgeconstruction
MyArtSpace• Aim: to connect learning in  museums and classrooms• Enhance museums as sites for  authentic inquiry learning•...
Prepare inquiry in the     classroom                          MyArtSpace      Create and collect in the             museum...
Evaluation• Over 100 school visits• by 3000 children in three museums• Thousands of images and sounds created by  children...
Summary of findings• The technology worked– Photos, information on exhibits, notes, automatic  sending to website• Student...
www.ooklnet.com
Djanogly City Academy            “My favourite rich task is                                 „The Seasons‟ because you     ...
Smartphones for language learningSharp Labs EuropeUniversity of NottinghamTokushima University, Japan
Incidental second language learningE-book       Selected                         Personal     Game     Mobile             ...
Elmo Mark 2 for smartphones
Research questionAre there differences in the learning ofEnglish vocabulary through readingnovels, depending on the mode o...
Three modes of interaction• Paper book                                   Paper book• e-book reader with English  dictionar...
Participants• 39 students (24 female, 15 male) aged 15-  17 at a Japanese high school• 3 comparison groups balanced in ter...
Conclusions• The study was carefully set up and rigorously  conducted• It didn‟t show any particular technology to be  eff...
Elmo Mk3 for Android deviceProduct launch by Sharp in Autumn 2011
Toponimo– Tommy SweeneyContext and social language learning • See nearby locations   (from Google maps   API) • Click on a...
• Read words linked to  the location, with  definitions• Add new words
• Change the definition  and pronunciation• Add photo of the  word in context
• Share words,  definitions, photos,  pronunciations• Rate words for  relevancy
Personal Inquiry• Three year project• University of Nottingham/ Open University• Aim:  – To help children to engage in eff...
How can we help children to think, talk and act like good scientists?
Myself            My Environment        My Community        Personally meaningful investigations                          ...
Low cost inquiry toolkit
Lower cost inquiry toolkit                • Calculator                • Timer                • Camera                • Aud...
Inquiry Learning Cycle                         Based on:                         - Previous research                      ...
Record a daily food diary
For each meal – take a photo, describe the meal. Softwarecomputes nutritional content.
Compare to recommended daily intake
Powerful tools to create new inquiries
Median scores of domain knowledge  80  70  60  50  40                                Pre-test  30                         ...
Enjoyment of science lessons 29 28                     PI      Control 27 26 25 24 23 22        Pre-test    Post-test
nQuire onlinewww.nquire.org.uk
International collaboration in mobile    learningUniversity of Twente, University of Oslo, JosephFourier University, Unive...
Seminar University of Peking, October 2011
Seminar University of Peking, October 2011
Seminar University of Peking, October 2011
Seminar University of Peking, October 2011
Seminar University of Peking, October 2011
Seminar University of Peking, October 2011
Seminar University of Peking, October 2011
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Seminar University of Peking, October 2011

  1. 1. Innovation in Mobile Learning: An International Perspective Mike Sharples Institute of Educational Technology The Open University, UK
  2. 2. Open University UK• Largest University in the UK• 260,000 students• Modern distance learning• Open access – Open to all people Milton Keynes – Free access to learning materials online – 20 million downloads from iTunesU
  3. 3. Mobile learning“Any sort of learning that happens whenthe learner is not at a fixed, predeterminedlocation, or learning that happens when thelearner takes advantage of the learningopportunities offered by mobiletechnologies”Wikipedia. "Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment". MOBIlearn. October 2003. pp. 6.
  4. 4. Mobile Technology• User centred• Personal• Networked• Portable• Ubiquitous• Durable
  5. 5. Personalised Learning• Learner centred• Individualised• Collaborative• Situated• Ubiquitous• Lifelong
  6. 6. Mobile Learning• User centred • Learner centred• Personal • Individualised• Networked • Collaborative• Portable • Situated• Ubiquitous • Ubiquitous• Durable • Lifelong
  7. 7. What is the difference between these mobile tablet devices?
  8. 8. Answer: 35 years!Dynabook 1974 Alan Kay iPad 2010“A personal dynamicmedium for children ofall ages”Learning ResearchGroup, Xerox PARC
  9. 9. 1974 1997 2002 2002 2003 2004 2006 2008 2010
  10. 10. First phase of mobile learningHandheld in classrooms• Lecture response systems – since 1947• Handheld computers in classrooms – Since 1980s• E-books – since 1990• Data loggingFocus on handheld technology forformal education and training
  11. 11. Second phaseLearning across contexts• Personal learning organisers• Field trips• Museum visits• Bite sized learning• Professional updating• MOBIlearn and M-Learning European projectsFocus on the mobile learner
  12. 12. Third phaseAmbient learning• Augmented reality learning• Learning enhanced physical spacesFocus on a learning-enabled world
  13. 13. Innovations in mobile learning
  14. 14. From basic technology...SMS textgame for You are in thepeer drop-in centre. There are boxes of condoms andeducation posters for fly- posting. What do you do?in India
  15. 15. ... to advanced technology
  16. 16. Innovative international m-learning projects MyArtSpaceMobilearn exploratoryinternational learning withcontext-aware mobile phonesmLearning in UK museumsplatform L-Mo adaptive vocabulary learning in Japan
  17. 17. MOBIlearn (www.mobilearn.org)2002-2004• Funded by the European Commission• Aim: to develop services for mobile learning outside the classroom• Scenarios – Art gallery – First aid in workplace – Work-based MBA course
  18. 18. Large scale project• 24 partner organizations• €7.4 million funding ($10.8 million)• Open web service-based system• Content management• Context awareness• Collaboration• Mobile multimedia• Adaptive interface OMAF systems architecture for MOBIlearn
  19. 19. Context In a context Creating a context “that which “that which surrounds us” weaves together”Source: Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  20. 20. Context as a „shell‟ that surrounds thehuman user of technologyContext created by the constructiveinteraction between people andtechnologySource: Dourish, P. (2004) What we talk about when we talk about context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8 (1): 19-30.
  21. 21. Learning in context Data filtering and integration Data filtering and integration Computer User Context
  22. 22. Nottingham Castle museum
  23. 23. CAGE system• Navigation in a conceptual space through physical movement• Location-based content delivery• Ultrasound tracking system• Context awareness: – which painting? – how long? – been there before?
  24. 24. Creating contextLearning assituated socialinteraction andknowledgeconstruction
  25. 25. MyArtSpace• Aim: to connect learning in museums and classrooms• Enhance museums as sites for authentic inquiry learning• Learners as investigators• Service on mobile phones and website for inquiry-led museum learning
  26. 26. Prepare inquiry in the classroom MyArtSpace Create and collect in the museum View and share in the classroom Present a personal perspective
  27. 27. Evaluation• Over 100 school visits• by 3000 children in three museums• Thousands of images and sounds created by children in the museums and sent to personal websites• Year-long evaluation from initial design to final deployment• Observations, interviews, focus groups, surveys
  28. 28. Summary of findings• The technology worked– Photos, information on exhibits, notes, automatic sending to website• Students spent longer (90 mins compared to 20 mins)• Supported inquiry learning• Encouraged children to make active choices• Connected school and museum• Need for more teacher preparation• Managing the amount of collected material back in the classroom
  29. 29. www.ooklnet.com
  30. 30. Djanogly City Academy “My favourite rich task is „The Seasons‟ because you get to study music, dramaFirst „mobile learning school‟ and dance every day for a whole term and they are• Flexibility and mobility in my favourite lessons” Christopher Berry Year 9 the classroom and outside• Rich task curriculum – E.g. Exploring science and ethics• Breaking down the separate zones of teacher and pupil• Open (filtered) access to the Web
  31. 31. Smartphones for language learningSharp Labs EuropeUniversity of NottinghamTokushima University, Japan
  32. 32. Incidental second language learningE-book Selected Personal Game Mobile words words vocabulary game Read story for Rehearsevocabulary Practise vocabulary sentence list construction Missing words
  33. 33. Elmo Mark 2 for smartphones
  34. 34. Research questionAre there differences in the learning ofEnglish vocabulary through readingnovels, depending on the mode of mobileinteraction?
  35. 35. Three modes of interaction• Paper book Paper book• e-book reader with English dictionary• „ELMO‟: e-book reader with enhanced software, including E-book adaptive user modelling and additional interactivity Elmo adaptive system
  36. 36. Participants• 39 students (24 female, 15 male) aged 15- 17 at a Japanese high school• 3 comparison groups balanced in terms of English vocabulary and gender
  37. 37. Conclusions• The study was carefully set up and rigorously conducted• It didn‟t show any particular technology to be effective in enhancing incidental learning of English vocabulary• The technology wasn‟t engaging• The books were too difficult and boring• Since the work was not assessed there was no external motivation• Japanese teenagers have little or no free time in the evenings
  38. 38. Elmo Mk3 for Android deviceProduct launch by Sharp in Autumn 2011
  39. 39. Toponimo– Tommy SweeneyContext and social language learning • See nearby locations (from Google maps API) • Click on a location
  40. 40. • Read words linked to the location, with definitions• Add new words
  41. 41. • Change the definition and pronunciation• Add photo of the word in context
  42. 42. • Share words, definitions, photos, pronunciations• Rate words for relevancy
  43. 43. Personal Inquiry• Three year project• University of Nottingham/ Open University• Aim: – To help children to engage in effective science inquiries
  44. 44. How can we help children to think, talk and act like good scientists?
  45. 45. Myself My Environment My Community Personally meaningful investigations Food packaging Urban heat islands and decayFitness and heartrate Healthy eating Effect of noise pollution on birds Micro-climates
  46. 46. Low cost inquiry toolkit
  47. 47. Lower cost inquiry toolkit • Calculator • Timer • Camera • Audio recorder • Accelerometer • Location tracker • Tilt sensor • Communicator • Anemometer!
  48. 48. Inquiry Learning Cycle Based on: - Previous research on representing the inquiry process - UK national curriculum language and process for inquiry learning - Participatory design with science teachers
  49. 49. Record a daily food diary
  50. 50. For each meal – take a photo, describe the meal. Softwarecomputes nutritional content.
  51. 51. Compare to recommended daily intake
  52. 52. Powerful tools to create new inquiries
  53. 53. Median scores of domain knowledge 80 70 60 50 40 Pre-test 30 Post-test 20 10 0 Personal Inquiry Control
  54. 54. Enjoyment of science lessons 29 28 PI Control 27 26 25 24 23 22 Pre-test Post-test
  55. 55. nQuire onlinewww.nquire.org.uk
  56. 56. International collaboration in mobile learningUniversity of Twente, University of Oslo, JosephFourier University, University of Duisburg-Essen, University of Bergen, FraunhoferIAIS, University of Cyprus, University of Tartu, DePraktijk, Stichting Technasium, ENOVATE, OntarioInstitute for Studies in EducationVäxjö University, Sweden, StanfordUniversity, Intel Research, Pasco,National Geographic Society Open University, University of Nottingham, ScienceScope, UK research programme in Technology Enhanced Learning

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