Innovation in Mobile Learning: An International Perspective Mike Sharples Institute of Educational Technology The Open University, UK
Open University UK• Largest University in the UK• 260,000 students• Modern distance learning• Open access – Open to all people Milton Keynes – Free access to learning materials online – 20 million downloads from iTunesU
Mobile learning“Any sort of learning that happens whenthe learner is not at a fixed, predeterminedlocation, or learning that happens when thelearner takes advantage of the learningopportunities offered by mobiletechnologies”Wikipedia. "Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment". MOBIlearn. October 2003. pp. 6.
Mobile Technology• User centred• Personal• Networked• Portable• Ubiquitous• Durable
First phase of mobile learningHandheld in classrooms• Lecture response systems – since 1947• Handheld computers in classrooms – Since 1980s• E-books – since 1990• Data loggingFocus on handheld technology forformal education and training
Second phaseLearning across contexts• Personal learning organisers• Field trips• Museum visits• Bite sized learning• Professional updating• MOBIlearn and M-Learning European projectsFocus on the mobile learner
Third phaseAmbient learning• Augmented reality learning• Learning enhanced physical spacesFocus on a learning-enabled world
Innovative international m-learning projects MyArtSpaceMobilearn exploratoryinternational learning withcontext-aware mobile phonesmLearning in UK museumsplatform L-Mo adaptive vocabulary learning in Japan
MOBIlearn (www.mobilearn.org)2002-2004• Funded by the European Commission• Aim: to develop services for mobile learning outside the classroom• Scenarios – Art gallery – First aid in workplace – Work-based MBA course
Large scale project• 24 partner organizations• €7.4 million funding ($10.8 million)• Open web service-based system• Content management• Context awareness• Collaboration• Mobile multimedia• Adaptive interface OMAF systems architecture for MOBIlearn
Context In a context Creating a context “that which “that which surrounds us” weaves together”Source: Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Context as a „shell‟ that surrounds thehuman user of technologyContext created by the constructiveinteraction between people andtechnologySource: Dourish, P. (2004) What we talk about when we talk about context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8 (1): 19-30.
Learning in context Data filtering and integration Data filtering and integration Computer User Context
CAGE system• Navigation in a conceptual space through physical movement• Location-based content delivery• Ultrasound tracking system• Context awareness: – which painting? – how long? – been there before?
MyArtSpace• Aim: to connect learning in museums and classrooms• Enhance museums as sites for authentic inquiry learning• Learners as investigators• Service on mobile phones and website for inquiry-led museum learning
Prepare inquiry in the classroom MyArtSpace Create and collect in the museum View and share in the classroom Present a personal perspective
Evaluation• Over 100 school visits• by 3000 children in three museums• Thousands of images and sounds created by children in the museums and sent to personal websites• Year-long evaluation from initial design to final deployment• Observations, interviews, focus groups, surveys
Summary of findings• The technology worked– Photos, information on exhibits, notes, automatic sending to website• Students spent longer (90 mins compared to 20 mins)• Supported inquiry learning• Encouraged children to make active choices• Connected school and museum• Need for more teacher preparation• Managing the amount of collected material back in the classroom
Djanogly City Academy “My favourite rich task is „The Seasons‟ because you get to study music, dramaFirst „mobile learning school‟ and dance every day for a whole term and they are• Flexibility and mobility in my favourite lessons” Christopher Berry Year 9 the classroom and outside• Rich task curriculum – E.g. Exploring science and ethics• Breaking down the separate zones of teacher and pupil• Open (filtered) access to the Web
Smartphones for language learningSharp Labs EuropeUniversity of NottinghamTokushima University, Japan
Incidental second language learningE-book Selected Personal Game Mobile words words vocabulary game Read story for Rehearsevocabulary Practise vocabulary sentence list construction Missing words
Research questionAre there differences in the learning ofEnglish vocabulary through readingnovels, depending on the mode of mobileinteraction?
Three modes of interaction• Paper book Paper book• e-book reader with English dictionary• „ELMO‟: e-book reader with enhanced software, including E-book adaptive user modelling and additional interactivity Elmo adaptive system
Participants• 39 students (24 female, 15 male) aged 15- 17 at a Japanese high school• 3 comparison groups balanced in terms of English vocabulary and gender
Conclusions• The study was carefully set up and rigorously conducted• It didn‟t show any particular technology to be effective in enhancing incidental learning of English vocabulary• The technology wasn‟t engaging• The books were too difficult and boring• Since the work was not assessed there was no external motivation• Japanese teenagers have little or no free time in the evenings
Elmo Mk3 for Android deviceProduct launch by Sharp in Autumn 2011
Toponimo– Tommy SweeneyContext and social language learning • See nearby locations (from Google maps API) • Click on a location
• Read words linked to the location, with definitions• Add new words
• Change the definition and pronunciation• Add photo of the word in context
• Share words, definitions, photos, pronunciations• Rate words for relevancy
Personal Inquiry• Three year project• University of Nottingham/ Open University• Aim: – To help children to engage in effective science inquiries
How can we help children to think, talk and act like good scientists?
Myself My Environment My Community Personally meaningful investigations Food packaging Urban heat islands and decayFitness and heartrate Healthy eating Effect of noise pollution on birds Micro-climates
Inquiry Learning Cycle Based on: - Previous research on representing the inquiry process - UK national curriculum language and process for inquiry learning - Participatory design with science teachers
International collaboration in mobile learningUniversity of Twente, University of Oslo, JosephFourier University, University of Duisburg-Essen, University of Bergen, FraunhoferIAIS, University of Cyprus, University of Tartu, DePraktijk, Stichting Technasium, ENOVATE, OntarioInstitute for Studies in EducationVäxjö University, Sweden, StanfordUniversity, Intel Research, Pasco,National Geographic Society Open University, University of Nottingham, ScienceScope, UK research programme in Technology Enhanced Learning