Designing Learning
Towards a scalable interdisciplinary
design science of learning
Mike Sharples
Learning Sciences Researc...
Big challenges, big opportunities
• Transforming higher education
– Flexible institutions
– Open learning
– Blended and di...
New complexities of
learning
• New interactions
– Mediation of technology
– Between learners, education
institutions, comm...
New Science of Learning
A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J.
Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200)
Foundations for a New Science of
L...
New Science of Learning
A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J.
Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200)
Foundations for a New Science of
L...
New Science of Learning
A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J.
Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200)
Foundations for a New Science of
L...
Changing behaviour Neuroscience
Behavioural science
Enhancing skills Cognitive development
Storing information Cognitive s...
Interdisciplinary design science of
learning
• How do people learn as individuals,
groups, organisations, societies?
• How...
Design-based research
“A systematic but flexible methodology aimed
to improve educational practices through
iterative anal...
Benefits of DBR
• Problem driven
– Not only understand, document, and
interpret, but also change and improve
• Systematic ...
Problems of DBR
• Can be lengthy
• How to systematically explore a
space of possibilities
• Can lead to ‘hillclimbing’ exp...
Scalable interdisciplinary design
science of learning
“No longer can one community
attempt to design TEL tools;
communicat...
Socio-cognitive Engineering
A scalable method for design-based learning
research
General
requirements
Theory of Use
Design...
Socio-cognitive Engineering
Example of use in the MOBIlearn project
(www.mobilearn.org)
General
requirements
Theory of Use...
Lifecycle evaluation
• Micro level: Usability issues
– technology usability
– individual and group activities
• Meso level...
Two examples of scalable design
based research
Secondary education, but also being
extended to higher education
•Group scr...
Example of large-scale learning
design project: Group Scribbles
Social-constructivist
theories of learning
Social-construc...
Classroom Orchestration:
Group Scribbles & SceDer
• Developed by SRI
International Centre for
Technology in Learning
• Sys...
SceDer
Jitti Niramitranon,
University of Nottingham PhD research
• Design-based research to extend Group
Scribbles for tea...
SceDer authoring tool
SceDer/GS classroom tool
Classroom evaluation at Djanogly
Academy, Nottingham
Inquiry Science Learning:
Personal Inquiry and nQuire
• Three year project
• University of Nottingham/ Open
University
• A...
Design based research
• Co-design of technology
and pedagogy
• Personal inquiry learning
• Scripted inquiry learning
– Gui...
Find
my topic
Decide
my inquiry question
or hypothesis
Plan
my methods,
equipment, actions
Collect
my evidence
Analyse
and...
nQuire web-based toolkit
www.nquire.org
• Open source (Drupal)
• Web-based
• Runs on Windows,
Linux, Mac
• Variety of devi...
Scalable design science of learning
• Transformational vision
– Orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning
– Personal inquiry le...
Designing learning
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Designing learning

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Designing learning

  1. 1. Designing Learning Towards a scalable interdisciplinary design science of learning Mike Sharples Learning Sciences Research Institute University of Nottingham
  2. 2. Big challenges, big opportunities • Transforming higher education – Flexible institutions – Open learning – Blended and distance learning – Personalised learning • Transforming school education • Enabling global access to education “We also should implement a new approach to research and development (R&D) in education that focuses on scaling innovative best practices in the use of technology in teaching and learning, ... creating a new organization to address major R&D challenges at the intersection of learning sciences, technology, and education.” Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology. US National Education Technology Plan, 2010.
  3. 3. New complexities of learning • New interactions – Mediation of technology – Between learners, education institutions, commercial providers • New connections – Learning at a distance – Learning between formal and informal settings • New opportunities – Trans-national learning – Massively social learning – Mobile and contextual learning – Life-long and life-wide learning
  4. 4. New Science of Learning A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. • Computational learning – Infer structural models from the environment – Learn from probabilistic input • Social learning – Learning by imitation – Shared attention • Neural learning – Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action • Developmental learning – Behavioural and cognitive development – Neural plasticity • Teaching and learning – Principles of effective teaching • Contextual and temporal learning – Learning within and across contexts – Cycle of engagement and reflection • Technology-enabled learning – Learning as a distributed socio-technical system
  5. 5. New Science of Learning A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. • Computational learning – Infer structural models from the environment – Learn from probabilistic input • Social learning – Learning by imitation – Shared attention • Neural learning – Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action • Developmental learning – Behavioural development – Neural plasticity • Teaching and learning – Principles of effective teaching • Contextual and temporal learning – Learning within and across contexts – Cycle of engagement and reflection • Technology-enabled learning – Learning as a distributed socio-technical system “Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice” Meltzoff et al., p284 “Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice” Meltzoff et al., p284
  6. 6. New Science of Learning A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. • Computational learning – Infer structural models from the environment – Learn from probabilistic input • Social learning – Learning by imitation – Shared attention • Neural learning – Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action • Developmental learning – Behavioural development – Neural plasticity • Teaching and learning – Principles of effective teaching • Contextual and temporal learning – Learning within and across contexts – Cycle of engagement and reflection • Technology-enabled learning – Learning as a distributed socio-technical system “A key component is the role of ‘the social’ in learning. What makes social interaction such a powerful catalyst for learning?” Meltzoff et al., p288 “A key component is the role of ‘the social’ in learning. What makes social interaction such a powerful catalyst for learning?” Meltzoff et al., p288
  7. 7. Changing behaviour Neuroscience Behavioural science Enhancing skills Cognitive development Storing information Cognitive sciences Gaining knowledge Cognitive sciences Epistemology Making sense of the world Social sciences Socio-cultural and activity theory Interpreting reality in a different way Phenomenology Interdisciplinary science of learning
  8. 8. Interdisciplinary design science of learning • How do people learn as individuals, groups, organisations, societies? • How can we design and share effective systems for learning? • How can we evaluate the success of learning? • Across contexts, throughout a lifetime
  9. 9. Design-based research “A systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real- world settings, and leading to contextually- sensitive design principles and theories” Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology- enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5-23.
  10. 10. Benefits of DBR • Problem driven – Not only understand, document, and interpret, but also change and improve • Systematic exploration of a space of possible designs • Combines engineering and evaluation • The designed context is subject to test and revision, and the successive iterations that result play a role similar to that of systematic variation in experiment
  11. 11. Problems of DBR • Can be lengthy • How to systematically explore a space of possibilities • Can lead to ‘hillclimbing’ exploration that misses ‘other peaks’
  12. 12. Scalable interdisciplinary design science of learning “No longer can one community attempt to design TEL tools; communication and sharing of expertise amongst them is of paramount concern” Yishay Mor & Niall Winters (2007) Design Approaches to Technology- Enhanced Learning, Interactive Learning Environments, 15, 1, 2007, 61- 75
  13. 13. Socio-cognitive Engineering A scalable method for design-based learning research General requirements Theory of Use Design Concept Contextual Studies Task model Design space System specification ImplementationDeployment Evaluation Sharples, M., Jeffery, N., du Boulay, J.B.H., Teather, D., Teather, B., and du Boulay, G.H. (2002) Socio-cognitive engineering: a methodology for the design of human-centred technology. European Journal of Operational Research 136, 2, pp. 310-323.
  14. 14. Socio-cognitive Engineering Example of use in the MOBIlearn project (www.mobilearn.org) General requirements Theory of Use Design Concept Contextual Studies Task model Design space System specification ImplementationDeployment Evaluation Theory of learning for the mobile world Theory of learning for the mobile world OMAF design framework for mobile learning OMAF design framework for mobile learning Lifecycle evaluation Lifecycle evaluation Studies of informal learning practices Studies of informal learning practices General requirements for a mobile learning platform General requirements for a mobile learning platform M-learning task model M-learning task model MOBIlearn systemMOBIlearn systemDeployed in Uffizi Gallery, Nottingham Castle Museum Deployed in Uffizi Gallery, Nottingham Castle Museum
  15. 15. Lifecycle evaluation • Micro level: Usability issues – technology usability – individual and group activities • Meso level: Educational Issues – learning experience as a whole – continuity of learning across settings – critical incidents: learning breakthroughs and breakdowns • Macro level: Organizational Issues – effect on the educational practice – emergence of new practices – take-up and sustainability Vavoula, G. & Sharples, M. (2009) Meeting the Challenges in Evaluating Mobile Learning: a 3-level Evaluation Framework. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 1,2, 54-75.
  16. 16. Two examples of scalable design based research Secondary education, but also being extended to higher education •Group scribbles/SceDer –Orchestrating individual and group learning in a 1:1 classroom (where each student has a wireless laptop or tablet) •Personal Inquiry –Supporting inquiry-based science learning within and beyond the classroom
  17. 17. Example of large-scale learning design project: Group Scribbles Social-constructivist theories of learning Social-constructivist theories of learning Theory and practice of 1:1 learning in classrooms Theory and practice of 1:1 learning in classrooms Scenarios of successful classroom practice Scenarios of successful classroom practice G1:1 global research network www.g1to1.org NCU Taiwan SRI, United States Group Scribbles softwareGroup Scribbles software SRI International United States, Taiwan, Singapore, UK, Spain SceDer for orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning SceDer for orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning LSRI, United Kingdom SceDer for orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning SceDer for orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning Classroom evaluations Djanogly City Academy, UK Sharing of research findings Sharing of research findings CSCL workshop, Greece
  18. 18. Classroom Orchestration: Group Scribbles & SceDer • Developed by SRI International Centre for Technology in Learning • System to support 1:1 classroom learning • Based on Post-its metaphor • Design and evaluation in US, Taiwan, Singapore, UK, Spain Group scribbles in Singapore Group scribbles in the USA
  19. 19. SceDer Jitti Niramitranon, University of Nottingham PhD research • Design-based research to extend Group Scribbles for teacher authoring and classroom management • Based on scenarios of classroom interactions from SRI and NCU, Taiwan • Teacher support for orchestration of individual, group and whole class learning
  20. 20. SceDer authoring tool
  21. 21. SceDer/GS classroom tool
  22. 22. Classroom evaluation at Djanogly Academy, Nottingham
  23. 23. Inquiry Science Learning: Personal Inquiry and nQuire • Three year project • University of Nottingham/ Open University • Aim: – To help students engage in effective science inquiries
  24. 24. Design based research • Co-design of technology and pedagogy • Personal inquiry learning • Scripted inquiry learning – Guided learning activities on a personal mobile computer Find my topic Decide my inquiry question or hypothesis Plan my methods, equipment, actions Collect my evidence Analyse and represent my evidence Respond to my question or hypothesis Share and discuss my inquiry Reflect On my progress
  25. 25. Find my topic Decide my inquiry question or hypothesis Plan my methods, equipment, actions Collect my evidence Analyse and represent my evidence Respond to my question or hypothesis Share and discuss my inquiry Reflect On my progress nQuire Inquiry Guide to structure inquiry learning outside the classroom
  26. 26. nQuire web-based toolkit www.nquire.org • Open source (Drupal) • Web-based • Runs on Windows, Linux, Mac • Variety of devices including iPhones • Authoring, teacher, and student applications • Individual, group and whole class activities
  27. 27. Scalable design science of learning • Transformational vision – Orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning – Personal inquiry learning • Interdisciplinary science of learning • Design based research • Open sharing and scaling of best practice • Large scale embedding and evaluation
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