Extreme learning


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Extreme learning

  1. 1. Extreme Learning Reality, Risk and Educational Games Mike Sharples
  2. 2. Comparison of learning <ul><li>Classroom based </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed risk </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic risk </li></ul><ul><li>No immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Situated </li></ul><ul><li>Thrownness </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate risk </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic risk </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul>
  3. 3. Extreme Learning <ul><li>Extreme learning is a learning activity with real or simulated authenticity and an assessable intrinsic risk </li></ul>
  4. 4. Risks of extreme learning <ul><li>Warfare You die </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous sports You injure yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine You injure someone else </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre performance Embarrass yourself and cast </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Embarrass yourself </li></ul>Get it wrong and..
  5. 5. Benefits of extreme learning <ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Personal engagement and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Towards “one shot” learning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Teaching methods <ul><li>Apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection in and on experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schön: reflection in action; reflection on action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value of limited examples </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See one, do one, teach one </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Design of environments for extreme learning <ul><li>Augmented reality, or simulated reality </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Minimisation of danger, but not of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on real consequences of failure </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reality: what is real? <ul><li>If you use a simulated calculator are you calculating? </li></ul><ul><li>If you use a flight simulator, are you flying? </li></ul><ul><li>So what is the difference between calculating and flying? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Calculation and flying <ul><li>Calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Its essential property is independent of its physical embodiment </li></ul><ul><li>Mind game </li></ul><ul><li>Failure causes mental annoyance </li></ul><ul><li>Flying </li></ul><ul><li>Its essential property depends on “being there” </li></ul><ul><li>Mind and body game </li></ul><ul><li>Failure causes physical harm </li></ul>
  10. 10. Total simulation <ul><li>People are given a “flight in a Lear Jet”. Enters the plane. Flies around. Lands at the same place. Gets out. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it was a flight simulator. </li></ul><ul><li>Passengers believe they have flown in a Lear Jet. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the flight real? </li></ul><ul><li>No – the risks weren’t authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield simulations: excitement but no risk </li></ul>
  11. 11. Risk and learning <ul><li>Types of risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate vs delayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical vs non-physical (e.g. financial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to assess vs difficult to assess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual vs collective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk vs challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge without risk can lead to overconfidence and inability to anticipate danger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk without challenge is foolhardy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk vs harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessing associated risk is an important part of game playing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Risk for effective learning <ul><li>Immediately assessable </li></ul><ul><li>Direct connection between activity and risk </li></ul><ul><li>Risk rather than harm </li></ul><ul><li>(Simulated) reality + assessable intrinsic risk = extreme learning </li></ul>
  13. 13. Extreme learning games <ul><li>Real-world game activities in which reality and risk are maximised, and inauthenticity and harm are minimised </li></ul><ul><li>Important to know the rules of the game, and to be able to act quickly to avoid breaking them </li></ul>
  14. 14. Issues from 1 st presentation <ul><li>Is “risk” the right term (too limited – calculation of tradeoffs between benefits and harm) </li></ul><ul><li>Risk vs payoff – people are more willing to take risk when high payoff </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In assessing risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In tolerating risk (context dependent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme park design: designing to maximise challenge but minimise danger </li></ul><ul><li>What are people learning in extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning about risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to avoid risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through risk (about some topic) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Rachel’s comments Simulated ethics vs ethics of simulation <ul><li>Reminds me of the work we did on simulation and </li></ul><ul><li>> medical students where 2 CBLers piloting the software managed </li></ul><ul><li>> to deduce the underlying model of horomone control whilst the </li></ul><ul><li>> medical students did not - the CBLers were abstractly minded </li></ul><ul><li>> to 'kill' the 'normal' patient as a means to test the model </li></ul><ul><li>> whilst medical students thought the game was to remember what </li></ul><ul><li>> they had learnt from the textbook and prevent the 'patient' </li></ul><ul><li>> cases from dieing. The result was the 2 CBLers learnt how </li></ul><ul><li>> the system worked whilst the medical students learnt what </li></ul><ul><li>> were safe if 'placebo' doses. (I do exaggerate a little! :-) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research questions <ul><li>What functions do risk, trust, competition and collaboration play in effective learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can moving along the continuum between real and virtual environments cause people to modulate their perception and action? </li></ul><ul><li>How can people be supported to reflect on their learning in risky environments? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we design technology to support reflection before action, reflection in action and reflection on action for extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we enable people with physical handicap to experience the benefits of extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the design principles and requirements for different kinds of technology to support extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we evaluate extreme learning activities: to assess the immediate and delayed learning gains, the transfer to other learning situations, and the effects on the view of the world? </li></ul>