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Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
Extreme learning
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Extreme learning

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  • 1. Extreme Learning Reality, Risk and Educational Games Mike Sharples
  • 2. Comparison of learning <ul><li>Classroom based </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed risk </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic risk </li></ul><ul><li>No immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Situated </li></ul><ul><li>Thrownness </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate risk </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic risk </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul>
  • 3. Extreme Learning <ul><li>Extreme learning is a learning activity with real or simulated authenticity and an assessable intrinsic risk </li></ul>
  • 4. Risks of extreme learning <ul><li>Warfare You die </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous sports You injure yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine You injure someone else </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre performance Embarrass yourself and cast </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Embarrass yourself </li></ul>Get it wrong and..
  • 5. Benefits of extreme learning <ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Personal engagement and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Towards “one shot” learning </li></ul>
  • 6. Teaching methods <ul><li>Apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection in and on experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schön: reflection in action; reflection on action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value of limited examples </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See one, do one, teach one </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Design of environments for extreme learning <ul><li>Augmented reality, or simulated reality </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Minimisation of danger, but not of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on real consequences of failure </li></ul>
  • 8. Reality: what is real? <ul><li>If you use a simulated calculator are you calculating? </li></ul><ul><li>If you use a flight simulator, are you flying? </li></ul><ul><li>So what is the difference between calculating and flying? </li></ul>
  • 9. Calculation and flying <ul><li>Calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Its essential property is independent of its physical embodiment </li></ul><ul><li>Mind game </li></ul><ul><li>Failure causes mental annoyance </li></ul><ul><li>Flying </li></ul><ul><li>Its essential property depends on “being there” </li></ul><ul><li>Mind and body game </li></ul><ul><li>Failure causes physical harm </li></ul>
  • 10. Total simulation <ul><li>People are given a “flight in a Lear Jet”. Enters the plane. Flies around. Lands at the same place. Gets out. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it was a flight simulator. </li></ul><ul><li>Passengers believe they have flown in a Lear Jet. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the flight real? </li></ul><ul><li>No – the risks weren’t authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield simulations: excitement but no risk </li></ul>
  • 11. Risk and learning <ul><li>Types of risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate vs delayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical vs non-physical (e.g. financial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to assess vs difficult to assess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual vs collective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk vs challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge without risk can lead to overconfidence and inability to anticipate danger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk without challenge is foolhardy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk vs harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessing associated risk is an important part of game playing </li></ul>
  • 12. Risk for effective learning <ul><li>Immediately assessable </li></ul><ul><li>Direct connection between activity and risk </li></ul><ul><li>Risk rather than harm </li></ul><ul><li>(Simulated) reality + assessable intrinsic risk = extreme learning </li></ul>
  • 13. Extreme learning games <ul><li>Real-world game activities in which reality and risk are maximised, and inauthenticity and harm are minimised </li></ul><ul><li>Important to know the rules of the game, and to be able to act quickly to avoid breaking them </li></ul>
  • 14. Issues from 1 st presentation <ul><li>Is “risk” the right term (too limited – calculation of tradeoffs between benefits and harm) </li></ul><ul><li>Risk vs payoff – people are more willing to take risk when high payoff </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In assessing risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In tolerating risk (context dependent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme park design: designing to maximise challenge but minimise danger </li></ul><ul><li>What are people learning in extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning about risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to avoid risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through risk (about some topic) </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Rachel’s comments Simulated ethics vs ethics of simulation <ul><li>Reminds me of the work we did on simulation and </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; medical students where 2 CBLers piloting the software managed </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; to deduce the underlying model of horomone control whilst the </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; medical students did not - the CBLers were abstractly minded </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; to &apos;kill&apos; the &apos;normal&apos; patient as a means to test the model </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; whilst medical students thought the game was to remember what </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; they had learnt from the textbook and prevent the &apos;patient&apos; </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; cases from dieing. The result was the 2 CBLers learnt how </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; the system worked whilst the medical students learnt what </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; were safe if &apos;placebo&apos; doses. (I do exaggerate a little! :-) </li></ul>
  • 16. Research questions <ul><li>What functions do risk, trust, competition and collaboration play in effective learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can moving along the continuum between real and virtual environments cause people to modulate their perception and action? </li></ul><ul><li>How can people be supported to reflect on their learning in risky environments? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we design technology to support reflection before action, reflection in action and reflection on action for extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we enable people with physical handicap to experience the benefits of extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the design principles and requirements for different kinds of technology to support extreme learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we evaluate extreme learning activities: to assess the immediate and delayed learning gains, the transfer to other learning situations, and the effects on the view of the world? </li></ul>

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