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Context in Mobile Learning
 

Context in Mobile Learning

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Context-aware mobile learning

Context-aware mobile learning

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    Context in Mobile Learning Context in Mobile Learning Presentation Transcript

    • Context in Mobile Learning
      Mike Sharples
      Learning Sciences Research Institute
      University of Nottingham
      www.nottingham.ac.uk/lsri/msh
    • What is context?
      How can context-based technology support learning?
      CAGE
      MyArtSpace
      PaSAT
      Are there learning benefits from context-based technology?
    • What is context?
      “that which surrounds us”
      “that which weaves together”
      Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    • Mirrors a distinction in human-computer interaction between:
      context as a ‘shell’ that surrounds the human user of technology
      context created by the constructive interaction between people and technology
    • A “shell” view of context
      Data filtering and integration
      Data filtering and integration
      ComputerUser
      Context
    • A “shell” view of context
      Learning as knowledge acquisition
      Technical issues of information filtering and data integration
    • An interaction view of context
      Learning as social knowledge construction
      Technical issues of modelling interaction over time
    • An interaction view of context
      Context is adynamic and historical process
      to enable appropriate action (learning)
      constructed through interaction between people, settings, technologies, objects and activities
    • Modelling context
    • How can context-based technology support learning?
      CAGE
      Learning through exploration of context
      MyArtSpace
      Learning through connecting contexts
      PaSAT
      Learning through engagement and reflection in contexts
    • CAGE at Nottingham Castle museum
    • CAGE system
      Navigation in a conceptual space through physical movement
      Location-based content delivery
      Ultrasound tracking system
      Context awareness:
      which painting?
      how long?
      been there before?
    • CAGE Architecture
      Content
      Server
      Content
      Environment
      XML
      Sensors
      Content
      recommendations
      Content
      metadata
      XML
      XML
      Context
      Awareness
      Subsystem
      XML
      User profile
      XML
      User input
    • Visitor study
      Baseline: normal visitors
      Control: visitors with printed guide
      Experimental: visitors with handheld guide
    • Observations
      Paper guide promoted a more ‘rigid’ pattern of movement
      Visitors with the PDA were more likely to move around the gallery according to what interested them
    • Interface challenges
      Navigation by physical movement through a knowledge space
      Keeping the user in control
      Balance between manual and automatic functionality
    • MyArtSpace
      How to connect learning in museums and classrooms?
      Service on mobile phones for enquiry-led museum learning
      Students in pairs create their own interpretation of a museum visit which they explore back in the classroom
      They view multimedia in context, create images, sounds, text, notes
      Automatically sent to personal website
      3000 children in three museums
    • Prepare enquiry in the classroom
      MyArtSpace
      Create and collect in the museum
      View and share in the classroom
      Present a personal perspective
    • Summary of findings
      The technology worked
      Photos, information on exhibits, notes, automatic sending to website
      Students spent longer (90 mins compared to 20 mins)
      Supported enquiry learning
      Encouraged children to make active choices
      Connected school and museum
      Need for more teacher preparation
      Managing the amount of collected material back in the classroom
    • OOKL
      Commercial service from MyArtSpace
    • PaSAT
      Learning through engagement and reflection across contexts
      Custom software to author and run location-based games
      Laptop server, PDA clients, GPS positioning, wireless-LAN
    • Web-based authoring tool
      PDA client with GPS positioning
    • Build-IT game
      Choose the best locations for 3 new buildings
      Have to be at the site to estimate
      Factors to consider:
      Minimise Cost
      Minimise Risk (e.g. environmental impact)
      Cost and Risk both vary depending on location and size of building
    • Factors that affect cost and risk are visible in the environment
      Slopes cause flood risks
      Micro-sites for learning
      Soft land needs more expensive foundations
      Being outdoors in the environment is part of the game
      Houses nearby lead to planning objections
    • Initial results
      Highly engaging
      Engagement and reflection outdoors
      Structured learning
      Need more support to use data gathering tools and strategies effectively
      Need more connection back to the classroom
      To share and present results
    • Successful context-based learning
      Learning through exploration of augmented physical space
      Inquiry learning that connects formal and non-formal settings
      Cycle of engagement and reflection across contexts
      Creating location-based micro-sites for learning
    • Creating context
      Traditional classroom learning is founded on an illusion of stability of context, by setting up a fixed location with common resources, a single teacher, and an agreed curriculum that allows a semblance of common ground to be maintained from day to day. If all these are removed, as may be the case with learning in the mobile age, then creating temporary islands of relatively stable context is a central concern. In this respect, the historic construction of context, the process by which we arrive at current understanding, assumes greater importance.
      Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007) A Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age. In R. Andrews and C. Haythornthwaite (eds.)The Sage Handbook of Elearning Research. London: Sage, pp. 221-47.
    • Credits
      CAGE
      MOBIlearn IST Framework 5 project
      Systems design by Peter Londsale
      MyArtSpace
      Funded by Department of Culture Media and Sport
      Evaluation team: Peter Lonsdale, Julia Meek, Paul Rudman, Mike Sharples, Giasemi Vavoula
      Systems design by The SEA
      PaSAT
      PhD project, Peter Lonsdale