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Consumer Behavior

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Consumer Behavior
      • Influences on consumer behavior
        • Psychological
          • Decision making
          • Attitudes and attitude change
        • Sociocultural
          • Reference groups
          • Family decision making
          • Culture and subculture
    • 2. Consumer Problems and Recognition
      • Consumer problem: Discrepancy between ideal and actua l state--e.g., consumer :
        • has insufficient hair
        • is hungry
        • has run out of ink in his or her inkjet cartridge
      • Problems can be solved in several ways -- e.g., stress reduction <----- vacation, movie, hot bath, medication
    • 3. CONSUMER DECISIONS: Theory and Reality in Consumer Buying Information Search Problem Recognition Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation/ Behaviors Theory Complications
    • 4. Approaches to Search for Problem Solutions INTERNAL EXTERNAL Memory Thinking Word of mouth, media, store visits, trial CATALOG
    • 5. Cost vs. Benefits of Search
      • Market Characteristics
      • Product Characteristics
      • Consumer Characteristics
      • Situation Characteristics
    • 6. Decision Issues
      • Types of decisions
        • Routinized response (e.g., gas, sodas)
        • Limited problem solving (e.g., car service, fast food)
        • Extended problem solving (e.g., new car, computer, medical procedures)
      • Type of evaluation:
        • Compensatory: Decision based on overall value of alternatives (good attribute can outweigh bad ones)
        • Non-compensatory: Absolutely must meet at least one important criterion (e.g., car must have automatic transmission)
    • 7. Variety Seeking and Impulse Buying
      • Variety seeking
        • need varies among consumers by optimal stimulation level (OSL)
        • Use innovativeness
      • Impulse purchases
        • Motivation
        • Consequences
      “ Don’t give me that same old cola, that same old cola-- I want a rock’n’roller!”
    • 8. Psychological Influences
      • Motivation
      • Personality
      • Perception
        • Attention and competition for attention
        • Selective perception
        • Subliminal influence?
      • Perceived risk
      • Learning
        • Change in behavior
        • May or may not be conscious
      • Values, beliefs, and attitudes
      • Lifestyle—e.g., VALS2
    • 9. Attitude Change Strategies
      • Change Affect
        • Classical conditioning
        • Attitude toward the ad
        • Mere exposure
      • Change behavior (e.g., sampling)
      • Change Belief Component
        • Change existing beliefs
        • Change importance of attributes
        • Add beliefs
        • Change ideal
    • 10. One-sided vs. two sided appeals
      • One-sided: only saying what favors your side
      • Two-sided: stating your case but also admitting points favoring the other side
        • Why is this effective?
    • 11. Sociocultural Influences
      • Personal Influence
        • Opinion leadership
        • Word of mouth and rumors
        • Reference groups
          • Associative: “We’re the Pepsi generation…”
          • Dissociative: “It’s not your father’s car.”
          • Aspirational
      • Culture
      • Subculture
    • 12. Potential Family Life Cycle Stages YOUNG SINGLE BLENDED SINGLE PARENT FULL NEST I/II/III EMPTY NEST I/II OLDER SINGLE YOUNG COUPLE
    • 13. Economic/Marketing Implications of Household Cycles
      • Income tends to increase with time
      • But children/ obligations add cost
      • Divorce
        • increases costs
        • may change income distribution marriage
      • Product demand due to
        • singles with low expenses
        • new couples
        • divorced families
        • children
        • empty nesters --> more income
    • 14. Household Decision Making
      • Roles/influence
        • Information gatherers/holders
        • Influencers
        • Decision makers
        • Purchasers
        • Users
    • 15. More Sociocultural Influences
      • Social class
        • In the U.S.
          • Positioning strategies:
            • “ Upward Pull”
            • “ At Level”
        • In other cultures
      • Culture: “Share meanings”
      • Subculture
        • Ethnic
        • Generational
        • Regional
        • Religious groups
    • 16. Organizational Buyers
      • Types
        • Industrial
        • Reseller
        • Government and non-profit organizations
      • Characteristics
        • Greater involvement
        • Bureaucracy
        • Long term relationships
    • 17. The Means-End Chain Large engine Fast acceleration Performance Feeling of power Self-esteem Aim promotion/ positioning at higher levels of chain ! Attributes Consequences Values