Main Characters<br />Andy<br />Reluctant to go to class<br />Hate Science<br />Often being teased by his classmate, Bee Chu, for not performing<br />Feel discouraged<br />Study hard for his science test yet did not do well<br />Feels like giving up<br />“I spent so much time learning the water cycle but I couldn’t remember anything when I sat for the test. Even though I know the different states of matter, I don’t even know what Ms Wong is asking for …” <br />
Main Characters<br />Ms Wong<br />Fierce <br />Expects her students to do well for exams<br />Uses the wrong choice of words when reprimanding students<br />Teaching style: asking them to recite<br />Angry that Andy failed his test again and threatened and discourages him.<br />“As expected, Andy, you failed the test! If you don’t want to stay back every day, from now onwards, you had better start passing!”<br />
2. Problem Statements<br /> To explore cognitive development to aid students who has poor learning skills.<br /> To explore effective teaching and learning styles to enhance learning.<br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Children around the age of 10 needs to be stimulated and encouraged in order to perform better academically.<br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Application:<br />According to Erikson’s theory of Psychosocial Development, children at the age of 6 to 12 are currently going through the stage of industry vs. inferiority. <br />School and homes provides opportunities for students to develop a sense of competence through success on challenging tasks. <br />However, a chain of failures will lead to feeling of inferiority.<br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Application<br />Andy commented that he wasn’t good in science and neither was he good in English spelling shows the inferiority within him. He feels that he is a failure.<br /> Emotionally, he felt discouraged. In addition, his peers, Bee Chu, also told him that he would fail his test. <br />When the results was returned, instead of encouragement from his teacher, Ms Wong, he received threatens and discouragement. <br /> Clearly shows that a chain of failures has cause him to feel inferior <br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Recommendation<br />Self- efficacy<br />Is believing one’s own capabilities to perform a task. Andy needs to build his confidence in believing that he is able to produce good results as well. <br />Self-efficacy strongly influences motivation to learn. <br />Teacher’s positive regard can also increase self-efficacy. <br />Performance goal<br />Andy could set goals within his reach and work towards it. It sets as an intrinsic motivation for him. <br />Self-determination<br />The need for competence and be praise with attribution statements. Eg: I see the effort you put in, good job! Saying this to Andy will change his inferiority mentally increase his self-worth.<br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Application<br /> A safe classroom environment with the deficiency needs satisfied will provide the child with a healthy learning platform.<br /> If the 1st level of deficiency needs is not met, the child will not be able to move on to the next level of growth needs required for academic. Thus unable to perform. <br />Growth needs<br />Deficiency needs<br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Recommendation<br />Need for Relatedness<br />Relatedness is the feeling of being connected to others in one’s social environment and feeling worthy of love and respect. <br />Making Andy feels relatedness and loved by his peers and teacher will improve his self-worth and thus increasing his capabilities to perform. (Self-fulfilling prophesy)<br />Teacher should reflect warm, caring and nurturing in order to make the child feel safe and meeting the needs for safety and belonging. <br />Creating a motivating environment by giving the child praises <br />Allow the students to have a say in the class would give him a sense of belonging to the class. <br />
Application:<br />Cognitive Development is the changes in our thinking that occur as a result of learning, maturation and experience.<br />Piaget’s theory of intellectual development <br />Experience with the physical worlds enhances development<br />The Concrete Operational stage, third of four stages of cognitive development in Piaget's theory <br />Characterized by the appropriate use of logic<br />3. Hypotheses 1<br />Development<br />Experience<br />Maturation<br />Learning<br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Stated that children in this stage can, however, only solve problems that apply to actual (concrete) objects or events, and not abstract concepts or hypothetical tasks.<br />Andy lacked the direct concrete experiences he needed to understand the concept of the water cycle<br />Piaget’s theory also states that children’s logical abilities depend more strongly on knowledge and experience <br />Documentary or videos could give children the chance to understand the water cycle better<br />Picture taken from : http://fates.cns.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/piaget.htm<br />
3. Hypotheses 1<br />Development<br />Experience<br />Maturation<br />Learning<br />Development proceeds in relatively orderly and predictable patterns but individual develops at different rate.<br />Stimulation that occurs in healthy environment is essential to normal cognitive development <br />Andy’s parents and teacher play major roles in the process<br />Their absence indicates that no stimulation is caused to create cognitive development in the brain.<br />
Vygotsky’ssociocultural theory states that children benefit most from the experience of interacting with a more knowledgeable other when they are working in their zone of proximal development.<br />Parents and teacher played an important role in helping children progress through the zone of proximal development<br />In Andy’s case, he needed their help in understanding the science concept<br />Due to their absence, Andy lacks such a chance to learn<br />3. Hypotheses 1<br />Picture taken from: http://design.test.olt.ubc.ca/Vygotsky's_Zone_of_Proximal_Development<br />
Social cognitive theory <br />A theory of learning that focuses on the changes in behaviour that results from observing others.<br />Children learn acceptable ways of behaving by observing the behaviours of their parents and other adults (modeling). <br />In this case where Andy used the same words that were mentioned by his teacher to scold Bee Chu, Andy is simply modeling his teacher’s action.<br />If Ms Wong models well by explaining the relationship of each part of the water cycle, Andy would be able to remember and relate the water cycle during his test without memorizing.<br />3. Hypotheses 1<br />“Both of you—sshhhuutt your mouths up!”<br />
Recommendation:<br />Constructivist Learning theory learning is done when learners create their own knowledge of the topics <br />learners construct knowledge that makes sense to them so that new learning can take place on current understanding. <br />Social interaction facilities learning and meaningful learning occurs only when they have real-world tasks. <br />3. Hypotheses 1<br />
Recommendation:<br />Concept mapping is a strategy in which learners construct visual relationships among concepts.<br />Through constructing concepts, it can actually help to reduce the cognitive load on working memory and learners would remember them easier. <br />draw out a concept map on water cycle where he visualise the relationships<br />Andy will find it easier to understand the water cycle rather than just memorizing it.<br />3. Hypotheses 1<br />
Hypotheses 2<br /> Teacher need to create interesting and meaningful lesson in order to enhance learning in a conducive learning environment.<br />
Hypotheses 2<br />Application<br /><ul><li>Information is received by the brain and transferred to short term memory
Unless the information is transferred to long term memory, it will soon be forgotten.
Miss Wong’s current method of getting her pupils to rehearse the words is only cycles the information within the short term memory
Meaningful learning is also not taking place as only the words are being processed by the brain. The pupil may have little to no true understanding of the concept</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Recommendation<br /><ul><li>Constructivist Learning Theory
Can be done using Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Recommendation<br /><ul><li>In Cognitive Constructivism, the Learner’s equilibrium is disrupted
Learner will then attempt to reestablish equilibrium by constructing new knowledge
In this scenario, Miss Wong can show the class and experiment where water is heated and condenses on a cooler surface
She should then allow the class to explore the setup and form their own theories as to why the water being heated is diminishing and water is appearing on the cool surface</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Recommendation<br /><ul><li>In SocialConstructivism, knowledge is constructed in a social context
Pupils share their thoughts with each other and attempt to make sense of the information internally
Miss Wong can achieve this through group discussion or other collaborative methods such as think-pair-share</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Recommendation<br /><ul><li>The danger of this method is misconceptions
As pupils construct their own knowledge, misconceptions can arise. Such misconceptions are hard to change as the misconception makes sense to the learner
Miss Wong must be careful to monitor her pupils understanding to check if there are any misconceptions
If there is a misconception, Miss Wong must challenge the misconception and disrupt the learner equilibrium once more. This process should be repeated until the misconception is cleared
For example, Miss Wong shows Andy a cup filled with cold water and queries why there is water forming on the cup. Andy feels that the cup may have leaked the water out. Miss Wong must challenge that by filling the same cup with warm water and showing Andy no droplets have formed. Andy will then attempt to construct the right information again</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Application<br /><ul><li>Miss Wong has currently created a Performance focused classroom
She praises and rewards pupils only if they score high grades
Pupils like Andy, who are unable to score high marks, will become demoralized. They will begin to view their effort as wasted and may soon give up
Miss Wong has also incorrectly placed the full responsibility of learning on her pupils and blames them when they fail to score well</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Recommendation<br /><ul><li>Learner focused classroom
Emphasis is on improvement, effort and increased understanding
Miss Wong should also praise the pupils who have increased marks (even if they fail) and encourage their effort
Pupils who try hard, like Andy, will then be encouraged to keep trying
Miss Wong should also model her interest in the subject. By getting her pupils interested, it is more likely that they will pay attention to the lesson.</li></ul>Did you know the water cycle has been continuing since the planet was born! Isn’t it AMAZING?<br />
Miss Wong should take responsibility </li></ul> for the low grades instead of blaming <br /> the class<br /><ul><li> After marking the papers, she should </li></ul>be aware of any misconceptions the<br /> pupils might have and should focus on correcting them<br /><ul><li>She should also discuss with the class on ways they can improve or what areas they had difficulty with.
This will also help her improve as a teacher and upgrade the standard of her future lessons.</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Application<br /><ul><li>Information processing states that individuals are more likely to pay attention if the stimulus has interesting features and activates a known pattern
Miss Wong’s current chalk and board method is dull and does not let the pupils discover any discernable patterns
Most pupils will have difficulty paying attention</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Recommendation<br /><ul><li>Multiple Intelligence theory believes that different people excel in different areas and as a result will absorb knowledge better in different ways.
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences lists the intelligences as follows: Bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, intrapersonal, musical and visual-spatial
Miss Wong should try to teach the lesson in a way that appeals to as many of these intelligences as possible.
She could apply this is to use a song to appeal to the musical, use expert group methods so everyone learns one part of the cycle and have to peer teach to appeal to the interpersonal and get pupils to draw out the water cycle to appeal to the spatial.</li></li></ul><li>Hypotheses 2<br />Recommendation<br /><ul><li>Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence divides intelligence into the analytic dimension, creative dimension and practical dimension.
For analytic, she could create a miniature water cycle and let her pupils analyze it.
For creative, she could ask them how the water cycle would be affected in extremely hot areas and extremely cold places.
For practical, she could assign the class to design their own presentation to demonstrate the water cycle.
Allowing pupils the freedom to choose their presentation method will also tie in with Gardner’s intelligence types</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Education Psychology: Windows on Classrooms. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. <br /> <br />Teacher’s Vision: Ways of deliveries through Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved October 20 2009, from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/intelligence/teaching-methods/2204.html <br /> <br /> <br />Learning and memory (2000). Retrieved October 20 2009, from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/memory.html<br /> <br /> <br />ATHERTON J S (2009) Learning and Teaching; Piaget's developmental theory. Retrieved October 20 2009 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm 2009 <br /> <br />Mace, K. (2005). Vygotsky's social development theory. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/sdtheory/start.htm<br /> <br />
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