HISTOLOGY SEMESTER 2 - TRUST ME I’M ASIAN!!
Jan 2011 version (new curriculum)
This file has been edited and updated, the new
exams have semester 1 material, and this ...
inside circle-one cell
Enterocyte
Paneth cell
Simple columnar cells
in gallbladder
Chief cell
Medulla of kidney
Parietal cell
Podocytes
Endothelial
Fenstrated
slits
Acidophils
Basophils
Chromophobes
Basophils
Acidophils
Chromophobes
Basophils
(Purplish, FLAT):
Gonadotroph
(FSH, LH).
Corticotroph
(ACTH), TSH
Acidophils
(...
Composition of
colloid is
thyroid globulin
Simple Squamous
Cells
(Inactive Follicular Cell)
Parafollicular Cell (C Cell,
C...
Zona Fasciculata Zona Glumerolusa
Capsule
Zona Glumerulosa:
Mineralcorticoid 
Aldosterone
(stimulated by
Angiotensin II, ...
Unilaminar Primary
Oocyte
Zona Pellucida
Granulosa cells: (Multiple
Layer of FC) Cuboidal or
Columnar
(Simple cuboidal or
...
Granulosa Cells
Theca Externa
Theca Interna
Theca Interna: Highly vasculized, blood
capillaries b/w cells.
Cuboidal Cell, ...
Fallopian Tube
(Oviduct)
Fallopian Tube: Region closer to ovary b/c relatively less
muscle and more heavily folded mucosa ...
Peg Cells: Secretory cells,
Nutrient/Protective Fluid for
the oocyte
Ciliated Simple Columnar Cells:
Lining Mucosa, Drive ...
Non-keratinized Stratified
Squamous
Lamina Propia: Consisting of a
lot of loose CT, a lot of elastic
fibers that gives vig...
Parotid Gland
-pure serous gland
-serous secreting units (acini) are basophilic
-see serous acini & ducts
Parotid Gland
-Intercalated ducts are continuous with secretory end pieces and lined
by simple cuboidal epithelium (1st pa...
Esophagus
-4 tunics (layers)
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis externa
Adventitia
Esophagus (middle or bottom portion)
-nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium line esophagus (NKSS)
-beneath epithel...
Esophagus
-Myenteric can be found b/w two muscle layers
MucosaSubmucosa
Muscularis externa
Adventitia
Myenteric
plexus
(B/...
Submucosa of Esophagus
-mucous secreting gland
-dense irregular CT surrounds gland
Note: Only 2 place to find Glands – Eso...
Mucosa of stomach
-Epithelium of surface & gastric pits  simple columnar cells
-Cells secrete thick mucus on surface of c...
Fundus of stomach
-Upper part of gastric gland  parietal cell -
Acidophilic cytoplasm & round nucleus
Parietal cell
Parie...
Duodenum of small intestine
-plia circularis has a core of submucosa containing mucous secreting glands (Brunner’s gland)
...
Brunner’s gland of Duodenum
-located in submucosa & penetrates muscularis mucosae & enters intestinal glands
-mucous secre...
Submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus of Duodenum
-also see musclaris mucosae
Meissner’s
plexus
Collagen Type I (In Submuca
Regio...
Muscularis externa of Duodenum
-Two layers of smooth muscle: inner circular, outer longitudinal
-Organization OPPOSITE of ...
Pancreas
-Exocrine—Pure serous secreting unit  acini (surrounding)
-Endocrine—islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans
A...
Liver
-terminal branch of portal vein or portal venule (WRITE ONE OF THESE NOT portal vein)
-terminal branch of hepatic ar...
Pig Liver: Portal Triad
Portal venule
Hepatic
arteriole
Bile duct
(Simple cuboidal)
Human Liver
-not see hepatic lobules clearly b/c no separation of lobules by CT
Central Vein
Appendix (Part of large intestine)
-tubular structure—simple tubular gland
-luminal surface has no villi
-lymphatic nodule...
Cortex
Medulla (lighter)
- Trabeculae can be
seen
Thymus
Many areas where white pulp contains central arte
Spleen:
Germinal Center: 2nd
Lymphatic Nodule
Primary Lymphatic
Nodules
veins
artery
Vas Deferens:
Vas Deferens
Pseudostratified
columnar
w/sterocilia
Muscularis externa
adventitia
(Extremely thick, muscle
contracts during
ejaculation...
Copora Amylacea (Prostatic Concretion)
Precipitation of prostatic concretion, becomes calcified; seen more in aged men
spermatogonia
Primary spermatocytes (Largest,
biggest cell in ST)
spermatids
Sertoli cells
Leydig cells/
interstitial cell...
Highly coiled tube so when cut at cross section looks like
many, but just one tube
Parietal Layer of Bowman’s Capsule
Lined by Simple squamous epithelium
Macula Densa of DCT
PCT – lined by simple cuboidal ...
Renal Corpuscle
PCT
the cross section of the PCT
-acidophilic
-fuzzy lumen b/c of the
microvilli, which were lose in
the s...
Collecting duct
(Tall simple
cuboidal cells with
clear cytoplasm,
clear around
nucleus)
Vasa recta (The capillary that
sur...
Mucosa layer
Muscularis externa
Adventitia (carrying blood
vessels and nerves)
Longitudinal
Circular
Ureter of Urinary Sys...
Pars Distalis
Adenohypophysis (Anterior
Pituitary): Derived from the
outpocketing of the ectoderm of
oropharynx (Rathke’s ...
Pars Nervosa: Bland Looking, Not as much cells as Pars distalis
Posterior Pituitary Gland: Neurohypophysis, Pars nervosa
T...
Red pulp
Germinal
center
Central arteriole
(Surrounded by PALS)
All secondary lymphatic nodules will
revert back to primar...
lymphatic tissue
Germinal center
Subcapsular sinus:
(Macrophages,
Reticular cells,
Reticular fibers, Very
leaky)
Afferent
...
Mucosa of duodenum
-identify epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, villi, and intestinal glands (crypts of
Liebe...
Lingual tonsil
-nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
-single crypt for each tonsil
-mucous secreting gland
-minor...
Sperm are connected to each other, even though it doesn’t look like
Stereocilia/Microvili
Jan 2011 exam
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
Histo practical sem 2
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Histo practical sem 2
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  • I’m Asian too, but I produce more melanin.
  • Where is this structure found – cochlea, kinociliumOnjan 2011 exam, asked where this is located
  • Now where choroid is-Choroid is beneath Bruch’s membrane…which is underneath the outer segments of the rods and conesOn jan 2011 exam, pointed to choroid and asked what it is
  • On examLy – intraepithelial lymphocyteM – mitochodria; these are present throughout enterocytes, both basally and apicallyIC – intercellular cleft
  • On examPaneth cells are found in the crypts of Lieberkuhn throughout the small intestinesHalo is made of polysaccharide-rich material surrounding the secretory granules (filled with lysozyme)On jan 2011 exam, asked what kind of cell this is
  • On examSee intercellular cleftsMicrovilli on apical side (the above 2 features are common for absorptive cells)Mitochondria are present in both apical and lumenal aspects of the cell
  • On examChief cells secrete pepsinogen and a weak lipase
  • On exam-know what epithelium kind the blue arrow shows==-simple squamous I believe and what structure it is – thin loop of henleOn jan 2011 exam, asked where structure is, medulla of kidney
  • On exam -
  • Know podocytes, endothelial cells and fenstrated slits
  • Know what basophils secrete – tshacthcth
  • On ExamOn jan 2011 exam, pointed to acidophils and asked what they secrete, in our case, prolactin but know it secretes sommatotrophs, GH
  • On exam-Same thing different picture ( an EM pic)
  • On exam-Fasciculata and what it secretes (primarily cortisol)Gromelusosa too-AldsosteroneOn jan 2011 – same question
  • On Exam-Know multilaminargranulosa cell, Know what theca interna secreteOn jan 2011 exam – same question
  • On exam-Know theca interna, know what granulosa cells secrete during menstraution and what they are stimulated by estrogen and FSHOn Jan 2011 exam, asked same previous question
  • On exam-know this is oviductOn jan 2011 exam, zoom into this pecture to lead into next slide
  • On exam-Epithelium in ciliated Simple columnar with Peg cellsOn jan 2011 exam
  • On exam-know this is vaginaRemember that the epithelial cells store glycogenJan 2011 exam
  • On Exam-Know this is esophagus, know the difference btw the submuscosa and mucosa
  • Pic they used for macula densaPCT was on new exam
  • Know this is pars distalis and
  • On exam
  • On exam- subscapular sinus
  • Jan 2011 exam – pancreas, asked what the z1 molecules are, exocrine pancreas cells – not sure
  • On Jan 2011 exam – asked what kind of cells this is, absorptive cell of the large intestine
  • This is a liver sinusoid, exam pointed to the S, and asked what it is, liver endothelial cell
  • Pointed to the “F”, recognize this is a basement membrane in kidney glomerulus, F = fenestrated slit. Either one of these slides, I just forgot how it looked like :/
  • Ze sperm, pointed to acrosome and asked for what it is
  • Peripheral nerve, pointed to black arrow asked what it was, perineurium
  • Dermis, hypodermis, and epidermis, be able to identify each layer, question asked for hypodermis (the white part)
  • On exam, asked what kind of artery this is, muscular artery
  • Asked what kind of cell this is, myelinated axon
  • Compact bone, exam pointed to blue arrows, interstitial lamellae
  • Asked what kind of cell this was, skeletal muscle. Also had a picture of a smooth muscle cell, forgot how it looked like, easy to spot out (possibly smooth muscle of erector pilli from ze ear)
  • This is a cochlea (I think..) and it pointed to the striavascularis, asking what it does, which alters the composition of the endolymph, but there was no answer choice for that, so I picked “drained endolymph”- Note: this is not the same picture, the picture she (Dr. Moore) has is rotated and not colored
  • Histo practical sem 2

    1. 1. HISTOLOGY SEMESTER 2 - TRUST ME I’M ASIAN!!
    2. 2. Jan 2011 version (new curriculum) This file has been edited and updated, the new exams have semester 1 material, and this is from what I can remember, I will not write down an answer to a question if I am unsure about it (which is a lot :P) I also wrote what is repeated from previous slides, BUT ANYTHING from these slides can be tested so I did not delete it.
    3. 3. inside circle-one cell
    4. 4. Enterocyte
    5. 5. Paneth cell
    6. 6. Simple columnar cells in gallbladder
    7. 7. Chief cell
    8. 8. Medulla of kidney
    9. 9. Parietal cell
    10. 10. Podocytes Endothelial Fenstrated slits
    11. 11. Acidophils Basophils Chromophobes
    12. 12. Basophils Acidophils Chromophobes Basophils (Purplish, FLAT): Gonadotroph (FSH, LH). Corticotroph (ACTH), TSH Acidophils (Reddish, PiG): Mammotroph (prolactin), Sommatotroph (GH) Pars Distalis: Very Cellular Chromophobes: Produce Nothing, Usually located in clusters in the center of cords, pale stain cytoplasm
    13. 13. Composition of colloid is thyroid globulin Simple Squamous Cells (Inactive Follicular Cell) Parafollicular Cell (C Cell, Clear Cell): Produce Calcitonin
    14. 14. Zona Fasciculata Zona Glumerolusa Capsule Zona Glumerulosa: Mineralcorticoid  Aldosterone (stimulated by Angiotensin II, K) Zona Fasciculata: Glucocorticoid  Cortisol, cortizone, corticosterone (Stimulated by ACTH)
    15. 15. Unilaminar Primary Oocyte Zona Pellucida Granulosa cells: (Multiple Layer of FC) Cuboidal or Columnar (Simple cuboidal or columnar) Stroma (Forms the theca folliculi) Primary Oocyte in amorphous region Primary Follicle: (Secreted by oocyte, a lot of glycoprotein, has sperm receptor) Oocyte Nucleus Theca Interna (Made from stromal cell): Secreting Androgen (Change by ovary to secrete estrogen Theca Externa: (Not a well define line. Mainly secreting collagenBasal Lamina
    16. 16. Granulosa Cells Theca Externa Theca Interna Theca Interna: Highly vasculized, blood capillaries b/w cells. Cuboidal Cell, have all the feature of a steroid secreting cell (@ EM Level)  Lots of lipid droplets, mito, SER LH bind to Theca Interna cell to produce androstendione  Goes across granulosa layer of cell (stimulated by FSH)  Converted into estrogen (Area of Flatten Cell) Stromal Cells (Outside from thca externa
    17. 17. Fallopian Tube (Oviduct) Fallopian Tube: Region closer to ovary b/c relatively less muscle and more heavily folded mucosa than on the other end of FT. Less muscle More heavily folded mucosa (Layer of epithelium resting on a thin layer of CT) Should be a thin layer of serosa (adventitia) here but not evident in this picture
    18. 18. Peg Cells: Secretory cells, Nutrient/Protective Fluid for the oocyte Ciliated Simple Columnar Cells: Lining Mucosa, Drive oocyte to FT; loose CT – elastic fibers – stretch ability at vagina
    19. 19. Non-keratinized Stratified Squamous Lamina Propia: Consisting of a lot of loose CT, a lot of elastic fibers that gives vigina its elastic property
    20. 20. Parotid Gland -pure serous gland -serous secreting units (acini) are basophilic -see serous acini & ducts
    21. 21. Parotid Gland -Intercalated ducts are continuous with secretory end pieces and lined by simple cuboidal epithelium (1st part of ductus system) -Striated ducts  simple columnar epithelium; can see striations Striated duct Serous acini Intercalated duct
    22. 22. Esophagus -4 tunics (layers) Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis externa Adventitia
    23. 23. Esophagus (middle or bottom portion) -nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium line esophagus (NKSS) -beneath epithelium, thin lamina propria with loose CT -muscularis mucosae—smooth muscle boundary b/w mucosa & submucosa, esophageal gland proper and duct (Only found in middle and lower esophagus) -submucosa  dense irregular CT with mucus secreting gland Lumen Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis externa (Thick skeletal or mixed or pure smooth muscle – Depends on which part of esophagus)
    24. 24. Esophagus -Myenteric can be found b/w two muscle layers MucosaSubmucosa Muscularis externa Adventitia Myenteric plexus (B/w 2 muscle layer, sometimes find pale stained structure  MP)
    25. 25. Submucosa of Esophagus -mucous secreting gland -dense irregular CT surrounds gland Note: Only 2 place to find Glands – Esophagus and Duodenum Submucosal gland (esophageal Gland) Submucosal duct
    26. 26. Mucosa of stomach -Epithelium of surface & gastric pits  simple columnar cells -Cells secrete thick mucus on surface of cells -Base of pits  gastric glands Simple columnar Gastric pits Lamina propria (Cellular, Loose CT) rapid reepithileliazation—one part of surface mucosa cell injured/peel off, same cell in pit migrate up and cover injury (takes 20 mins)
    27. 27. Fundus of stomach -Upper part of gastric gland  parietal cell - Acidophilic cytoplasm & round nucleus Parietal cell Parietal cell Fxn of Parietal Cells: Produce HCl & Intrinsic Factor
    28. 28. Duodenum of small intestine -plia circularis has a core of submucosa containing mucous secreting glands (Brunner’s gland) Serosa Muscularis externa Mucuosa Submucosa Plica circularis Brunner’s Gland
    29. 29. Brunner’s gland of Duodenum -located in submucosa & penetrates muscularis mucosae & enters intestinal glands -mucous secreting gland *only 2 segments of GI with mucous secreting glands in submucosa  esophagus & duodenum
    30. 30. Submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus of Duodenum -also see musclaris mucosae Meissner’s plexus Collagen Type I (In Submuca Region – Dense Irregular CT
    31. 31. Muscularis externa of Duodenum -Two layers of smooth muscle: inner circular, outer longitudinal -Organization OPPOSITE of muscularis externa in urinary system ureter/bladder have inner longitudinal, outer circular -inner circular  contracts lumen -outer longitudinal  shorten GI tube -peristalsis—regular contraction or shortening of GI tube due to functional layers of smooth muscle Outer longitudinal Auerbach’s (myenteric) plexus Inner circular
    32. 32. Pancreas -Exocrine—Pure serous secreting unit  acini (surrounding) -Endocrine—islets of Langerhans Islets of Langerhans Acini
    33. 33. Liver -terminal branch of portal vein or portal venule (WRITE ONE OF THESE NOT portal vein) -terminal branch of hepatic artery or hepatic arteriole (WRITE ONE OF THESE NOT hepatic artery) -branch from bile duct—lined by simple cuboidal epithelium (OK to write bile duct) Portal venule Hepatic arteriole Bile duct
    34. 34. Pig Liver: Portal Triad Portal venule Hepatic arteriole Bile duct (Simple cuboidal)
    35. 35. Human Liver -not see hepatic lobules clearly b/c no separation of lobules by CT Central Vein
    36. 36. Appendix (Part of large intestine) -tubular structure—simple tubular gland -luminal surface has no villi -lymphatic nodule in mucosa and submucosa Serosa Muscularis externa Submucosa Mucosa Lymphatic nodule Lumen
    37. 37. Cortex Medulla (lighter) - Trabeculae can be seen Thymus
    38. 38. Many areas where white pulp contains central arte Spleen: Germinal Center: 2nd Lymphatic Nodule Primary Lymphatic Nodules
    39. 39. veins artery Vas Deferens: Vas Deferens
    40. 40. Pseudostratified columnar w/sterocilia Muscularis externa adventitia (Extremely thick, muscle contracts during ejaculation to expel sperm)
    41. 41. Copora Amylacea (Prostatic Concretion) Precipitation of prostatic concretion, becomes calcified; seen more in aged men
    42. 42. spermatogonia Primary spermatocytes (Largest, biggest cell in ST) spermatids Sertoli cells Leydig cells/ interstitial cells – Testosterone secreting cell Spermatogonia (sits right on basal lamina) = stem cells for sperm production, can become type A and type B. Type B are committed to differentiate. Becomes primary spermatocytes, entered first miotic prophase (condensed chromosomes). Tight junctions of Sertoli cells divide blood-testis barrier Secondary spermatocytes hard to see because short-lived Won’t see mature sperm because would be released Won’t see Leydig cells before puberty, would only see spermatogonia pre-puberty (Lumen of ST) Basal Lamina w/ myelo epithelial cells that undergo parastaltic contraction that expel the sperm
    43. 43. Highly coiled tube so when cut at cross section looks like many, but just one tube
    44. 44. Parietal Layer of Bowman’s Capsule Lined by Simple squamous epithelium Macula Densa of DCT PCT – lined by simple cuboidal or columnar epi (MD senses Na in filtrate in order to regulate BP) Whole Structure is the DCT
    45. 45. Renal Corpuscle PCT the cross section of the PCT -acidophilic -fuzzy lumen b/c of the microvilli, which were lose in the slide prep Macula Densa: Nuclei Looks really packed
    46. 46. Collecting duct (Tall simple cuboidal cells with clear cytoplasm, clear around nucleus) Vasa recta (The capillary that surrounds the loop of Henle in the medulla. Simple squamous and have RBCs in lumen) Thin loop of Henle (Clear Simple Squamous) Collecting tubules Medulla region of kidney: (Thin limb only located in medulla)
    47. 47. Mucosa layer Muscularis externa Adventitia (carrying blood vessels and nerves) Longitudinal Circular Ureter of Urinary System: •The mucosa is composed of an epithelium and LP •The muscularis externa is composed of inner longitudinal and outer circular smooth muscle •Towards the bladder, a 3rd layer is present, outer longitudinal. (Higher Mag,)
    48. 48. Pars Distalis Adenohypophysis (Anterior Pituitary): Derived from the outpocketing of the ectoderm of oropharynx (Rathke’s Pouch)
    49. 49. Pars Nervosa: Bland Looking, Not as much cells as Pars distalis Posterior Pituitary Gland: Neurohypophysis, Pars nervosa Two Hormones Produce in Hypothalamus & released in posterior pituitary: 1) Pariventricular Nuclei: Oxytoxin 2) Supraoptic Nuclei: ADH (vasopressin)
    50. 50. Red pulp Germinal center Central arteriole (Surrounded by PALS) All secondary lymphatic nodules will revert back to primary lymphatic nodules once the memory cells and plasma cells have evacuated the area Lymphatic Nodule (has B-lymphocytes) contains germinal center (primarily plasma cells and memory B-cells) 2nd Lymphatic Nodule
    51. 51. lymphatic tissue Germinal center Subcapsular sinus: (Macrophages, Reticular cells, Reticular fibers, Very leaky) Afferent lymphatic vessel Lymph Node: (Germinal center has B memory and plasma cells)
    52. 52. Mucosa of duodenum -identify epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, villi, and intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn) with paneth cells Paneth Cell
    53. 53. Lingual tonsil -nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium -single crypt for each tonsil -mucous secreting gland -minor salivary glands on tongue: Posterior 1/3 of tongue *to tell the difference between lingual tonsil and palatine tonsil is by looking at the glands. With palatine tonsils, rarely see glands beneath the tonsils. NKSS epithelium Lymphatic nodule Crypt
    54. 54. Sperm are connected to each other, even though it doesn’t look like Stereocilia/Microvili
    55. 55. Jan 2011 exam

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